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And as for the titles of high bishops, and those glorious names, they esteem them so, as whosoever he were that would take upon him the same, and would be called either Universal Bishop, or the Head of the Universal Church, they make no doubt to call such an one both a passing proud man, and a man that worketh despite against all the other bishops his brethren, and a plain heretic.
tory. JEWELL answers: "For aught that I can see, prayer for the dead, and your fancy of purgatory, were never so straitly coupled together, but that they might well and easily go asunder. The Greeks as they pray for the dead, so do they pray for the Apostles, for the Patriarchs, for the Prophets, and for the blessed Virgin our Lady: as you may soon perceive by S. Basil's and S. Chrysoston's Liturgy. Yet I think ye would not have your reader believe, as an article of your faith, that the Apostles of Christ, the Patriarchs, the Prophets, and the Blessed Virgin, Christ's mother, are still in purgatory! Whatsoever other opinion the Greeks have of the dead, certain it is, they could never yet be brought to believe your purgatory. ROFFENsis, one of your greatest doctors, saith thus : 'Purgatorium,' &c. 'The Greeks, to this day, believe not in purgatory (Polyd. Virgilio De Invent. Rerum. Lib. VIII. c. i.)" Defence, p. 509.]
? [The agreement or disagreement of the Greek and other Oriental Churches with that of Rome, has been a question fruitful in wordy controversy, on which much labour has been spent in vain both by Romanists and Protestants. As early as the beginning of the fifteenth century an attempt was made to heal the Churches of the East and West. A Council
, purporting to be General, was called for this purpose by Pope Eugenius IV., and held first at Ferrara, and afteward at Florence, with much pomp and solemnity ; the Emperor and Patriarch of Constantinople, with a great number of the Greek clergy, being present. A pretended union was agreed upon, but dissolved by the clamorous dissent of the whole Eastern Church, almost as soon as the Council had dispersed.
The Reformers made several attempts to procure the sanction of the Greek Church for their formularies of belief; but always without
In the seventeenth century, it became an object with the Church of
tury, as internal evidence abundantly shows. It was then in use in the Church of Jerusalem. Although the greater part of the Liturgy is certainly the production of those later ages, it is by no means improbable that it embodies fragments of services used even in the Apostles' days, and possibly the production of the Apostle whose name it bears. The Liturgy of James is now used only once a year by the Greek Church in Jerusalem.
The Liturgy of Basil is an abridgment of the early services of the Eastern Church, made by Basil, surnamed the Great, (A. D. 370.) It is used by the Greek Church on ten particular festivals in the course of the year.
The Liturgy of Chrysostom is a still further abridgment made from that of Ba. sil, by CHRYSOSTOM, (A. D. 398.) It is the form yet in ordinary use among the Greeks. BEYBL, quotes only the Latin translation of these Liturgies. They were published in the original Greek, with a Latin version, by MOREL, at Paris, in 1560.1
Sect. 8. Now then, since it is manifest, and out of all peradventure, that these men are fallen from the Greeks, of whom they received the gospel, of whom
Rome, conniving at the independence and difference of discipline of the Oriental Churches, to obtain their sanction for the controverted articles of its faith and practice. Several eminently learned writers were employed to prove, both to those Churches themselves, and to the world, that, properly understood, their opinions harmonized entirely with the dogmas of Rome. Intrigues of the most disgraceful character, were carried on in Constantinople and the East, to silence the remonstrants against what many of the Greeks, notwithstanding the prevailing ignorance and superstition, still perceived to be essential corruptions of Christianity, and to procure expressions of conformity on those points with the Romish tenets. The mediation of the civil powers was even resorted to, and the French ambassador at Constantinople undertook the singular task of procuring theological opinions favourable to his master's faith, from the Greek divines. On the other hand, the envoys of England and Holland were not backward in endeavouring to secure testimonials of an opposite character : and for some time the Turks might witness, if they thought the subject worth attention, a sort of scuffle between the rival sects of Western Christians for the suffrages of their Eastern brethren.
It would require a volume, rather than a brief note, to give the historical details of this controversy relative to the opinions of the Greek Church. The question itself has already fruitlessly occupied many volumes.
