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ledge of God; as Moses was brought up in the learning and in the bosom of the Egyptians.

6. We have been of your company,” saith TERTULLIAN;9 “ I confess it: and no marvel at all. For,” saith he, “men be made, and not born, Christians.":

Sect. 5. But wherefore, I pray you, have they themselves, the citizens and dwellers of Rome, removed and come down from those seven hills whereupon Rome

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ledge, and make it obedient to the knowledge of Gop! Otherwise that

St. Peter said unto Simon Magus of his money, may likewise be said | unto you of your knowledge, 'thy knowledge perish with thee! Our

learning is the cross of Christ : of other learning we make no vaunts. God is called 'the God of truth,' and not of learning. St. Paul saith : * Knowledge shall vanish away. God make us all 'instructed unto the kingdom of heaven' !" Defence, p. 503, 504.)

q"De vestris fuimus; fiunt, non nascuntur, Christiani.” TERTULL. Apologetico. c. xviii.

[This Section contains the pith of the controversy with the Romanists; and JEWELL is proportionably minute in his Defence. His remarks may be abridged under several heads.

1. The cause of separation—the corrupt state of the Church of Rome. He quotes numerous passages from authors of the best repute among the Romanists, and thus sums up their testimony: “We have departed, therefore, from shepherds that spoiled the flock' (BERNARD); from ' bishops that destroyed the Church' (Idem)-that'oppressed the Spirit of God' (Chronicon Urspergens.)- that defied the voice of the prophets' (Ibid.)—that 'persecuted Christ in his members' (Ibid.) --that both perished themselves, and killed others' (BERNARD)—that · wallowed in monsters of filthiness' (Ep. Bitont. in Conc. Trident.) that 'lived as Heathens under the name of Christ' (F. ZEPHYRUS that were 'void of charity' (Æn. Sylvius)—'void of faith' (Id.)

void of discipline' (Vit. Clem. V.)— void of religion (Ibid.)—that were 'Christians only in titles and ceremonies' (A. MARINARIUS) from whom Christ had withdrawn his blessing (S. BRIGIDA.)* To be short, we have departed from the temple of heresy and the school of error."

2. The defensibility of such a step, under the circumstances.Strong passages, recognizing the possibility of a case which should justify separation, and recommending it in such a case as that in question, are quoted from AÚGUSTIN, CHRYSOSTOM, AMBROSE, the Clementines, Pope Pius II. ANSELM, Cardinal CUSANUS, and AMBROSE AUBERTUS, all authorities of great weight with the Church of Rome.

3. The responsibility for the separation, should lie, not with those who separate, but with those who render it necessary.—“We grant, we have departed from you, upon such occasion, and in such sort, as Moses sometime departed from out of Egypt; or as S. AUGUSTIN departed from the Manichees. Howbeit, in very deed, ye have rather

[ St. Bridget, one of the female saints of the Church of Rome.]

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sometime stood, to dwell rather in the plain called the field of Mars? They will say, peradventure, because the conduits of waters wherewithout men cannot commodiously live, have now failed, and are dried up in those hills. Well, then, let them give us like leave in seeking the “ water of eternal life,” that they give themselves in seeking the water of the well. For that water verily failed amongst them. “The nobles” of the Jews, saith Jeremiah, “sent their little ones to the waters : they came to the pits, and found no water; they returned with their vessels empty; they were ashamed, and confounded, and covered their heads.". " The needy and poor seek departed from out of us. CHRYSOSTOM saith : (In Matth. Hom. 49.) 'Even so, touching this New Jerusalem, which is the Church; they that were spiritual Christian men, leaving the bodily Church, which the wicked by violence had invaded, departed out from them: or as S. John expoundeth it, they rather departed out from us. For he seem eth not, indeed, to depart from the Church, that bodily departeth ; but he that spiritually leaveth the foundations of the ecclesiastical truth. We have departed from them, in body; they have departed from us, in mind: we froin them by place ; they from us, by faith. We have left with them the foundations of the walls: they have left with us the foundations of the Scriptures. We are departed forth from them, in the sight of men: they are departed from us, in the judgment of God. But now, after that the spiritual Church is gone forth, the bodily Church is left forsaken : that is to say, from the people which seemed to be a Christian people and was not, this people is gone forth, that seemed not outwardly, but was so indeed. Notwithstanding, as we said before, they have rather departed from us, than we from them.'

