Sect. 7. The Ministry. Furthermore, we believe that there be divers degrees of ministers in the Church: whereof some be Deacons, some Priests, some Bishops; to whom is committed the office to instruct the people, and the whole charge and setting forth of religion.

Yet notwithstanding, we say that there neither is, nor can be, any one man which may have the whole superiority in this universal state ; for that Christ is ever present to assist his Church, and needeth not any man to supply his room, as his only heir to all his substance : and that there can be no one mortal creature which is able to comprehend, or conceive in his mind, the universal Church - that is, to wit, all the parts of the world ; much less able rightly and duly to put them in order, and to govern them.”

For “ all the apostles," as St. CYPRIAN saith, of like power among themselves, and the rest were the same that Peter was. And that it was said indiffer


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x ["But for the unity and quiet government of the Church, St. Paul saith, Christ ascending above all heavens, hath given-not one universal Pope to rule the whole, but—some apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ : till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man.' Ephes. iv. 11, 12, 13. By these means God thought it sufficient to preserve his Church in unity, and never made mention of one Universal Pope.

Therefore ST. CYPRIAN saith, "Unus est episcopatus, cujus a singulis in solidum pars tenetur.'—' There is but one bishopric; part whereof of every several bishop is holden in whole.' (De Simplicitate Prælator.) And again, 'Ideo plures sunt in Ecclesia sacerdotes, ut, uno hæresim faciente, cæteri subveniant.'—'Therefore are there many bishops in the Church, that if one fall into heresy, the rest may help.' (Epist. 13. Lib. III.) Thus, when Peter walked not uprightly to the gospel, Paul came with help, and reproved him openly, even to his face,: (Gal. ii.) thus IRENÆUS reproved Pope Victor: thus sundry godly fathers have reproved others."--Defenee, p. 93, 94.]

" ["ST. GREGORY said sometime to John, the bishop of Constantinople, claiming unto himself the same title, [of Universal Bishop) and thinking himself able enough to rule the whole: 'Quid tu Christo, universalis Ecclesiæ Capiti, in extremi judicii responsurus es examine, qui cuncta ejus membra tibimet conaris Universalis appellatione supponere ?— What answer wilt thou make, in the trial of the last judgment, unto Christ the Head of his universal Church; that thou by the name of Universal Bishop seekest to bring under thee all the members of his body?Defence, p. 94.]

3 "Hoc erant utique et cæteri Apostoli, quod fuit Petrus, pari con

ently to them all, Feed ye;' indifferently to them all, • Go into the whole world ;' indifferently to them all, • Teach ye the gospel.'a And as ST. JEROME saith, “ All bishops, wheresoever they be, be they at Rome, be they at Eugubium, be they at Constantinople, be they at Rhegium, be all of like pre-eminence, and of like priesthood.” And as CYPRIAN saith, “ there is but one bishopric, and a piece thereof is perfectly and wholly holden of every particular bishop."

And, according to the judgment of the Nicene Council, we say, that the Bishop of Rome hath no more jurisdiction over the Church of God than the rest of the Patriarchs, either of Alexandria, or of Antioch, have.d

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sortio præditi et honoris et potestatis.”—CYPRIAN. De Simplicitate Prælatorum.

(CYPRIAN was born at Carthage, of heathen parents, about the beginning of the third century. His conversion to Christianity did not take place until A. D. 246. Previously to that event he had taught rhetoric in Carthage, with much success. His reputation, and some treatises which he published in defence of Christianity, procured him ordination to the priesthood within a few months from his baptism; and on the death of the Bishop of Carthage, in 218, Cyprian was chosen his successor. His discharge of that office was rendered peculiarly difficult by the persecution under the emperor Decius, which began in 249, and by several disputes which agitated the Church about that time. In particular, the questions, whether persons baptized by heretics were to receive that sacrament again ; and whether Christians who had renounced their faith to avoid persecution were to be re-admitted; occupied much of his attention, and gave occasion to most of his writings.

Cyprian was beheaded in the persecution under Valerian, in the year 258. His works consist of a number of letters, and several small treatises. They are principally valuable on account of the light which they throw upon the ministry and government of the Church in that age.]

