Which of your ancient fathers or doctors ever said, the whole world is but your diocese ? —Which of the


c. x.) Pope Julius [the First] in his Rescript (contra Orientales) and ATHANASIUS(Epist. Athanasii et Ægyptiorum Pontificum ad Fælicem Papam.)-JEWELL makes answer: ‘Notwithstanding, amongst all these words of Pope Julius, SOCRATES, CASSIODORUS,* and forged ATHANASIUS,t there is not one word of power and authority to call Councils. Only thus much they say: 'No decree may pass in Council (μη δείν κανονίζειν τας Εκκλησίας) without the agreement and consent of the bishop of Rome ;' for that he was one of the four principal Patriarchs, and ought to have his voice there as well as others. It is a principle ruled in law : 'Quod omnes tangit, ab omnibus debet approbari : "That which toucheth all, must be allowed by all.'

“But lest you should think this was the Pope's only [exclusive) prerogative, and belonged to none beside him; the same SOCRATES writeth the very like words as well of the bishop of Constantinople, as of the Pope. Thus he saith : Αμελήσαντες του νόμου κολέυοντος παρά γνώμην του Επισκόπου Κωνςαντινουπόλεως χειροτονίαν μη γίνεσθαι. Thus did they, not regarding the decree whereby order was taken that no bishop should be chosen without the consent of the bishop of Constantinople. (Ecc. Hist. Lib. VII. c. xxviii.) Yet may not M. HARDING conclude hereof, that therefore the bishop of Constantinople had authority to call Councils !" Defence, p. 470.]

["The Canonists, that is to say, the Pope's pages of honour, have not doubted to infeof their master with the possession of all the world. One saith thus : 'Dominus Papa,' &c. "Our Lord the Pope is the ordinary (or bishop) of all men.' Another saith : 'Papa totius,' &č. "The Pope hath the princehood of all the world. Another saith : 'Papa est episcopus totius orbis.' "The Pope is the bishop of the whole world. Another saith : “Papa etiam cessante,' &c. Though there be no default or negligence in any bishop, yet may the Pope bestow the benefices of all the world : for that he is bishop of all the world. Therefore when the Chief Deacon investeth, or enrobeth the Pope, at his consecration, he saith unto him : "Ego investio te de Papatu, ut præsis urbi et orbi.' 'I do invest thee with the Popedom, that thou mayest rule both the city and the world.'#

" This hath been the late wanton claim of the Pope's Canonists. Otherwise the ancient learned fathers have evermore bounded and

[The translation of SOCRATES and SoZoMEN quoted by HARDING was made by EPIPHANIUS, a Latin monk of the fifth century, at the command of CASSIODORUS, for which reason JEWELL attributes it to the latter. As to the passage quoted“CASSIODORUS in his Latin translation writeth thus : 'Canones jubent, extra Romanum nihil decerni Pontificem.' "The Canons direct that nothing be decreed without the Roman Pontiff.' SOCRATES in the Greek, out of which the Latin was taken, writeth thus: (Lib. Ι. c. 17.) μη δεϊν παρά γνώμην του επισκόπου Ρώμης kavovičelv tàs èKK\noias. The English hereof is this : 'It is provided by the Canons, that rules to bind the Church, be not made without the consent of the Bishop of Rome.' "-JEWELL'S Reply to M. Harding's Answer (to his challenge at Paul's Cross,) Art. IV. Div. 26.]

[The Epistle quoted by HARDING as ad Folicem, is in the collection of the works of ATHANASIUS entitled ad Marcum. Possevin, a strenuous Romanist, following BARONIU8, the champion of the Church of Rome, acknowledges that it is undoubt. edly spurious. Apparat. Tom. I. p. 127.]