4. The identity of the Church of Rome with that of the Apostles, is acknowledged ; yet does not preclude the need of separation. “Even so, the moon, both in the full and in the wane, is all one moon. Even so, Jerusalem as well under David as under Manasses, was all one city. The holy place, whether the majesty of God or the abomination of Desolation stand in it, is all one place. The primitive Church, say you, "and the Church of Rome that now is, is all one Church.' Therefore, we say, the Church of Rome that now is, in truth and religion ought to agree with the primitive Church.

5. Numbers are no proof of right. The smallest of the separating bodies may have the truest claim to the character of the Church of Christ. IRENÆUS, JEROME, and a modern Romish production entitled Fortalitium Fidei, are quoted in attestation of this.- Defence, P. 500—504.]

[The aqueducts of ancient Rome, fourteen in number, one of which extended thirty-eight miles, were extraordinary monuments of industry and expense. They furnished to every part of the city a copious supply of water, brought in channels supported by vast piles of masonry from the neighbouring mountains. A learned and interesting work has been composed, treating of them alone.)

1 Jer. xiv. 3.

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water," saith Isaiah, “and there is none, and their tongue faileth for thirst,” u—Even so these men have broken in pieces all the pipes and conduits : they have stopped up all the springs, and choked up the fountain of living water with dirt and mire. And as Caligula, many years past, locked up fast all the garners and storehouses of corn in Rome, and thereby brought a general dearth and famine among the people ; even so these men, by damming up all the fountains of God's word, have brought the people into a pitiful thirst. They have brought into the world a hunger and a thirst, as saith the prophet Amos: “not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord:"' with great distress went they scattering about, seeking some spark of heavenly light to refresh their consciences withal; but that light was already thoroughly quenched out, so that they could find none. This was a rueful state. This was a lamentable form of God's Church. It was a misery to live therein, without the gospel, without light, and without all comfort.

Sect. 6. Wherefore, though our departing were a trouble to them, yet ought they to consider withal how just cause we had of our departure. For if they say, It is in nowise lawful for one to leave the fellowship wherein he hath been brought up; they may as well in our names, and upon our heads, likewise condemn the prophets, the Apostles, and Christ himself. For why complain they not also of this, that Lot went quite his way out of Sodom; Abram out of Chaldea ; the Israelites out of Egypt; Christ from the Jews; and Paul from the Pharisees? For except it be possible there may be a lawful cause of departing, we see no reason why Lot, Abram, the Israelites, Christ, and Paul may not be accused of sects and seditions as well as others.

Sect. 7. And if these men will needs condemn us for heretics, because we do not all things at their commandment; whom, in God's name, or what kind of men,

u Isa. xli, 17.
v Amos viii. 11.

VOL. III.-16

ought they themselves to be taken for, which despise the commandment of Christ, and of the Apostles? If we be schismatics because we have left them, by what name then shall be called themselves, which have forsaken the Greeks, from whom they first received their faith"-forsaken the primitive Church—forsaken CHRIST himself, and the Apostles—even as if children should forsake their parents? For though those Greeks who this day profess religion and the name of Christ, have many things corrupted amongst them, yet hold they still a great number of those things which they received from the Apostles. They have neither private masses,"

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["S. Augustin saith: "Terra Græcorum,' &c. 'The land of Greece, whence the faith unto all places was sent abroad. (Epist. 178.)—The bishops of the East wrote thus unto Julius (the First] the bishop of Rome : έκ τής έω ενεδήμησαν αυτοι όι του δόγματος εισηγητάι. “The preachers of Christian doctrine came from the East to the Church of Rome. (Soomen. Hist. Eccles. Lib. III. c. viii.) Likewise S. Basil saith: 'The gospel of the kingdom, springing up first in the Church of Greece, was thence pubëshed abroad unto all the world.' (In Epist. ad Episc. per ltal. et Gall.) The bishop of Bitonto, in your late Chapter at Trident [Council of Trent] uttered these words, as it may well appear with lusty courage: 'Eja igitur Græcia mater nostra, cui id totum debet quod habet Latina Ecclesia ! "O therefore, mother Greece, unto whom the Latin Church (or Church of Rome) is beholden for all that ever she hath. (Conc. Trid. Orat. Ep. Bitont.) -It is written in your own Councils : "Si Græci,' &c. 'If the Greeks by a certain division be sundered from the Latins, even so be the Latins sundered from the Greeks. And therefore it seemeth, if the Greeks in respect of this division ought to be called schismatics.' (Op. Tripartit, Lib. II. c. ii. in II. Tom. Concilior.)" Defence, p. 507, 508.)

