Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options
This report aims to assess the full impact of the livestock sector on environmental problems, along with potential technical and policy approaches to mitigation. The assessment is based on the most recent and complete data available, taking into account direct impacts, along with the impacts of feed crop agriculture required for livestock production. The livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. The findings of this report suggest that it should be a major policy focus when dealing with problems of land degradation, climate change and air pollution, water shortage and water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Livestock's contribution to environmental problems is on a massive scale and its potential contribution to their solution is equally large. The impact is so significant that it needs to be addressed with urgency. Major reductions in impact could be achieved at reasonable cost. Also published in Spanish.
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agricultural land animal products Annex arable land Asia Available biodiversity biological Brazil carbon sequestration cattle cereal China climate change concentration conservation consumption contribution costs crop cropland dairy deforestation demand desertification developing countries economic ecosystems effects efficiency enteric fermentation environment erosion estimated Europe eutrophication evapotranspired expansion factors farming feed production feedcrops fishmeal forest freshwater global grassland grazing greenhouse greenhouse gas growth habitat hectares human important improved increase industrial inputs intensification intensive IPCC irrigation land degradation land-use Latin America livestock production systems livestock sector loss maize major manure meat methane methane emissions milk million tonnes mineral fertilizer monogastrics natural nitrogen nitrous oxide North America nutrient OECD options organic pasture percent pesticides plant pollution population potential poultry rangelands rates reduce regions result ruminants soil Source soybean species sub-Saharan Africa Table tion trade trends tropical United vegetation waste water resources wildlife