Task- and standard-based learning: an instructional psychology perspective
Tasks and standards play a major role within recent attempts to improve quality in education, like, for example, PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). Within this book, first, the relationship between instructional phychology, educational standards, and task-related learning research is outlined. Then a theoretical model of task attributes, which are relavent for learning, is depicted. Based on certain task attributes (e.g., task complexity and sequencing), two experimental studies are conducted in order to test task effects on learning and motivation. Results showed that effects of tasks varied in respect to task contexts and personality characteristics of the learner. Within an exploration study, using LISREL, a theory of emotional processes was tested in order to find emotional standards for reading. Within a section of application, it is shown how task-related research could be used to design self-regulated learning material and activities, which support teaching. Finally, standards for educational practices (web-based teacher education) are formulated and discussed.
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addition alternating tasks analogical skills analysis Astleitner attributes of tasks categorical model classroom cognitive load combined complexity levels concerning correlations Cronbach's Alpha difficult tasks easy task priority Educational Psychology effects emotional outcomes emotional processes evaluation example experimental factor loadings feelings focusing goal Herber ICMS identified implemented increasing task complexity instructional design instructional methods instructional settings instructional theory Journal Kuiken learners learning e.g. learning strategies mathematical achievement mathematical interest measurement memory Merrienboer model of task motivation practice predictive validity presented produce Psychology reading regulated learning Reigeluth relevant self-instructional learning materials self-regulated learning situations stage of learning Standard stepwise increasing task stimulate story elements strongly alternating student teachers switch costs Task analysis task attributes task complexity task performance task sequencing task switching task type task-sets tasks e.g. teaching test model theoretical model theory thinking and learning tion tional University of Salzburg variables Vasarhelyi web-based teacher education