[The authorities and references are given at length by JEWELL.)

holy ancient fathers ever said, that all bishops have received of your fulness ?-_Which of all your


limited the Pope within his own particular jurisdiction. RUFINUS saith, the fathers of the Council of Nice appointed the Pope to oversee the churches of his own suburbs--'ut Romanus episcopus suburbicarum ecclesiarum sollicitudinem gerat. (Hist. Eccles. Lib. I. cap. vi.) ATHANASIUS saith : "Rome is the mother church (not of all the universal world, but) of the Roman (particular) jurisdiction.' (Ad solitariam vitam agentes.) The bishops in the Council of Rome write thus to the bishops of Illyricum: 'It is convenient, that all the bishops that be within the jurisdiction of Rome should accord together πάντας τους εν Ρωμάτων κόσμω διδασκάλους ομοφρονείν. (SozOMEN. Lib. VI. c. xxiii.) Flavianus the archbishop of Constantinople writeth thus unto Léo the bishop of Rome: 'Let your holiness vouchsafe to make known the wickedness of Eutyches to all the bishops that live under you:'-(inter Epistolas Leonis, Ep. 9.)--to all the bishops, he saith, that live under you ; not, unto all bishops throughout the world. S. JEROME, speaking of the usage and order of the Church of Rome, saith thus : Quid mihi profers unius urbis consuetudinem ?'

What allegest thou me the custom of one city ? (ad Evagrium.) So much he abridgeth the Pope's jurisdiction, that he extendeth it not unto the lists and ends of all the world, but restraineth it only to the limits of one city. Likewise again, speaking of the bishops of Rome, he saith thus: 'Non solum unius urbis, sed etiam totius orbis errant episcopi.' Then not only the bishop of one city (which was the bishop of Rome) but also the bishops of all the world are deceived. (Adv. Vigilantium.)--Thus therefore writeth GENNADIUS, (Patriarch of Constantinople from 458 to 471,] together with the Council of Constantinople, unto the bishop of Rome : "Curet sanctitas tua universas tuas custodias, tibique subjectos episcopos.' 'Let your holiness see unto (not all the whole world, but) all your own charge, and such bishops as be subject unto you.' (ad Omnes Metropol. et ad Papam Rom.)

“By these few, we see the bishop of Rome's power was not universal or infinite, over all the Churches and kingdoms of the world ; but certain, and limited within his own particular jurisdiction.Defence, p. 470, 471.]

a [HARDING answers, "So hath S. BERNARD said in his book, De Consideratione ad Eugenium ; where he saith that he is called, 'in plenitudinem potestatis,' 'to the fulness of power."--JEWELL makes reply : “There is no folly so vain, but by some shift it may be maintained. In your Gloss, it is written thus : 'Omnes subjecti, &c. * All men are subject to the Pope's will, and are in him as members of a member.' Another saith : 'Ecclesia non habet,' &c. “The Church hath no power of jurisdiction, but only from Peter.' And again : 'A Petro,' &c. 'Next after CHRIST, spiritual grace and power is derived from Peter. And therefore another of your doctors saith : 'Omnes episcopi,' &c. "All bishops are derived from the Pope, as members from the head; and they all receive of his fulness ;' that is to say, power of his power, and grace of his grace. [The allusion is to John i. 16.] All these vanities, M. HARDING thinketh, may be well borne out by two bare words of BERNARD!" Defence, p. 471.)

doctors ever said, that all power is given to you, as well in heaven, as in earth ? -_Which of the ancient fathers ever said, that neither king, nor prince, nor the whole clergy, nor all the people together, are able to be judges over you ? —Which of the ancient fathers ever

o [“What manne

of power it is that the Popa claimeth, his own proctors and counsellors can tell us best. Cardinal HostIENSIS (an eminent Canonist, or expounder of the Canon Law) saith : 'Papa et Christus faciunt unum Consistorium : ita quod, excepto peccato, potest Papa quasi omnia facere que potest Deus.' "The Pope and CHRIST make one Consistory (or one judgment seat :) so that, sin excepted, the Pope in a manner may do all things that God may do.' (Quoted by ABBAS PANORMITANUS, Extr. de Transl. Præl. Ca. Quanto.)" Defence, p. 473.—See more in Note “, page 100.]