The truth is, the Greek Church is little less corrupt than that of Rome. Its corruptions in some points are identical with those of the latter ; in many similar; in many altogether different; and in some directly at variance. Transubstantiation has never been defined as the belief of the Greek Church, as a body: but it has been asserted in some of the confessions procured from distinguished members of that Church, and is obscurely held perhaps by a majority of its members. The Papal supremacy, as might easily be anticipated, has never been allowed by the Greek Church, although at intervals the fraud or violence of Rome has extorted admissions, which have invariably been retracted and fiercely disavowed by the body of the Church. Purgatory is not an acknowledged doctrine of the Greek Church : yet is held by many of its members. The Romish corruptions of the administration of the Eucharist, are not, it is true, in practice among the Greeks : but it is because others, scarcely less enormous, have prevailed, and are adhered to with the most superstitious veneration. Indulgences, and all their attendant train of enormities, with masses for the dead, are wholly unknown to the Greek Church. But, on the other hand, the monastic system, image worship, and the intercession of the saints, are even more rifo among them than among the Romanists. As for titles, their chief Patriarch, it is true, does not arrogate to himself the universal bishopric, or vicarage of Christ on carth : but for highsounding epithets of reverence and honour-for disgusting obsequiousness in the lower orders of the clergy, and unchristian assumptions of they received the faith, the true religion, and their Church itself; what is the matter, why they will not now be called home again to the same men—as it were, to their originals and first founders ? And why be they afraid to take a pattern of the Apostles' and old fathers' times, as though they all had been void of understanding? Do these men, ween ye, see more, or set more by the Church of God, than they did, who first delivered us these things?
Sect. 9. Indeed, we have renounced that Church, wherein we could neither have the word of God sincerely taught, nor the sacraments rightly administered, nor the name of God duly called upon : which Church also themselves confess to be faulty in many points ; and wherein was nothing able to stay any wise man, or one that hath consideration of his own safety. To conclude, we have forsaken the Church as it is now, not as it was in old times past; and have so gone from it, as Daniel went out of the lions' den, and the Three Children out of the furnace : and, to say the truth, we have been cast out by these men, (being cursed of them, as proud superiority by their dignitaries, they are, if any thing, worse than Rome itself.
It is hard to strike the balance between accounts so charged with evil on either side. It is certainly unsafe to appeal to either party in evidence against the other. For centuries the East and the West have been diverging from primitive truth and order, by widely differing roads: the point of departure lies almost equally remote from both.]
[“ Ye have excommunicate us, and put us from you. So did certain of your predecessors and fathers excommunicate Christ and his Apostles. (John ix. 22, 24, 34. xii. 42. xvi. 2.) So did Diotrephes, that first claimed your Papal primacy, excommunicate the faithful of Christ, that were the first planters of the gospel. (3 John 10.)--But the Pope himself saith, 'Excommunicatus non potest excommunicare:'
He that is excommunicate himself, hath no right or power to excommunicate others.' (XXIV. Quæst. 1.) And in your own law it is written thus : 'Qui illicite alium excommunicat, seipsum, non illum, condemnat :' He that unlawfully excommunicateth another
, condemneth not him, but himself.: (XXIV. Quæst. 3. Comperimus rubri.) S. AUGUSTINE saith : 'Quid obest,' &c. What is a man the worse, if the ignorance of man strike him out of the book of the Church, if ill conscience strike him not out of the book of life ? (Ad Cler. Hippon. cited in the Canon Law, XI. Quæst. 3. Quid obest.) In this case, S. AUGUSTINE saith, it cometh sometimes to pass, that 'Plurimæ sint foris oves ; et plurimi sint intus lupi :', there be many sheep excluded, and many wolves within.' (In Johan. Tractat. 45.)” Defence, p. 512.]
they use to say, 'with book, bell, and candle,'') rather than have gone away from them of ourselves.
And we are come to that Church, wherein they themselves cannot deny, (if they will say truly, and as they think in their own conscience,) but all things be governed purely and reverently, and as much as we possibly could, very near to the order used in old times.
Sect. 10. Let them compare our churches and theirs together, and they shall see, that themselves have most shamefully gone from the Apostles, and we most justly have gone from them.
For we, following the example of Christ, of the Apostles, and the holy fathers, give the people the holy Communion, whole and perfect.—But these men, contrary to all the fathers, to all the Apostles, and contrary to Christ himself, do sever the sacraments, and pluck away the one part from the people; and that with most notorious ó sacrilege,' as GELasius termeth it.
