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Dost thou not marvel by what wonderous chance,
And nobly done!
Exclaimed a dreadful voice, as through the throng
fitliest from me
Thus he made his way,
many a foin and thrust Aimed and rebated; many a deadly blow Straight, or reverse, delivered and repelled. Roderick at length with better speed bath reached The apostate's turban, and through all its folds The true Cantabrian weapon making way Attained his forehead. Wretch! the avenger cried, It comes from Roderick's hand! Roderick the Goth, Who spared, who trusted thee, and was betrayed ! Go tell thy father now how tliou hast sped With all thy treasons ! Saying thus, he seized The miserable, who, blinded now with blood, Reeled in the saddle; and with sidelong step Backing Orelio, drew him to the ground, He shrieking, as beneath the lorse's feet He fell, forgot his late-learnt creed, and called
With that he fell upon the old man's neck;
On Mary's name.
The dreadful Goth past on, Still plunging through the thickest war, and still Scattering, where'er he turnd, the affrighted ranks.
With froth and foam and gore, bis silver mane
Days, months, and years, and generations past,
Oh who could tell what deeds were wrought that day; Or who endure to hear 69 the tale of
rage, Hatred, and madness, and despair, and fear, Horror, and wounds, and agony, and death, The cries, the blasphemnies, the shrieks, and groans, And prayers, which miogled with the din of arms In one wild uproar of terrific sounds; While over all predominant was heard Reiterate from the conquerors o'er the field, Roderick the Goth! Roderick and Victory! Roderick and Vengeance !-Woe for Africa! Woe for the circumcised! Woe for the faith Of the lying Ishmaelite that hour! The Chiefs Have fallen; the Moors, confused and captainless, And panic-stricken, vainly seek to escape The inevitable fate. Turn where they will, Strong in his cause, rejoicing in success, Insatiate at the banquet of revenge, The enemy is there; look where they will, Death hath environed their devoted ranks; Fly where they will, the avenger and the sword Await them,-wretches! whom the righteous arm llath overtaken!-Joined in bonds of faith Accurst, the most tlagitious of mankind From all parts met are here; the apostate Greek, The vicious Syrian, and the sullen Copt, The Persian cruel and corrupt of soul, The Arabian robber, and the prowling sons Of Africa, who from their thirsty sands Pray that the locusts on the peopled plain May settle and
way. 70 Conjoined
hath he found this dreadful hour!
Note 1, page 385, col. 1.
Count Julian called the invaders, The story of Count Julian and his daughter has been irealed as a fable by some authors, because it is not mentioned by the three writers who lived nearest the time. But those writers state the mere fact of the conquest of Spain as briefly as possible, without entering into particulars of any kind; and the best Spanish historians and antiquaries are persuaded that there is no cause for disbelieving the uniform and concurrent tradition of both Moors and Christians.
For the purposes of poetry, it is immaterial whether the story be true or false. I have represented the Count as a man both sinned against and sinning, and equally to be commiserated and condemned. The author of the Tragedy of Count Julian has contemplated his character in a grander point of view, and represented him as a man self-justified in bringing an army of foreign auxiliaries to assist him in delivering his country from a tyrant, and foreseeing, when it is too late 10 recede, the evils which he is thus bringing upon her.
Not victory that o'ershadows him, sees be!
Act V, Scene 2.
The evening darkened, but the avenging sword
Parts of this tragedy are as fine in their kind as any thing which can be found in the whole compass of Englislı poetry
Juan de Mena places Count Julian with Orpas, the re negado Archbishop of Seville, in the deepest pit of hell
No buenamente te puedo callar
Pues soys en el valle mas hondo de afan,
ya crueza vos pudo indignar
was then called the Bath, and some wild superstitions A vender en un dia las tierras y leyes
which the peasantry related bore traces of the original De España, las quales pajança de reyes En años á tantos no pudo cobrar.
