can be drawn from the relative infre- eighty-five, all the names being of quency of genius among women. world-wide fame. The average weight When a Felix and a Fanny Mendels- of these brains in which great work sohn have been born into the same was done amounted only to 1,477 family, and of equal talent, the girl grammes, while the average weight of has been made to understand that for 6,292 male brains weighed in England, her music must be merely a pastime France and Germany is 1,351 till her wedding comes, while for the grammes. Here the great men have an boy it is to be a life's profession. If advantage of only 9.3 per cent. over Fanny, prompted by the true fervor of the average man. It would be erronegenius, writes songs as fine as the best ous, however, to jump to the conclu. of her brother's, the family honor de- sion that there is as much difference mands that she should refrain from between a woman's brain and a man's publishing them in her own name, and as there is between the brains of the they go to swell the volume of her

average man and that of the eminent brother's fame, in whose name they

For we have evidence to show still appear to this day. Lady Nairne that while great men, as a rule, owe ranks next to Burns as the most popu- something to the size of their brains, lar song-writer whom Scotland has they owe much more to quality. produced, yet, as the feeling was . There may be some importance in strong that it was immodest for a another influence. Judging from woman to appear before the public, Boyd's figures, man's brain she preserved till her death the secret more variable than woman's. The feof her authorship. We know how male brain lies closer to its average;

so gifted as Georges Sand, there are few specimens excessively George Eliot and Charlotte Brontë large or excessively small. The male found it wise to conceal their identity brain has a wider range at both ends, and assume male designations. If, and we know that there are more male then, it has always been more or less idiots and imbeciles than female. In the practice to discourage the clever some countries the excess is nearly 50 woman and encourage the clever boy,

per cent. By a parity of reasoning we there could be no fairness in pointing should expect this greater variability to the relative frequency of genius in of brain when displayed at the upper the two sexes as a proof of the dispar- end to give a larger proportion of ity of capacity.

male than of female geniuses. And yet, when all allowances are The result of this little bit of inquiry dispassionately made, there lies in his- is wholly different from what I anticitory a substantial balance in favor of pated when I began to collect the fig. the male intellect, and this we may ures. I thought there could be no reafairly enough consider to be dependent sonable doubt but that woman, on difference of size. For it is to be in due proportion to her bodily remembered that an excess of 10 per dimensions, would prove to be as cent. is no mere trifle.

well provided with brains It is easily shown that in regard to man; not, perhaps, that this brain weights, small differences give would be much of a compliment. Let rise to great consequences. The brains Carlyle and his thirty millions testify. of distinguished men exceed the aver- I thought that, like many another anage by only a small percentage. Bas

cient prejudice which growing intelli. tian gathered list of such brain

gence weakens and science finally disweights. Manouvrier increased it to pels, the masculine belief in the mas




culine brain was doomed to disappear- sation which, in a greater or less deance. But we must all of us yield our gree, the bulk of men very often allow loyal allegiance to honest figures, and themselves, partly no doubt in jest, yet the figures have been gathered in with meaning in it none the less. many places and at different times by Wise mothers, thoughtful wives and men whose business it was to measure deeply intelligent sisters are surely not and weigh without regard to the con- so rare but that they often enough clusions. The lesson to be drawn come within the notice of every man. from such figures, if we draw it logi. They should help to sweep away all cally, is one that leaves but little room those legislative disabilities which for doubt.

diminish the educational, professional I remember once in a society to or political liberties of women. For which I belonged a lady lecturer of these, whatever be the pretence, are the gushing order read a paper in mainly founded on a large residuum of which she was very adverse to the that old masculine contempt for the theory of beneficent Providence. female intellect. If it be true, as I “Why," she asked, "are we without have shown, that the female brain is wings, if all this omnipotent love di- less by 10 per cent. in its proportion rects the course of the universe? Why than the male brain, and if it could in have I not been furnished with wings consequence be demonstrated that the wherewith I might fly to the ends of average woman has 10 per cent. less of the earth to my loved ones?” There intellectual car city than the average was a discussion after the paper, man, it still has to be remembered when a dry, old, one-eyed philosopher that, even then, 90 per cent of the made this pithy speech. "Mr. Chair- women are the equals of 90 per cent. man, our lecturer this evening com

of the men. On a little consideration, plains because Providence has given this will be seen to imply that the avher no wings. I think she has a cause erage man has to recognize about 40 of complaint, but she's got hold of the per cent. of the women as being his wrong one. Her true complaint is be- superiors in intellect. cause she's got no brains." The hit, And yet it has been no real part of though rude, went home with uproari- my purpose to draw any sociological ous effect. It was, in a measure, de- conclusions. It is a physiological fact served; and yet I saw with regret how with which I meant alone to deal, and ready is the average audience to jeer the figures seem to me to show that at woman's capacity. To me, it the male brain has an advantage in seems a sorry sort of gallantry which size of about 10 per cent. It is a difat the opera door waits as squire of ference which certainly affords some dames with cloak and wrap, and then little foundation for a very ancient bein some smoke-room raises a sardonic lief; but it offers us no warrant for laugh by suggesting that idiots are carrying that belief beyond a very fewer among women because so little moderate limit. noticeable; yet that is a tone of conver

Alexander Sutherland.

