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accumulation advantage agriculture amount augmented bour branches of industry capitalists cause cent circulating capital circumstances classes cloth commerce commodities produced common and average compared consequence corn cost cottons coun creased cultivation demand diminished dities division of labour Dr Smith duce duction durable capitals effect employment enable endeavoured England exchangeable value exertion expence exportation fall fertility foreign greater important improvement increase individual labour required land machinery machines Malthus manufactures means ment Messance modities nature necessary obtain obvious occasion particular plain Political Economy population portion possessed principle produce of industry productive powers proportion quantity of labour raised rate of profit rate of wages raw produce real value reduced regulated render rent required to produce rise Sir Josiah Child society soils species subsistence supply supposed thing tillage tion trade tural value of commodities variation Wealth of Nations workmen yield
130 ページ - The statesman, who should attempt to direct private people in what manner they ought to employ their capitals, would not only load himself with a most unnecessary attention, but assume an authority which could safely be trusted, not only to no single person, but to no council or senate whatever, and which would nowhere be so dangerous as in the hands of a man who had folly and presumption enough to fancy himself fit to exercise it.
342 ページ - By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
196 ページ - The germs of existence contained in this earth, if they could freely develop themselves, would fill millions of worlds in the course of a few thousand years. Necessity, that imperious, all-pervading law of nature, restrains them within the prescribed bounds.
262 ページ - If among a nation of hunters, for example, it usually costs twice the labour to kill a beaver which it does to kill a deer, one beaver should naturally exchange for or be worth two deer. It is natural that what is usually the produce of two days or two hours labour should be worth double of what is usually the produce of one day's or one hour's labour.
403 ページ - Parsimony, by increasing the fund which is destined for the maintenance of productive hands, tends to increase the number of those hands whose labour adds to the value of the subject upon which it is bestowed.
63 ページ - Labour was the first price, the original purchasemoney that was paid for all things. It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world was originally purchased...
153 ページ - If this capital is divided between two different grocers, their competition will tend to make both of them sell cheaper, than if it were in the hands of one only ; and if it were divided among twenty, their competition would be just so much the greater, and the chance of their combining together, in order to raise the price, just so much the less.
286 ページ - ... is always regulated, not by the less quantity of labour that will suffice for their production under circumstances highly favourable, and exclusively enjoyed by those who have peculiar facilities of production; but by the greater quantity of labour necessarily bestowed on their production by those who have no such facilities; by those who continue to produce them under the most unfavourable circumstances; meaning — by the most unfavourable circumstances, the most unfavourable under which the...
405 ページ - The labour of some of the most respectable orders in the society is, like that of menial servants, unproductive of any value, and does not fix or realize itself in any permanent subject, or vendible commodity, which endures after that labour is past, and for which an equal quantity of labour could afterwards be procured. The sovereign, for example, with all the officers both of justice and war who serve under him, the whole army and navy, are unproductive labourers. They are the servants of the public,...