[“In these two points standeth the Pope's card of trust, and the keys and castle of all his power. First, the Church of Rome, whatsoever way she take, can never err : Second, the Pope, whatsoever he do, may never be called to any reckoning. These two points being granted, the rest is sure. One of your doctors saith thus : 'Omne factum,' &c. 'We must expound every act of the holy father for the best. And if it be theft, or any other thing that of itself is evil, we must think it done by the secret inspiration of God. (JOHAN. DE Parisiis, De Potest. Reg. et Pap.) Another saith : 'Si Papa innumerabiles,' &c. "If the Pope draw infinite companies of people by heaps together with himself into hell, to be punished with many stripes for ever; yet let not mortal man presume to reprove his faults. (Distinct. 40 Si Papa.) Another saith : 'Papa solutus,' &c. "The Pope is exempted from all human laws. (IX. Quæst. 3 Cuncta.) Another saith : * Nec totus clerus,' &c. 'Neither all the clergy, nor the whole world, may either judge or depose the Pope.' (Pet. DE PALUDE, De Potest. Pap. Art. 4.)—Therefore another of your doctors saith: 'Judicare de factis,' &c. "To judge of the Pope's deeds, this some men say, is to touch the holy mount (wherein God gave the Law, and showed himself to Moses) and to set the face against the heavens.' (JOH. DE PARISIIS, Cap. 20.) And the Pope himself saith : "The accusing of him is the sin against the Holy Ghost, which shall never be forgiven, neither in this world, nor in the next.' (Concil. Tom. I. in Purgatione Sixti.)" Defence, p. 474.

In defence of these claims, HARDING quotes “the fathers of the most ancient Council of Sinessa [held about A. D. 300] who said in the cause of Marcellinus the Pope, 'Nemo unquam judicavit Pontificem, quoniam prima sedes non judicabitur a quoquam.' 'No man ever judged the Pope ; because the first See shall not be judged of any body.'”—To this Jewell makes answer: "Pope Marcellinus, whose name ye have alleged out of the Council of Sinüessa for defence, was an apostate, and had forsaken Christ; and being Pope in Rome, had made sacrifice to devils. All this notwithstanding, ye say, 'No mortal man might accuse him. Thus hath the Pope a special prerogative and premunire to forsake CHRIST, and to commit open idolatry, and to give honour and sacrifice unto devils, without controulment.

" Yet S. Paul accused S. Peter, even unto his face, in the presence

said, that king's and emperors, by Christ's will and commandment, receive their authority at your hands ? a

-Which of the ancient fathers, with so precise and mathematical limitation, ever surveyed, and determined you to be seventy and seven times greater than the mightiest kings ? _Which of the ancient fathers ever said, that more ample authority is given to you, than to the residue of the Patriarchs ?i-Which of the ancient

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of many. (Galat. ii.) Mena, the bishop of Constantinople, judged and excommunicated' Pope Vigilius. (NICEPHOR. Eccl. Hist. Lib. XVII. c. xxvi.) The bishops of the East Church judged, and excommunicated, and deposed Pope Julius. (Sozomen. Lib. III. C. x.)" Defence, p. 475.]

["' It is evident by the record and general consent of all ancient writers, that the Pope hath neither possession, nor foot of lands, nor house to dwell in, nor the name of Universal Bishop, nor charter, nor liberty, nor jurisdiction, but that he hath received, either of the French kings, or of the Emperors. Yet would he now bear the world in hand, that the emperor hath nothing, neither lands, nor honour, nor power, nor right, nor swords, nor jurisdiction, but only from him.- If any man doubt hereof, besides other testimonies of antiquity, let him read that most vain and childish Donation, that the Pope himself hath forged under the name of the emperor Constantine.” Defence, p. 475.]

[This childish computation of absurd pretensions, HARDING acknowledges to be made by JOHANNES ANDREE (a Canonist) in his comment on the Canon Law De Major. et Obed. Solitæ.]