The Nineteenth century.


A writer might well be proud to be pæic faculty is not only a primitive inidentified with a movement that is stinct, but a spiritual need. primarily spiritual and eager, a move- I do not suppose our Celtic ancestors ment of quickened artistic life. I, for --for all their high civilization and deone, care less to be identified with any velopment, so much beyond what obliterary movement avowedly partizan. tained among the Teutonic peoples at That is not the deliberate view of lit- the same date—theorized about their erature which carries with it the heat narrative art; but from what we know and confused passions of the many. It of their literature, from the most an. is not the deliberate view which con- cient bardic chants to the sgeul of tofers passions that are fugitive upon day, we cannot fail to see that the inthat troubled Beauty which knows only stinctive ideal was to represent beau. a continual excellence. It is not the tiful life. It is an ideal that has lain deliberate view which would impose below the spiritual passion of all great the penury of distracted dreams and

art in every period; Phidias knew it desires upon those who go up to the when he culled a white beauty from treasure-house and to white palaces. the many Athenian youth, and Leo

But I am somewhat tired of an epi- nardo when he discerned the inexplicthet that, in a certain association, is able in woman's beauty and painted become jejune through use and misuse. Moña Lisa, and Palestrina, when, It has grown familiar wrongly; is from the sound in the pines and often a term of praise or disdain, in the voice of the wind in solitudes and each inept; is applied without modera- the slow songs of laborers at sundown, tion; and so now is sometimes unwel- he wove a solemn music for cathedral come, even when there is none other aisles. With instinct, the old Celtic so apt and right. The “Celtic Move- poets and romancists knew it; there ment,” in the first place, is not, as so are no Breton ballads, nor Cymric often confusedly stated, an arbitrary mabinogion, nor Gaelic sgeulan which effort to reconstruct the past; though deal ignobly with petty life. All evil it is, in part, an effort to discover the passions may .obtain there, but they past. For myself (as one imputed to move against a spiritual background this "movement") I would say that I of pathetic wonder, of tragic beauty do not seek to reproduce ancient Celtic and tragic fate. All art should reprepresentments of tragic beauty and sent beautiful life. If we want a vision tragic fate, but do seek in nature and of life that is not beautiful we can in life, and in the swimming thought have it otherwise; a multitude can deof timeless imagination, for the kind of pict the ignoble; the lens can replicate beauty that the old Celtic poets dis- the usual. covered and uttered. There were poets It should be needless to add that our and myth-makers in those days; and vision of the beautiful must be deep to-day we may be sure that a new and wide and virile, as well as high Mythus is being woven, though we and ideal. When we say that art may no longer humanize and euhem- should represent beautiful life, we do erize the forces of nature and her silent not say that it should represent only and secret processes; for the mytho- the beautiful in life, which would be to

To say

ignore the roots and the soil and the vivid sap, and account the blossom only. The vision of beautiful life is the vision of life seen not in impossible unrelief but in possible relief; of harmonious unity in design as well as in color. that art should represent beautiful life is merely to give formal expression to the one passionate instinct in every poet and painter and musician, in every artist. There is no "art" saved by a moral purpose, though all true art is spiritually informed; and I know none with pen or brush, with chisel or score, which, ignobly depicting the ignoble, survives in excellence. In this one cannot well go astray. Nor do I seek an unreal Ideal. In the kingdom of the imagination, says one of our forgotten mystics, the ideal must ever be faithful to the general laws of nature; elsewhere adding a truth as immanent"Man is not alone; the Angel of the Presence of the Infinite is with him." I do not, with Blake, look upon our world as though it were at best a basis for transcendental vision, while in itself "a hindrance and a mistake," but rather as his friend Calvert said, to an Earth spiritualized, not a Heaven naturalized. With him, too, I would say, "I have a fondness for the earth, and rather a Phrygian way of regarding it, despite a deeper yearning to see its glades receding into the gardens of Heaven."

crets of beauty; as others, that one or two use with inevitableness, and a small number deftly, till the journal has it and it has come into desuetude.