John xx. 21; 22, 23. Mark xvi. 15. b "Ubicunque fuerit episcopus, sive Eugubii, șive Constantinopolis, sive Alexandria, sive Tanai, ejusdem meriti, ejusdem est sacerdotii.” Hieron. Epist. ad Eragrium. [Eugubium, now Eugubio, or Gubio, is a small town in Urbino, in Italy; the seat of a bishopric. It is named by JEROME on account of its diminutive size as an episcopal see, compared with that of Rome.] CYPRIANUS de Simplicitate Prælatorum ; as quoted above.

Sixth Canon of the Council of Nice. [" The sense is this : the whole body of Christendom was divided into four Patriarchships ; whereof the first was Rome; [i. e. it was allowed to be the first in rank and dignity, because that city was esteemed the most ancient and greatest in the world ;] the second Alexandria ; the third Antioch; the fourth Jerusalem. And each of these was limited and bounded


And as for the Bishop of Rome, who now calleth all matters before himself alone; except he do his duty as he ought to do, except he minister the sacraments, except he instruct the people, except he warn them, and teach them, we say that he ought not of right once to be called a Bishop, or so much as an Elder. For

a Bishop,” as saith St. AUGUSTINE, “is a name of labour, and not of honour :"e that the man that seeketh 'to have pre-eminence, and not to profit, may understand himself to be no bishop.

And that neither the Pope, nor any other worldly creature, can no more be head of the whole Church, or a bishop over all, than he can be the · Bridegroom, the · Light,' the • Salvation,' and · Life,' of the Church. For these privileges and names belong only to CHRIST, and be properly and only fit for him alone.

And that no Bishop of Rome did ever suffer himself to be called by such a proud name and title, before Phocas the emperor's time, (who, as we know, by killing his own sovereign Maurice, the emperor, did by a traitorous villany aspire to the empire,) which was about

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within itself: Alexandria to have the oversight over Egypt and Pentapolis ; Antioch over Syria ; Jerusalem over Jewry; Rome over Italy, and other Churches of the West.”Defence, p. 109.]

e "Episcopus nomen est operis, non honoris.” August. in 1 Tim. iii. 1.

[JEWELL quotes CHRYSOSTOM, AMBROSE and GREGORY, to the same effect; and then, to justify himself against the charge of nullifying ministerial orders, goes on : " Yet notwithstanding let him be so called equivoce, that is, by a word of double meaning; as unsavoury salt is called salt ; or as the prophets of Baal are called prophets ; or as a painted man is called a man: and as St. Gregory saith, 'Let him in words be called a priest, although indeed he be no priest.' Let him be called a teacher, although he teach not. Let'him be called a feeder, although he feed not.”-

!--Defence, p. 111.] f["That the old learned and godly bishops of Rome refused this name [of Universal Bishop) as proud and arrogant, it is so plain by St. GREGORY, that I marvel any learned man would call it in question. His words thereof be these : Nullus decessorum meorum hoc tam profano vocabulo uti consensit: nullus Romanorum pontificorum hoc singularitatis nomen assumpsit: nos hunc honorem nolumus oblatum suscipere.'—'None of my predecessors, bishops of Rome, ever consented to use this ungodly name; no bishop of Rome ever took upon him this name of singularity : we, the bishop of Rome, will not receive this honour. being offered unto us.' GREGOR. Lib. IV. Ep. 32. et 36."Defence, p. 112.]

the six hundred and thirteenth year after Christ was born.

Also the Council of Carthage did circumspectly provide, that no bishop should be called either the Highest Bishop, or Chief Priest.h

And therefore, since the Bishop of Rome will now-adays so be called, and challengeth unto himself an authority that is none of his : besides that he doth plainly contrary to the ancient councils, and contrary to the old fathers; we believe that he doth give to himself, as it is written by his own companion, GREGORY, “ sumptuous, a profane, a sacrilegious, and an antichristian name;" that he is also “ the king of pride;" that he is “Lucifer, which preferreth himself before his brethren;" that he “ hath forsaken the faith, and is the forerunner of Antichrist."

a pre

[Maurice, in consequence of his avarice, incurred the hatred of the soldiery, who rose in mutiny, so that he was obliged to fly to Chalcedon. During his residence there, he was murdered, with his wife, his children, and every branch of his family, by the centurion Phocas, who was raised by the mutinous army to the imperial rank. At that time, John, bishop of Constantinople, claimed the title of Universal Bishop, but was vehemently opposed by Pelagius II. the bishop of Rome, who issued counter decrees, declaring his pretensions void. Gregory the First, successor of Pelagius, continued his opposition to John, and in the Council of Chalcedon claimed the title in dispute, as having belonged to his own predecessors, though waived by them in courtesy: Gregory had urged the emperor Maurice to prevent the assumption of the title “Universal Bishop" by John of Constantinople. Boniface III. a successor of Gregory, by repeated and urgent entreaties, obtained a rescript of the usurper Phocas, conferring it on himself.]

