The many names of country people: an historical dictionary from the twelfth century onward
Greenwood Press, 1989 - 325 ページ
Country names are used to describe people who were--or are--engaged in agricultural pursuits. They indicate status, occupation, duties, geographical location, type or level of skill, economic function, and many other conditions of rural life. This new historical dictionary provides an important key to country life in English-speaking regions from the twelfth to the twentieth centuries. It presents information on the usage, meanings, and historical background for more than 1,778 names that have been given to the country people of Britain, North America, and the West Indies, as well as Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The entries identify agrarian meanings of the names, the occupational groups that used them, dates of use, geographical range, and common and uncommon variants. Connotations are noted--whether the terms are respectful or derogatory, playful, or merely descriptive--and cross-referencing is supplied for terms that appear in more than one entry. This reference is the only comprehensive work of its kind. It will be a useful and informative companion to the researcher concerned with agricultural and economic history, the history of English-speaking peoples, and the history of the English language.
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0ften 0ld French 0ld Norse 0wns 19th cen 20th cen 20th century agricultural Ampelographer Anglo-Saxon animal raiser Australia Boss Britain chiefly Bumpkin Canada cattle cowboy term cows crop dairy Dates uncertain Deprecatory Derogatory Disparaging Drives drover early 20th century farm farmer farmworker feeds feudal forest Gang grain grazing grower herd herder hired hand Holds land horses husbandman husbandry itinerant Jargon landholder Landlord landowner landuser Late 19th century Latin law term lease livelihood Lives livestock log driver logger logs lumber camp lumber term manager Mid-20th century Middle English mounted herder owner pastures Peasant Picker Planter plants and animals plow possibly the 19th possibly the late Raises plants Rancher Rare reaper rural rustic Serf shearer term shedhand sheepman Shepherd skilled Slave sometimes South Africa stockman Supervises supervisor Swagman Sylviculturist tasks Tenant tends timber tree harvester tury Typically unfree usually Veterinarian woods wool worker