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19th century Abbasid Arabic architecture areas army bakufu became began Byzantine caliph central centre Christian classical court culture daimyo died divine dynasty early East economic Egypt emperor empire established European Fatimid forces French imperial important industrial influence Iran Iraq Islamic art Islamic music island Israel Israeli Istanbul Italian Italy Italy's Jaina Japan Japanese king kingdom land language later leaders literary literature Lombard madrasah major Mamluk Mecca medieval Milan military modern mosques movement Muhammad Muslim mystical Naples northern Ottoman Palestinian papal parties peninsula period Persian philosophy poems poetry poets political Pope popular population pre-Islamic produced Prophet prose Quran reform region religion religious Roman Rome rule rulers Safavid Seljuq Shari'ah Sicily social society style Sufi Sufism sunnah Syria tion trade tradition trans Turkish Umayyad urban verses Western writing