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ecclesiastical discipline.

**** We do not suffer such as Aloysius, Casa, and Diaz, to escape unpunished. For if these things would have pleased us, we needed not to have departed from these men's fellowship, amongst whom such enormities be in their chief pride and price ; neither needed we, for leaving them, to run into the hatred of men, and into most wilful dangers.

Paul the Fourth, not many months since, had at Rome in prison certain Augustin friars, many bishops, and a great number of other devout men, for religion's sake. He racked them, and tormented them: to make them confess, he left no means unassayed. But in the end how many whoremongers, how many adulterers, how many incestuous persons, could he find of all those? Our God be thanked, although we be not the men we ought and profess to be, yet whosoever and whatsoever we be, compare us with these men, and even our own life and innocency will soon prove untrue, and condemn, their malicious surmises. For we exhort the people to all virtue and well-doing, not only by books and preachings, but also by our examples and behaviour. We also teach that the gospel is not a boasting or bragging of knowledge, but that it is the law of life, and that a Christian man, as TERTULLIAN saith, ought not to speak honourably, but to live honourably:" nor they that be the hearers of the law, but the doers of the law. which are justified before God.k

Sect. 6. Beside all these matters, wherewith they charge us, they are wont also to add this one thing, which they enlarge with all kind of spite : that is, that we be men of trouble—that we pluck the sword and sceptre out of kings' hands—that we arm the people, that we overthrow judgment places, destroy the laws, make havoc of possessions, seek to make the people princes, turn all things upside down; and, to be short, that we would have nothing in good frame in a com. monwealth.' Good LORD! how often have they set on

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i (JEWELL's margin refers to TERTULLIAN. Apologet. 45. The passage in the text is not to be found there. It is not a quotation from TERTULLIAN, but a summary of what he says in the chapter to which reference is made.) * Rom. ii. 13.

[In justification of these charges, Harding alleged the revolt of the

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fire princes' hearts with these words, to the end they might quench the light of the gospel in the very first

boors in Germany; the league of the German princes against Charles V.; the Anabaptist war; the revolt of part of Switzerland from the Duke of Savoy; and John Knox's famous book, 'The first Blast of the Trumpet against the monstrous Regiment (government] of Women.' To these instances JEWELL makes answer:

“The boors of Germany, for the greatest part, were adversaries unto Dr. LUTHER, and understood no part of the gospel : but conspired together, as they said, only against the cruelty and tyranny of their lords ; as they had done two and twenty years before, in the same country, in the conspiracy called Liga Sotularia, fifteen years before Dr. LUTHER began to preach--the partners of which conspiracy had for their watchword the name of Our Lady,' and in the honour of her were bound to say fire' Ave Marias' every day. Certainly, touching these later rebels, it is known that Luther sharply and vehemently wrote against them. And they themselves, being demanded thereof, utterly denied both the partaking, and also the knowledge of the gospel.

“The princes of Germany raised not their powers, as ye say, against the emperor Charles the Fifth; but being wrongfully and contrary to the law of arins invaded by him, they were forced, being free princes, by the law of nature, to draw their sword in their own defence.

“ The rebels at Munster were not Gospellers, but frantic Anabaptists, and heretics, as ye be; and therefore, enemies to the gospel.

“The Lords of Berne were never subjects to the Duke of Savoy. That they took certain of his castles in their confines, they did it rightly, and by the law of arms, being forced thereto by daily invasions and robberies, and not able otherwise to live in rest. But indeed the said poor Duke was utterly spoiled of his whole dominion-of the one half, by his brother-in-law the emperor Charles V.; of the other half, by his nephew Francis, the French king--by the counsel of Pope Clement VII. after their great interview at Marseilles. And thereof was devised a pretty Pasquil, declaring the miserable case of the poor Duke, 'Diviserunt sibi vestimenta mea; et super vestem meam miserunt sortem.'* They have divided my vesture among them; and concerning my garments they did cast lots.'

“The heads of England and Scotland,' that, as ye say, 'were laid together at Geneva, touching the government of women, being well accounted, were nothing so many as ye would seem to imagine. For if there had been but one less, for aught that I have heard, there had been but one at all. Such hot amplifications it liketh you to make of so small a number. We will defend no man in his error. man bear his own guilt. M. Calvin, M. MARTYR, M. Musculus, M. Bullinger, and others, whom you call the faithful brothers of England, misliked that enterprize, and wrote against it.” Defence, p: 359.

JEWELL'S facts are rrect. Yet it would have been hard for him to show that the principles of the Reformation were not adapted to create . disturbance to the despotic governments which then prevailed, almost

without exception, throughout the world. And it would be still more vifficult, at the present day, to disprove the assertion, that to the Reformation, under the providence of God, we owe all those blessings of civil and religious liberty which are now so widely extended, and 60

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appearing of it, and that men might begin to hate the same, ere ever they were able to know it, and to the end that every magistrate might think he saw his deadly enemy, as oft as he saw any of us !