? [To prove this claim, HARDING adduced, with the utmost confidence, the pretended Donation of Constantine, as given in the Canon Law (Distinct. 98. Constantinus) and as found in the writings of the obscure Greek expositor of the Canons HIEROMONACHus in these words: θησπίζομεν σύμπασι τοις σατράπαις και τη συγκλήτω της ημών βασιλέιας τον Ρόμης επίσκοπον, και διάδοχος του κορυφάιου των αποστόλων, και κυρίου μον Πέτρου, πλείονα της βασιλείας έχειν εξουσίαν κατά πάσαν την οικουμένην, και παρά πάντων πολλώ πλέον ή τον βασίλεα τιμάσθαι και σέβεσθαι, κεφαλήν το ειναι των τεσσάρων πατριαρχικών θρονων, κρίνεσθαι τε παρ' αυτόν και ψηφιζεσSai rà oploóółw ovußaivovta niset; which he translates : 'We give in decree and commandment to all lords, and to the Senate of our empire, that the bishop of Rome, and the successor of St. Peter, the chief of the apostles, (and my lord, ] have authority and power in all the world, more than that of the empire is; and that he be honoured and worshipped more than the emperor ; and that he be head of the four Patriarchal seats, and that things appertaining to the right faith be fo him judged and determined.? -JEWELL remarks : "Lest any man by simplicity or ignorance should be deceived, not understanding the mys: teries of this donation or charter ; by the judgment of your own coctors (Joy. De Parisiis de Potestate Regia, Cap. 22) the meaning thereof is this: 'Volunt aliqui,' &c. 'Some think that by force and virtue of this donation, the Pope is the emperor and the lord of the world; and that hereby he hath power both to set up, and also to put down kings, as an emperor.'

holy fathers ever called you Lord and God ?: _Which

“The fable hereof is so peevish, that the wisest and best learned of your very friends, PLATINA, Cardinal Cusanus, MARSILIUS PATAVINUS, LAURENTIUS VALLA, ANTONINUS FLORENTINUS, OTHO Frisixgensis, HIERONYMUS, Paulus CATALANUS, VOLATERRANUS, NauCLERUS, CAPN10, Mullinæus, and others, have openly reproved it unto the world, and have written against it, and are much ashamed of your follies.- To allege one instead of many; Cardinal Cusanus here. of hath written thus: ‘Donationem Constantini, &c. 'Advisedly weighing this Donation (or grant) of Constantine, even in the penning thercof I find manifest tokens of falsehood and forgery. (De Concordantia Cathol. Lib. III. Cap. ii.)--The same grant of Constantine, even in GRATIAN, (the compiler of the Canon Law,] the Pope's own register, is found only in the Palea (supplementary additions, esteemed of less authority than the body of the Canon) and not in the original allowed text.--And to put the matter out of doubt, even Pope Pius II. himself, thereof saith thus: Dicta palea Constantinus, falsa est:' "The said patch, that so beginneth, Constantinus, is false.' (In Dialog.)" Defence, p. 478.

Having thus refuted HARDING's pretended authority, JEWELL goes on to prove at length the equality of the Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople, with that of Rome. This he does by the authorities of the Council of Nice, (Can. 6) of the Emperor Justinian, (Cod. de Sacrosanct. Eccl.) and of the Second Council of Constantinople (Cap. 36.); and by the examples of Gennadius, Cyprian, Cyril of Alexandria, Athanasius, and Pope Liberius.

“Yet now," he concludes, “the bishop of Rome, to maintain his title by a writ of right, forasmuch as the four principal patriarchs of the world have forsaken him, appointeth out four of his ordinary chaplains, and giveth them the names of four Patriarchs: the first for Constantinople; the second for Alexandria ; the third for Antioch; the fourth for Jerusalem.* And thus having these four at commandment, in his pleasant fancy he ruleth and governeth the whole world. In such a solemn bravery, the great Cham of Tartary, at this day, after he hath dined himself, soundeth out a trumpet, and giveth all kings and emperors of the world leave to go to dinner: and in this imagination and jollity he continueth his claim to the possession of all the world, even by as good right and title as doth the Pope !" Defence, p. 479 s.)

[“ Pope NICOLAS (the First, called the Great; A. D. 858 to 867) saith: 'Constat summum Pontificem--a pio principe Constantino Deum appellatum.' "It is well known that the Pope was called God by the pious prince Constantine.' (Distinct. 96. Satis evidenter.) Likewise, the Pope was well content to suffer one of his parasites (Christopher Marcellus) to say unto him in the late Council of the Lateran, (held under Julius II. and Leo X. A. D. 1512—1517] 'Tu es alter Deus in terris ;' "Thou art another God in earth.' (Conc. Lateran. Sess. 4.) Likewise CARDILLUS the Spaniard, in defence of the Pope's late Chap

· [This absurd custom is still continued. The Patriarchs thus appointed, together with a multitude of bishops of the same description, are known, sometimes as titular [Patriarch, or Bishop]; sometimes as Patriarch, &c. in partibus, sc. infideliumin the territories of the infidels.)

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