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curious about him. No. Still, I was some sort, would come out to the top curious to see whether this man, who after all, and how he would set about came out equipped with moral ideas of his work when there." Blackwood's Magazine.

(To be continued.)

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WOMAN'S BRAIN.

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The man whose brain is small finds to his wife and daughters. You a certain satisfaction in the conviction would fancy he had made the news, or that a woman's must of necessity be had, by his own private sources of insmaller. It is a very ancient arrogance, formation, gathered it from all ends old as the Aryan housefather and of the earth. You certainly would older. We find it in ample develop- never suspect, from their relative atment among savages, whose contempt titudes, that any one of the ladies who for the female understanding is usu

had been the first to open the paper ally measureless. In proportion as men might have dispensed the news with progress towards civilization, so do all that air of omniscience. But let they grow out of this crude conceit. her try it, and learn how unnatural, But they never divest themselves of it how pert and forward such behavior to more than a partial extent. The would appear to the masculine mind. barbarian, even when he has

an in

The whole evolutionary trend of man's tuitive feeling which makes him act on history has emphasized this relationthe advice of his womenfolks, always ship. Man must be the protector, asserts his independence, and scorns woman the protected; man the elm to give them more than a crumb of and Woman

the
ivy;

must credit for a success which may possibly man be the instructor and woman have originated in their mild sug. the instructed. Watch how

the gestions. One of the surest of tests typical citizen conducts his typiin diagnosing the stage of a people's cal wife through a picture gallery. civilization is the estimation in which Both are equally ignorant of art, but, the female intellect is held; and he as they go, it is his place to deliver his who follows the story of human pro- little impromptu lectures before each gress will realize that we are still no canvas which attracts his attention. more than halfway up the scale, while As the camel to the German, so is the a half-contemptuous feeling is still by subject matter of these discourses to large masses of our population enter- the self-satisfied discourser. Have we tained in regard to woman's intellect, not all seen the average man thus enand while that feeling is still in some gaged in edifying the weaker intelmeasure suffered to color our legisla- lect? Such a pair were one day obtion.

served by a sister of mine to stop beOne has only to keep his eye open a fore a picture in which a white-robed little to see that this fine old crusty Psyche was being rowed by a naked prejudice has still a flourishing time Charon across the swirling Styx. in our midst. Observe how the first "Ah!” said he, and a beam of welcome reader of the morning newspaper deals recognition shone from his face. "This out the news over the breakfast table is Lord Ullin's Daughter." She was

was

are

measure

deeply interested, and received his on behalf of women, that their brains
further full and elaborate details with are smaller than men's. Was that
á wifely meekness. In such cases we merely a popular prejudice, or
feel that the relation of teacher and there some scientific basis in it?

Of pupil is natural, though absurd. If he course it is not conceivable that they is gratified and she is satisfied, what referred to merely absolute size. That harm is there? What need have we to would be too childish, for every boy interfere?

could understand that, naturally, as None in the world! And yet we see the smaller animal, woman would have that in this Occidental unrest of ours the smaller brain, while it would be in these kick-it-all-over times, this an- quite impossible that, all the same, her tique and touching relationship is be- brain endowment might, in proportion, ing challenged. The time may come be equal, or even ampler than man's. when men will feel no pang of resent- Dr. Boyd, who, at St. Marylebone Hosment at being ordered by the female pital, weighed the brains of 652 men physician to put out their tongues; and 715 women, supplies us with fig. when their little weaknesses may be ures from which we can calculate that sarcastically dealt with from the pul- the average man has 10 per cent. more pit by feminine preachers just as brain weight than the average woman. loftily as the little foibles of the sex Vierordt's figures from 152 men and are now dealt with by curates and 172 women give the average man an other godly persons. Men, indeed, may advantage of 12 per cent. yet have to stifle their rebellious pride But these absolute and obey the laws that women have ments, and therefore form no test of made, or helped to make, to bind intelligence. Else would the whale, the them!

elephant and the dolphin, with their All such changes will imply that huge brains, be all the more intelligent woman is being granted a full equality than man. But if it be objected that of status--a concession that will most this comparison is sophistical on accertainly grow out of the increasing count of disparity in quality, then I belief in the quality of her intellect. readily make the comparison within For every year seems to show with in- the human race itself. Tall men have, creasing conclusiveness that, whatever on the average, bigger brains than be the ultimate decision in regard to short ones; yet they are not more able. the occurrence of genius, there is in No one has detected any tendency for the great mass of cases a practical the tall undergraduates to gather at equality in the male and female minds. the top of the honor list or for the At the same time the conviction has short ones to gravitate towards the grown secure that the mind is a func- bottom. If the reader takes down at tion of the brain and is conditioned by random from his bookshelves the it, so that, if other things be equal, the biographies of a hundred celebrated more brain there is the more mind there men, and notes their ‘heights, where must be. It therefore becomes of in- such important trifles are given, he terest to know what physiology has to will find that the average will come say in reference to the relative sizes of out somewhere between 5 feet 6 inches the male and the female brain. Only · and 5 feet 7 inches, while the general last year, two public men in England, average of all the population in Engwell known, though not of first-class land is 5 feet 6.3 inches, while in standing, gave it as their reason for France it is 5 feet 6.1 inches. voting against a certain citizen claim It is plain, then, that the big man de