Surely it should exceedingly grieve us, to be so maliciously accused of most heinous treason, unless we knew that Christ himself, the Apostles, and a number of good Christian men, were in times past blamed and reviled in like sort. For although CHRIST taught they should “ render unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's," yet was he charged with sedition, and was accused to devise some conspiracy, and seek ways to get the king. dom. And thereupon they cried out with open mouth against him in the place of judgment, “If thou let this man go, thou art not Cæsar's friend.”p

And though the Apostles did likewise evermore and steadfastly teach that magistrates ought to be obeyed—that “every soul” ought to be subject unto the higher powers"_"not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake;"9 yet bare they the name to disquiet the people, and to stir up the multitude to rebel.r After this sort did Haman, specially, bring the nation of the Jews into the hatred of king Ahasuerus, because, said he, they were a rebellious and stubborn people, and despised the ordinances and commandments of princes.* Wicked king Ahab said to Elisha the prophet of God, “ Art thou he that troubleth Israel ?"" Amaziah the priest at Bethel laid a conspiracy to the prophet Amos' charge before king Jeroboam, saying, “ Amos hath conspired against thee in the midst of the house of Israel."!! To be brief, TERTULLIAN saith this was the general accusation of all Christians while he lived, that they were traitors—that they were rebels, and the enemies of mankind ! - Where

rapidly spreading, throughout the world. That its tendency should be to produce these results even at the expense of temporary commotion, will be deemed an objection by few thinking men.]

m (Jewell refers, in his margin, to TERTULLIAN, Apologetic, chap. 1, 2, 3 ; meaning to compare the slanderous accusations of the Romanists against the Protestants with the similar charges brought against the early Christians.] n Matt. xxii. 21.

u Luke xxii. 2. p John xix. 12.

9 Rom. xiï. 1, 5. r Acts xvi. 20; xvii. 6, 7. s Esther iii. 8, 9. · I Kings xviii. 17.

W Amos vii. 10. » TERTULLIAN. Apologet. c. xxxvii.

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fore, if now-a-days the truth be likewise evil spoken of, and being the same truth it was then, if it be now like despitefully used, as it was in times past; though it be a grievous and unkind dealing, yet can it not seem unto us a new, or an unwonted matter.

Sect. 7. Forty years ago, and upward, it was an easy thing for them to devise against us these accursed speeches, and other too, sorer than these ; when in the midst of the darkness of that age first began to spring, and to give shine, some one glimmering beam of truth, unknown at that time, and unheard of; when also MARTIN LUTHER and Ulric ZUINGLÉ, being most excellent men, even sent of God to give light to the whole world, first came unto the knowledge and preaching of the gospel; when as yet the thing was but new, and the success thereof uncertain ; and when men's minds stood doubtful and amazed, and their ears open to all slanderous tales; and when there could be imagined against us no fact so detestable, but the people then would soon believe it, for the novelty and strangeness of the matter. For so did SYMMACHUS, so did Celsus,* so did JULIAN,so did

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(A Roman senator of the fourth century, who distinguished himselfl. his endeavours to maintain the tottering superstitions of Paganism against the emperors Valentinian and Theodosius. His eloquence, which had raised him to great eminence, was zealously exerted, in an embassy to Valentinian, and subsequently in a petition to Theodosius, for the restoration of an altar tu the goddess of Victory; but without success. He was subsequently made Consul, in 391 ]

* (A heathen philosopher of the Epicurean sect, who wrote against the Christian religion in the second century. Little more is known of him than his name; and that, with some fragments of his book against Christianity, principally through the answer of Origen.]

[JULIAN, surnamed, from his desertion of Christianity, in which he was educated, the Apostate, succeeded Constantius in the Roman empire, in 361. His reign, which lasted only fifteen months, was spent in un. ceasing efforts to subvert the religion of Christ. Too cunning to direct against open persecution, Julian employed every insidious art to doprive the Christians of their influence, their learning, their wealth, and their religious liberty. He encouraged tumultuous risings among the Pagans, who were yet numerous, and availed himself of the slightest pretext to deprive the Christians of their churches and endowments. His letters breathe the most irreconcilable hatred to the Galiceans, as he termed them, and a firm determination utterly to destroy their faith. To this end he composed the work against the Christians, to which Jewell refers. Only some fragments of it are now extant, preserved in the answer of Cyril of Jerusalem.

Vol. III.-9

PORPHYRY,' the old foes to the gospel, attempt in times past to accuse all Christians of sedition and treason ; before that either prince or people were able to know who those Christians were, what they professed, what they believed, or what was their meaning.

But now, since our very enemies do see, and cannot deny, but we even in all our words and writings have diligently put the people in mind of their duty to obey their princes and magistrates, yea, though they be wicked ; (for this doth very trial and experience sufficiently teach, and all men's eyes, whosoever and wheresoever they be, do well see and witness for us ;) it was a foul part of them to charge us with these things : and seeing they could find no new and late faults, therefore to seek to procure us envy only with stale and outworn lies. We give our LORD God thanks, (whose only cause this is,) there hath yet at no time been any such example in all the realms, dominions, and commonwealths, which have received the gospel.

For we have overthrown no kingdom: we have decayed no man's power or right: we have disordered no commonwealth. There continue in their own accustomed state, and ancient dignity, the kings of our country of England, the kings of Denmark, the kings of Sweden, the dukes of Saxony, the Counties Palatine, the Marquesses of Brandenburgh, the Landgraves of Hesse, the commonwealth of the Hel. vetians and Rhetians, [the upper and lower Swiss cantons,] and the free cities, as Strasburgh, Basle, Frankfort, Ulm, Augsburgh, and Nuremberg; these do all, I say, abide in the same authority and estate wherein they have been heretofore; or rather in a much better,

JULIAN's abortive attempt to rebuild the temple at Jerusalem was another specimen of his hostility to Christianity, which made him willing even to employ the aid of the Jews, whose faith was equally hostile to his own. See Standard Works, Vol. I. P.

He died, in a war against Persia, in 362.]

3 [Porrhyry, a heathen philosopher belonging to the school of the later Platonists, acquired great celebrity as a teacher of the opinions of that sect, and of polite literature, in the third century. He was born at Tyre in 233, studied under Longinus at Athens, and under Platinus at Rome, and succeeded the latter in his school, where he taught until the close of the century.

His work against the Christian religion is lost, and is known only from the answers and allusions of EUSEBIUS, JEROME, AUGUSTINE, and other Christian writers.]

303. ss.

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