(This assertion is met on the part of HARDING by a flat denial. "They have mass commonly,' says he, ' without company to communicate with the priest; which ye call private mass. So it is all Greece over: so it is in Asia, in Syria, in Assyria, in Armenia, &c., wheresoever the religion of Christ is professed: as among the Greeks in Venice I myself, and divers of our countrymen, have seen it commonly practised.

In reply, JEWELL 1. requires the proof of the sweeping assertion respecting · Asia,' &c.

2. He adduces in evidence the Oriental Liturgies as authorities allowed by the Romanists. From these, he says, “ye shall find that these self same masses were our Communions, and nothing like to your Masses : and that the holy sacraments, at the same, contrary to your new devices, were delivered generally in both kinds to all the people. St. James in his Mass saith thús: 'Diaconi, &c. "The deacons take up the dishes and the cups, to minister the sacrament unto the people. (Liturgia Jacobi.) S. Chrysostom in his Mass

nor mangled sacraments, norpurgatories,'nor pardons.

saith thus : 'Post mysteria,' &c. 'Afterward the holy mysteries (or sacraments) be brought unto the place where the people must receive together. (Lit. Chrysost.). S. Basil in his Mass saith thus: “Nos omnes,' &c. 'All we receiving of one bread, and one cup; &c.— The singers chant the Communion; and so they communicate all together.' (Lit. Basilii.)*— Therefore ye must needs confess, either that the Grecians this day use none of these Masses; or that their Masses are not your masses, but our communions; which both are contrary to yourself.—In the Armenian's Liturgy it is written thus : 'Qui non sunt,' &c. 'They that are not worthy to receive this oblation of God, let them go forth before the church door; and there let them pray.' (GEORGIUS CASSANDER in Liturgiis.)"

3. To this unexceptionable evidence JEWELL adds the explicit testimony of well informed individuals concerning the usages of the Greek and other Oriental Churches.--"Your great and special doctor Cardinal Bessarion, being himself a Greek born, saith thus : ‘Hoc ipse ordo,' &c. 'This the very oriler of the things required : first, that we should consecrate (or bless the bread); next, that we should break it ; last of all, that we should divide it (or deliver it to the people.) Which we (Grecians) do at this present day.' (De Sacr. Eucharistiæ. circ. ann. 1450.) Thus you see that the Grecians at this day consecrate, break, and divide the sacrament unto the people as we do. They receive it not privately to themselves alone, the people standing by, and gazing on them, as you do.-MATTHIAS ILLYRICUS, being himself born in Dalmatia, not far from the confines or borders of Greece, and therefore, as it may be thought, the better acquainted with their orders, saith thus: 'Ecclesia Græca, eique conjunctæ,' &c. "The Church of Greece, and the Churches of Asia, Macedonia, Mysia, Wallachia, Russia, Muscovy, and Africa, joined thereunto; that is to say, in a manner the whole world, or at least, the greatest part thereof, never by common consent allowed the supremacy of the Pope ; never approved of Purgatory, or of private masses ; or of the communion under one kind. ( Test. Veritatis. p. 5.)”.

4. He adduces facts in corroboration of these statements : the celebration of the communion after the manner of the Greeks at the opening of the Council of Ferrara, at which the Marquis and citizens of Ferrara ‘more Græcoruni' received from the Patriarch; (Conc. Ferrarien. in Prosern.) and the practice of the Greeks as vouched by PeTRUS URBERETANUS, and DURANDUS, two writers of approved authority with the Church of Rome.

5. In reply to HARDING's instance of the Greek Church in Venice, he observes: "Touching the Grecians that live now in Venice, what order they use there, I cannot tell. Notwithstanding, as I have heard say, private mass they have not. But if they have, living under the Pope's jurisdiction, it is no marvel. Certain it is, that Venice is no part of Greece." Defence, p. 509, 510, 511.]

9 HARDING objects, that prayer for the dead being in use in the Oriental Churches, is proof that they maintain the doctrire of purga

{* of the Liturgies here cited by JEWELL, it is acknowledged by all that the one bearing the name of 8. James is a spurious production of the fifth or sixth cen.

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