.

rives no advantage in the way of in- Boyd's figures show that he has .73 tellect from the bigness of his brain, ounce of brain for every inch in his and that man, in so far as his larger height, while woman has only 70. brain is due to his larger body, enjoys This gives him an excess of 4 per cent. no advantage in capacity over woman. Broca's figures, gathered in Paris, give The comparison must evidently be one by this method an excess of 612 per of proportion, and yet the difficult cent. to the male brain. No very apquestion arises, What is to be the parent reason can be adduced why this basis of that proportion? Occasional mode of comparison should have a efforts have in the last forty years special validity. been made by physiologists to settle Manouvrier proposed to compare the this point, but there is none yet that weight of the brain with that of the is satisfactory. The most obvious and thigh bone. His work is ingenious and most usual is to compare the brain fantastic, but from the outset it seems weight with the body weight. If this divorced from common-sense,

aud be done, woman has proportionally a after careful examination it fails to larger brain than man, for Boyd's fig. bring any share of conviction. The ures show that she has .50 ounce of late Professor Marshall's system also brain for every pound of weight in her is eccentric. It is too elaborate for body, while man has only .47 ounce. brief exposition, and though rather Here she has an advantage of 6 per specious at first, it fails to stand any cent. Bischoff's figures, gathered in serious test. Bonn from 526 men and 332 women, It is well known that the whole of give to the feminine brain exactly the our psychic activity finds its organ in same advantage of 6 per cent., and the thin outer layer or cortex of the those of Vierordt, Parchappe and brain. Its amount would therefore others lead to closely approximate re- seem much more likely to be proporsults.

tional to the surface of the brain than Is the ignominious conclusion then to its weight. On every square inch to be swallowed and digested that, there are some 10 millions of those after all, instead of being inferior, neurons which are the instruments of woman is more richly endowed with mental energy.

A neuron consists of brain than man? Morphology comes a cell with a long cylinder axis passto the rescue by showing that, in pro- ing downward like a root, while a denportion to its body weight, the smaller dritic process grows upwards. Conanimal has always the larger brain. A sciousness depends, in a way whose cat has much more than a tiger; a details are as yet far from settled, on mouse three times as much as a rat; the contact and retraction of soft, buda terrier six times as much as a New- like knobs on these branching procfoundland; a baby has, in proportion esses, and brain activity depends primto its weight, five times as much brain arily on the number of these neurons. as his father; while a little man is, on But these grow upon the brain surface the average, more richly provided than just as a crop of wheat grows on a a tall one. Simple comparison of brain field's surface. The analogy, however, weight with body weight is, therefore, is to be pressed no further than this, quite inadmissible. For which relief that just as the number of wheat the male sex owes its thanks.

plants will in no way depend on the We might compare the weight of the weight of earth in the field, but only brain with the height of the body. In on the surface that lies exposed to that case

has an advantage. sun and air, so the brain's activity

man

man,

а

will have no relation with its weight there is a brain weight that is typical but only with the surface which it of the species and only slightly disoffers for the growth of neurons. turbed by variations in size of body,

There seems some reason, therefore, so there is a brain weight that is typito suspect that the comparison we cal of sex also, the female being in a seek ought to be found in considera- definite measure short of the male. tion of the surface rather than of the The line which denotes the increase of weight of the brain. In examination male brains with body weight rises of this idea, I have for the last six very gradually. So does the coryears weighed from time to time the responding line for female brains; but brains of large numbers of fish and the two are parallel and yet apart, so birds, and, assuming that on the aver- that the brain of the average

tall age the brains of specimens of the woman scarcely equals in weight or same species will be symmetrical, I surface the brain of the average short calculated out the surfaces of each. On dealing with the mass of figures by Without diagrams it may be hard means of simple, mathematical for the reader to realize the argument, analysis, I found that, in the case of but fortunately it may be put in anfish, the surface of the brain is propor- other form, which is of no general tional to the length of the individual. scientific interest, but is perfectly For birds, however, the law, whatever valid for this one point.