We have brought again the LORD's Supper unto CHRIST's institution, and have made it a communion in very deed, common and indifferent to a great number, according to the name. For of that it is called a "Communion."-But these men have changed all things, contrary to CHRIST's institution, and have made a private mass of the holy Communion. And so it cometh to pass, that we give the Lord's Supper to the people, and they give them a vain pageant to gaze upon.
We affirm, together with the ancient fathers, that the body of Christ is not eaten but of the good and faithful, and those that are endued with the SPIRIT of CHRIST.C
• [This saying is derived from the usages of the Church of Rome ; according to which the sentence of greater excommunication is pronounced by the priest from his book, according to the prescribed form ; with the tinkling of a little bell; and the extinction of a candle, by dashing it upon the ground, to figure the extinction of the person excommunicated. Cursed with bell, book, and candle,' then, means, excommunicated with all due form.]
["But S. Paul saith : Whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the LORD, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.' (1 Cor. xi. 27.) And what will you conclude hereof, M. Harding ? Even so AUGUSTINE writeth of the water of baptism : Baptismus valet, aliis ad regnum; aliis ad judicium.' 'Baptism is available, to some unto the kingdom of God; to some unto judgment.' (Cont. Crescon. Lib. I. c. xxiii.)—Yet ye express the matter further.
Their doctrine is, that Christ's very body, effectually, and, 'as they speak, really and substantially, may not
S. Paul saith : 'Whosoever shall eat and drink unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of CHRIST: Ergo, say you, ‘CHRIST'S body and blood must needs be really present. Here, M. Harding, it were a worthy matter to see by what engines ye would prove these hasty conclusions, or how ye would force this guilt and this presence to go together. For think you that no man can be guilty of the body and blood of Christ, but he that hath Christ's body and blood really present in his hand ? Verily, S. AUGUSTINE saith : 'Reus erit,' &c. * He is guilty of no small price, but even of the blood of Christ, that (by fornication or adultery) defileth his own soul, that was made clean by the passion and blood of CHRIST. (De Tempore. Serm. 20.) Yet bath he not therefore Christ's blood really present !--ATHANASIUS saith : ‘Worshipping our Lord, and not living so as is meet for our LORD, they feel not, that thereby they are made guilty of our LORD'S death. (De Pass. et Cruce Domini.) So saith God by the prophet Ezekiel: I will require the blood of the people at thine hand : (Ezek. - Ixxiii. 6, 8.) and Christ saith: "The blood of all the prophets-shall be required of this generation.' (Luke xi. 50.) This guilt, may well stand without any real presence of the blood, either of Christ, or of the prophets. Ye may well be guilty of Christ's and the prophets' blood, notwithstanding ye have neither the one nor the other really present in your hand.
* This, therefore, is St. Paul's meaning; that the wicked, resorting unworthily to the holy mysteries, and having no regard what is meant thereby, despise the death and cross of Christ, and therefore are guilty of the Lord's body and blood, that are represented in the Sacrament. CHRYSOSTOM saith, (as he is alleged in the Second Council of Nice, Act. 6.) 'He that defileth the emperor's image, is injurious to the majesty of the emperor's person, that is pourtrayed in the image.' S. CYPRIAN saith : 'Impiis in morte,' &c. “The wicked have no gain by the death of Christ : but the benefits that they have despised, do most justly condemn them.' (De Ablutione Pedum.) To come near to the purpose, S. AUGUSTINE saith: 'Habent foris sacramentum corporis CHRISTI: sed rem ipsam non tenent intus, cujus est illud sacramentum: Et ideo sibi judicium manducant et bibunt.' 'Outwardly they have the sacrament of Christ's body : but the thing itself (which is CHRIST's body) represented by the sacrament, inwardly (in their hearts) they have not. And therefore they eat and drink their own judgment. (Ad Bonifac. Ep. 50.) Again he saith : 'Qui non manet in CHRISTO,' &c. Whoso abideth not in CHRIST, nor Christ in him, out of doubt he eateth not spiritually his flesh, nor drinketh his blood; notwithstanding carnally (that is to say, with the bodily mouth) and visibly he do press with his teeth the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ : but rather he eateth and drinketh (not Christ's very body and blood, but) the sacrament of so great a thing unto his judgment.' (In Johan. Tractat. 26.) These words be so plain, that I cannot imagine what ye should more desire. They are guilty of the blood of CHRIST, for that they despise the price wherewith they were saved; not for that they receive it really into their mouths.” Defence, p. 514,515.
Other passages adduced here by JEWELL are cited from a former part of his Defence, in Note b, page 50.]