Programming Challenges: The Programming Contest Training Manual
There are many distinct pleasures associated with computer programming. Craftsm- ship has its quiet rewards, the satisfaction that comes from building a useful object and making it work. Excitement arrives with the ?ash of insight that cracks a previously intractable problem. The spiritual quest for elegance can turn the hacker into an artist. Therearepleasuresinparsimony,insqueezingthelastdropofperformanceoutofclever algorithms and tight coding. Thegames,puzzles,andchallengesofproblemsfrominternationalprogrammingc- petitionsareagreatwaytoexperiencethesepleasureswhileimprovingyouralgorithmic and coding skills. This book contains over 100 problems that have appeared in previous programming contests, along with discussions of the theory and ideas necessary to - tack them. Instant online grading for all of these problems is available from two WWW robot judging sites. Combining this book with a judge gives an exciting new way to challenge and improve your programming skills. This book can be used for self-study, for teaching innovative courses in algorithms and programming, and in training for international competition. To the Reader Theproblemsinthisbookhavebeenselectedfromover1,000programmingproblemsat the Universidad de Valladolid online judge, available athttp://online-judge.uva.es.The judgehasruledonwelloveronemillionsubmissionsfrom27,000registeredusersaround the world to date. We have taken only the best of the best, the most fun, exciting, and interesting problems available.
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a->signbit algorithm angle array average Level backtracking bignum blank line breadth-first search candidates cards cells char characters compute consecutive coordinates counter cycle data structures defined deletion denoted depth-first search digits distance dynamic programming edges elements Eulerian cycle example function given Gordon Cormack graph grid hexagonal implementation indicating the number input file Input The input insertion intersection Java lattice length line containing line of input longest nap matrix minimum spanning tree modular arithmetic multiple number of test operations pair PC/UVa IDs permutation polygon Popularity possible prime print a line priority queue problem programming contests programming language queue real numbers recursive represent Rezaul Alam Chowdhury Sample Input Sample Output segments sequence Shahriar Manzoor shortest path solution solve sorting space square stack string subset Success rate test case contains TopCoder Topological sorting triangle vertex vertices weight write a program