We may it may be, grows more complicated, adopt the common-sense method, that and for mammals, as we rise in the is to say, of ceasing to make proporscale, so does the size of the brain tional comparisons when the form of grow less and less dependent on the the proportion is unknown, and we size of the animal. A mastiff will be may simply take men and women of thirty times as heavy as a spaniel, yet the same weight for the purpose of its brain will be only twice as heavy. making an absolute comparison. It is Take a big man and a little one. The easy to find a hundred men a little beformer may have an excess of 120 per low the medium size, and a hundred cent. in body weight, yet on the aver- women a little above the medium of age his excess of brain weight will be women. By a proper choice we may less than 5 per cent. In the higher have them so arranged that the averorders it would seem as if each species age height or weight of the one group had its typical size of brain, from may be equal to the height or weight which the deviations caused by varia- of the other. Then it is to be pretions in body weight are compara- sumed, if women are as well equipped tively slight. The law of the relation as men in respect of the size of their between the two promises to be of ex- brains, the average brain weight of treme complication, and its discovery, the one group ought to be equal to the in all probability, lies a generation or average of the other. two in the future.

Whatever be the size we ch for But, for the subject now in hand, comparison, it is never

The that law, though it would give a wider woman's brain is always less than the range and greater cogency to the ar- man's. Whether the observations be gument, is not really necessary. For made in England, France or Gerwhen all available figures representing many, the results are quite unaffected. the brain weights of some 4,000 men From Boyd's figures we can pick out and women are plotted out in diagram- 102 men and 113 women between 64 matic form, it is seen that just as and 66 inches high, averaging close on

so.

65 inches for each group.

But the sumable influence of quality. But brains of the men average 46.9 ounces, there are no facts to be procured in while those of the women are only reference to quality, except such as 41.9, which gives the men an advan- arise out of the practical experience of tage of 12 per cent. There are 21 small every-day life. It is said that the femen whose height averages 62 inches, male cortex is thinner than the male, and there are 135 women of the same but only in proportion to general diheight. The brains of the men weigh mensions. No observer, so far as I 45.6 ounces, those of the women only have learnt, has shown or even sug42.9 ounces. Here the men,

bave an gested that sex makes any difference advantage of 6.3 per cent. From the in the number, development or vital figures which Broca gathered in Paris, energy of those neurons or brain elewe may select 54 men and 23 women ments which, to the number of a whose heights were about 1.61 metre, couple of thousand millions, make the the average of the women, however, physical basis of mind. But, of course, being nearly half an inch more than it is fair to remember that this departthat of the men, yet their brains were ment of science is yet in its utter inless by 9 per cent. than the men's, the fancy, the work of Golgi in Italy, and weights being 1,218 grammes for the of Ramon y Cajal in Spain, being only females and 1,329 for the males. some six or seven years old. Histolo

It makes no difference if, instead of gists will no doubt at some future taking equal heights, we take equal time discover in brain differences the body weights. Bischoff's figures, gath. physiological basis for the undoubted ered at Bonn, will give us the data. differences between the feminine and They are set forth in groups according the masculine character. But not even to weight. There are 91 men and 116 the remotest approach to that sort of women whose bodies were between 30 work has yet been made. and 39 kilogrammes. The brains of The question of relative quality is, the men weighed 1,348 grammes, and therefore, one that has still to be left those of the women 1,206; which gives in the region of mere speculation. All the men an excess of 11 per cent. we can say at present is that, in reThere were 206 men and 123 women gard to quantity, man has a clear adwhose body weights lay between 40 vantåge. History seems to tell us that and 49 kilogrammes. The brains of in general brain capacity, which must the men averaged 1,362 grammes, be dependent on both, man has had an those of the women only 1,215. Here equal, or even greater, advantage. Part the men have the advantage by 12 per of this is no doubt real; but a part has cent. Between 50 and 59 kilogrammes certainly been only apparent, and due there were 148 men and 50 women. to the social obstacles which have alThe men's brains averaged 1,370 ways impeded the aspirations of the grammes, the women's only 1,245. intellectual woman. While man has The excess is 10 per cent. in favor of had the mastery, and has likewise had the men. However or wherever we an overweening sense of his own sumake the inquiry, it is always seen perior talents, a policy of repression that when men and women

are of

has always been pursued in regard to equal height or equal weight, the men woman. The world at large has enhave something like 10 per cent. more tertained the feeling now prevalent in brains than the women.

such countries as Siam, that education In dealing thus with quantity alone, is for boys, while girls have no minds I have by no means forgotten the pre- to educate. No argument, therefore,

LIVING AGE. VII. 395

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