We have of late heard so much of Celtic beauty and Celtic emotion that we would do well to stand in more surety as to what we mean and what we do not mean.

I do not myself know any beauty that is of art to excel that bequeathed to us by Greece. The marble has outlasted broken dynasties and lost empires; the word is to-day fresh as with dews of dawn. But through the heart I travel into another land. Through the heart I go to lost gardens, to mossed fountains, to groves where is no white beauty of still statue, but only the beauty of an old forgotten day, remembered with quickened pulse and desired with I know not what of longing and weariness.

Is it remembrance, I wonder often, that makes many of us of the Celtic peoples turn to our own past with a longing so great, a love perfected through forgotten tribulations and familiar desire of the things we know to be impossible, but so fair? Or do we but desire in memory what all primitive races had, and confuse our dreams with those ho have no peace because they are immortal?

If one can think with surety but a little way back into the past, one can divine through both the heart and the mind. I do not think that our broken people had no other memories and traditions than other early peoples had. I believe they stood more near to ancient forgotten founts of wisdom than others stood; I believe that they are the offspring of a race who were in a more close communion with the secret powers of the world we know and the secret powers of the world we do not know than were any other people. I think their ancient writings show it, their ancient legends, their subtle and

We cannot but regret when any word that has peculiar associations of beauty or interest, or in which some distinction obtains, is lightly bandied. Its merit is then in convenience of signal rather than in its own significance. It is easy to recall some of these unfortunates; as our Scottish word "gloaming," that is so beautiful, and is now, alas, to be used rarely and with heed; as "haunting," with its implicit kinship with all mysteries of shadow, and its present low estate; as “melody,” that has an outworn air, though it has three se

strangely spiritual mythology. I be- usage is its opportunity.

When we lieve that, in the East, they lit the look for its source we find it in the usuprimitive genius of their race at un- fruct of an ancient and beautiful treasknown and mysterious fires; that in the ure of national tradition. One may the ages they have not wholly forgotten more aptly speak thus collectively of a the ancestral secret; that, in the West, mythology and a literature and a vast they may yet turn from the gray wave and wonderful legendary folk-lore, that they see, and the gray wave of since to us, now, it is in great part time that they do not see, and again, hidden behind veils of an all but forupon new altars, commit that primeval gotten tongue and of a system of life fire.

and customs, ideals and thought, that But to believe is one thing, to affirm no longer obtains. is another. Those of us who believe I am unable, however, to see that it thus have no warrant to show. It has sustenance in elements of revolt. may well be that we do but create an A new movement should not be a reimage made after the desire and faith volt, but a sortie, to carry a fresh posiof the heart.

tion. When one bears, as one does It is not the occasion to speak of what every now and then, that the Celtic I do believe the peculiar and excelling movement is a revolt against the tybeauty of the Celtic genius and Celtic ranny of the English tradition, one literature to be; how deep its well- can but smile, as though a plaster-cast, springs; how full of strange new beauty that is of to-day, were to revolt against to us who come upon it that is so old the Venus of Milo, or the Winged Vicand remote. What I have just written tory that is of no day. If a movement will disclose that wherever else I may has any inherent force it will not dedesire to worship, there is one beauty stroy itself in forlorn hopes, but will that has to me the light of home upon fall into line, and so achieve where it; that there is one beauty from which, alone the desired

can be above all others now, I hope for a new achieved. revelation; that there is a love, there is There is no racial road to Beauty, nor a passion, there is a romance, which to any excellence. Genius, which leads to me calls more suddenly and search- thither, beckons neither to tribe nor ingly than any other ancient love or clan, neither to school nor movement, ancient passion or ancient romance. but only to one soul here and to another

But, having said this, I am the more there; so that the Icelander hears and free to speak what I have in view. Let speaks in Saga, and the brown Malay me say at once, then, that I am not a hears and carves delicately in ivory; great believer in “movements," and and the men in Europe, from the Serb still less in "renascences;" to be more and the Finn to the Basque and the exact, I hold myself in a suspicion to- Breton, hear, and each in his kind anwards these terms; for often, in the swers; and what the Englishman says one, what we look for is not implicit, in song and romance, and the deep utand, in the other, we are apt rather terance of his complex life, his mounto find the aside and external. So far tain kindred say in mabinogi or sgéul. as I understand the “Celtic Movement," Even in those characteristics which it is a natural outcome, the natural ex- distinguish Celtic literature-intimate pression of a freshly inspired spiritual natural vision; a swift emotion that is and artistic energy. That this expression sometimes a spiritual ecstasy, but someis colored by racial temperament is its times is also a mere intoxication of the distinction, that it is controlled to novel senses; a peculiar sensitiveness to the


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