guished the French by peculiar marks of kindness

shaw of Cairo; and setting out for Constantinople was the first who brougħt the news of his slavery.

The favour received from Arnaud in such circumstances, made an impression upon a generous mind, too deep ever to be eradicated. During the whole course of his life, he did not cease, by letters and other acknowledgements to testify his gratitude.

In the year 1715, war was declared between the Venetians and Turks. The grand vizier, who had projected the invasion of the Morea, assembled the Ottoman army, near the isthmus of Corinth, the only pass by which this peninsula can be attacked by land. Topal Osman was charged with the command to force the pass : which he not only executed successfully, but afterwards took the city of Corinth by assault. For this service he was rewarded, by being made a bashaw of two tails. The next year he served as lieutenant-general under the grand vizier, at the siege of Corfu, which the Turks were obliged to abandon. Osman staid three days before the place, to secure and conduct the retreat of the Ottoman troops.

In the year 1722, he was appointed seraskier, and had the command of the army in the Morea. When the consuls of the different nations came to pay their respects to him

in this quality, he distinand protection. • Inform Vincent Arnaud,' says he,

that I am the fonder of my new dignity, as it ena. •bles me to serve him.' 'Let me have his son in pledge of our friendship, and I will charge my

self with making his fortune.' Accordingly, Ara nąud's son went into the Morea, and the seraskier

* General in chief.


not only made him presents, but granted him privileges and advantages in trade, which soon put him in a way of acquiring an estate.

'Topal Osman's parts and abilities soon raised him to a greater command. He was made a bashaw of three tails, and beglerberg of Romania, one of the greatest governments in the empire, and of the greatest importance by its vicinity to Hungary. His residence during his government was at Nys

In the year 1727, Vincent Arnaud and his son waited upon him there, and were received with the utmost tenderness. Laying aside the bashaw and governor, he embraced them, caused them to be served with sherbet and perfumes, and made them sit upon the same sofa with himself; an honour but rarely bestowed by a bashaw of the first order, and hardly ever to a christian. After these marks of distinction, he sent them away loaded with presents!

In the great revolution which happened at Constantinople anno 1730, the grand vizier Ibrahim perished. The times were so tumultuary, that one and the same year had seen no fewer than three successive viziers. In September 1731, Topal Osman was cailed from his government to fill his place ; which being the highest in the Ottoman empire, and perhaps the highest that any subject in the world enjoys, is always dangerous, and was then greatly so. He no sooner arrived at Constantinople to take possession of his new dignity, than he desired the French ambassador to inform his old benefactor of his advancement; and that he should hasten to Constantinople, while things remained in the present situation ; adding that a grand vizier seldom kept long in his station.

In the month of January, 1732, Arnaud with his son arrived at Constantinople from Malta, bringing with him variety of presents, and twelve Turks whom he had ransomed from slavery. These, by command of the vizier, were ranged in order before him. Vincent Arnaud, now seventy-two years of age, with his son, were brought before Topal Osman, grand vizier of the Ottoman empire. He received' them in the presence of the great officers of state, with the utmost marks of affection. Then turning to those about him, and pointing to the ransomed Turks: · Behold,' says he, these your brethren, now enjoying the sweets of liberty, after hav‘ing groaned in slavery: this Frenchman is their de• liverer. I was myself a slave, loaded with chains,

streaming in blood, and covered with wounds: this is the man who redeemed and saved me; this is

my master and benefactor : to him I am indebted • for life, liberty, fortune, and every thing I enjoy. • Without knowing me, he paid for me a large ransom, sent me away upon my bare word, and gave me a ship to carry me.

Where is ever a Mussulman capable of such generosity ??

While Osman was speaking, all eyes were fixed upon Arnaud, who held the grand vizier's hands closely locked between his own. The vizier then asked' both father and son many questions concerning their situation and fortune, heard their answers with kindness and attention, and then ended wich an Arabic sentence, ALLAH KERIM.* He made before them the distribution of the presents they had brought, the greatest part of which he sent to the sultan, the sultana mother, and the kisler aga. +

* The providence of God is great.
| Chief of the black eunuchs.

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Upon which the two Frenchmen made their obeisance, and retired.

After this ceremony was over, the son of the grand vizier took them to his apartments, where he treated them with great kindness. Some time before they left Constantinople, they had a conference in private with the vizier, who divested himself of all state and ceremony. He let them understand, that the nature of his situation would not permit him to do as he desired, since a minister ever appears in the eyes of many to do nothing without a view to his own particular interest ; adding, that a bashaw was lord and master of his own province, but that the grand vizier at Constantinople had a master greater than himself.

He caused them to be amply paid for the ransom of the Turks, and likewise procured them payment of a debt which they looked on as desperate.He also made them large presents in money, and gave them an order for taking a loading of corn at Salonica ; which was likely to be very profitable, as ihe exportation of corn from that part'had been for a long time prohibited.

As his gratitude was without bounds, his liberality was the same. His behaviour to his benefactor, demonstrates that greatness of soul, which displayed itself in every action of his life. And this behaviour must appear the more generous, when it is considered what contempt and aversion the prejudices of education create in a Turk against Christians.

A young man having been condemned to death for theft, his mother went lamenting along with him to the place of execution. There, under pretext of a whisper, he put his mouth to her ear, and bit it

clear off. The spectators being provoked by this unnatural action : Good people, cried the criminal, ‘judge not by appearances. It is this mother of mine who has brought me to shame and punishment: for, had she whipped me soundly for the book I stole when I was a boy, I should never have come to the gallows for theft now that I am a man.'

A Norman sailor being roughly handled at Bayonne by an English soldier, the Normans, to avenge their comrade, fell upon the English : a scuffle ensued, and blood was drawn. The merchants of Normandy made their complaint to Philip the Fair, artfully suggesting, that the English made a mock at him. Philip, if he did not think proper to overlook so slight an affair, ought in prudence to have applied to the king of England for redress : he did neither:stung with the supposed mockery, he, in a fit of passion issued letters of reprisal. Several English vessels were taken by surprise ; but the English had their revenge, for they seized many more vessels than had been taken from them. Philip, though the agressor, demanded reparation in a haughty tone. Edward, king of England, returned an answer in the same tone, which inflamed Philip to the highest pitch. A bloody war ensued, in which 100,000 men of the two nations were sacrificed to the rashness and impatience of Philip. In these barbarous times, men did not glory in being more wise and rational than others, but in being more daring and brutal. A hoxing bout between a sailor and a soldier was the occasion of much misery to the two nations, Delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi.

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