h [Conc. Carthag. Tert. Can. 26. "Primæ sedis episcopus non appelletur Princeps Sacerdotum, vel Summus Sacerdos, vel aliquid, hujusmodi : sed tantum primæ sedis episcopus.' To which, in GRATIAN's Decret. Distinct. 99. Prima, is added, “Universalis autem nec etiam Romanus Pontifex appelletur.'--'Let not even the Bishop of Rome be called Universal Bishop.'"-Defence, p. 114.]

i {"Pope CLEMENT saith, Omnes subjecta sunt motioni Papæ : et sunt in illo, quasi membra de membro -'All men are subject to the Pope's will, and are in him, as members of a member.' Lib. V. de Hæreticis. Ad vestrum. Another saith, 'Papa est ordinarius totius mundi.? — The Pope is the ordinary, or bishop, of the whole world.' De Major. et Obedient. Unam Sanctam. And therefore Pope Boni. FACE VIII. hath concluded by solemn sentence, “That every creature must submit itself unto the Bishop of Rome, upon the pain of ever. lasting damnation.' "_Defence, p. 117.] * GREGOR. Lib. IV. Ep. 76. 78. 80. Lib. VII. Epist. 69.


Sect. 8. Orders.-Further we say, that the Minister ought lawfully, duly, and orderly to be preferred to that office of the Church of God, and that no man hath power to wrest himself in the holy ministry at his own pleasure. Wherefore these persons do us the greater wrong, which have nothing so common in their mouths as that we do nothing orderly and comely," but all things

? "No man shall be accounted or taken to be a lawful Bishop, Priest, or Deacon, in this Church, or suffered to execute any of the said functions, except he be called, tried, and examined, and admitted thereunto, according to the form hereafter following, or hath had Episcopal Consecration or Ordination.” Preface to the Ordinal.]

m [Jewell refers here, doubtless, to the mode of conferring ministerial authority, as he had, in the word 'lawfully' to the source of such authority. On this subject he adds: “We deny not the consecration of three bishops [the need of three bishops to consecrate regularly.) We deny not the confirmation [of their act by the assent] of the Metropolitan. We ourselves are so consecrated, and so confirmed." Defence, p. 125. "Our bishops are made, in form and order, as they have been ever, by the election of the chapter ;* by consecration of the Archbishop and other three bishops; and by the admission of the Prince.Defence, p. 131. “To be short, we succeed the bishops that have been before our days. We are elected, consecrated, confirmed, and admitted, as they were. If they were deceived in anything, we succeed them in place, but not in error." Defence, p. 132.

n"[The first promulgators of the 'new doctrines’ (as those of the reformation were then styled) had held very loose opinions with regard to the ministerial office and character, and had thus afforded considerable ground for such outcries on the part of their adversaries. Nothing is more common in the writings which came out in the first dawn of the reformation, than to accompany invectives against the corruptions of the clergy with the declaration that they wholly destroyed the ministerial character ; and entire independence of the ministry-making the very being of the Church to consist wholly in purity of doctrine-is not unseldom insinuated in very unguarded language. Traces of these notions are occasionally discoverable in the Defence of JEWELL himself, notwithstanding that the xxvith and xixth Articles, already adopted, are so explicitly contrary. It is not to be wondered, then, that the Romanists should exclaim against the disorderly principles of their opponents, however little such imputations were deserved by

The clergy of the cathedral church, convened for the choice of a bishop. The Chapter consists of a Dean, who is its head, and a certain number of Prebendaries (as they are styled in some churches) or Canons, as they are termed in others. These, let it be remembered, are merely names of office, not as sometimes erroneously represented, of orders in the ministry. The Chapter is an assembly of Presbyters, who convene for the election of their Bishop; the dean, and the prebendaries or canons, are in every respect equal in ministerial character and functions; they are presbyters, and nothing more.

The election of a bishop by the Chapter, in the Church of England, is now little more than a form. The king sends to the Chapter a conge d'elire or "leave to elect" some individual who is named in the instrument; and that individual is chosen accordingly. The subsequent steps are still the same as described by Jewell.

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