Jegend. The trick was not uncommon; it was practised Copla g.
in Sicily and in other places. The story, however, is of
some value, as showing that baptism was ' administered A Portugueze poet, Andre da Sylva Mascarenhas, is only once a year, (except in cases of danger,) that immore indulgent to the Count, and seems to consider it mersion was the manner, and that infants were baptised. as a mark of degeneracy in his own times, that the
Arianism seems to have lingered in Spain long after same crime would no longer provoke the same ven- its defeat. The name Pelayo (Pelagius), and Arius, cergeance. His catalogue of women who have become tainly appear to indicate a cherished heresy, and Brito ? famous by the evil of which they have been the occa must have felt this when he deduced the former name sion, begins with Eve, and ends with Anne Boleyn. from Saint Pelayo of the tenth century; for how came Louvar so pode ao Conde o sentimento
the saint by it, and how could Brito have forgotten the Da offensa da sua honestidade,
founder of the Spanislı monarchy? Se o nam vituperara co cruento
In the latter half of the eleventh century, the Count Disbarate da Hispana Christandade;
of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer, Cap de estopa, as he Se hoje ouvera stupros cento e cento
was called, for his bushy head, made war upon some Nesta nossa infeliz lasciva idade, Nam se perdera uam a forte Espanha.
Christians who are said to have turned Arians, and took Que o crime frequentado nam se estranha.
the castles into which they retired. 3 By the number Por mulheres porem se tem perdido
of their castles, which he gave to those chiefs who Muitos reynos da outra e desta vida; Por Eva se perdeo o Ceo sobido,
assisted him in conquering them, they appear to have Por Heleni a Asia esclarecida ;
been numerous. It is not improbable that those people Por Cleopatra o Egypto foi vencido,
were really what they are called; for Arian has ever Assiria por Semiramis perdida,
been, like Manichæan, a term ignoravily and indiscriPor Cava se perdeo a forte Espanha E por Auna Bolena a Gram Bretanha.
minately given to heretics of all descriptions; and there Destruicam de Espanha, p. 9.
is no heresy which would be so well understood in
Spain, and so likely to have revived there.
The feelings of the triumphant party toward their
opponents, are well marked by the manner in which Had stained their country.
St Isidore speaks of the death of the Emperor Valens. Never has any country been so cursed by the spirit of « Thraciam ferro incendiisque depopulantur, deletoque persecution as Spain. Under the Heathen Emperors it Romanorum exercitu ipsum Valentem jaculo vulnerahad its full share of suffering, and the first fatal pre- tum, in quadam villa fugientem succenderunt, ut mecedent of appealing to the secular power to punish rito ipse ab eis vivus temporali cremaretur incendio, heresy with death, occurred in Spain. Then came the qui tam pulclıras animas ignibus æternis tradiderat.» 4 Arian controversy. There was as much bigotry, as if the truth of this opinion should be doubted, there much rancour, as little of the spirit of Christianity, and is a good Athanasian miracle in the Chronicon 3 of S. probably as much intolerance, on one part as on the Isidoro and of Melitus, to prove it. A certain Arian, other; but the successful party were better politicians, by name Olympius, being in the bath, blasphemed the and more expert in the management of miracles.
Holy Trinity, and behold! being struck by an angel with Near to the city of Osen, or Ossel, there was a famous three fiery darts, he was visibly consumed. Athanasian church, and a more famous baptistery,
With regard to the Arians, the Catholics only did to which was in the form of a cross. On Holy Thursday, the others as the others would have done with them ; in cvery year, the bishop, the clergy, and the people but the persecution of the Jews was equally unprovoked assembled there, saw that the baptistery was empty, and inhuman. They are said to have betrayed many and enjoyed a marvellous fragrance which differed towns to the Moors; and it would be strange indeed if from that of any, or all, flowers and spices, for it was an odour which came as the vesper of the divine virtue overthrowing a government under which they were mi
not, by every means in their power, assisted in that was about to manifest itself : Then they fastened serably oppressed. St Isidore bas a memorable pasthe doors of the church and sealed them. On Easter
sage relating to their cruel persecution and compulsory Eve the doors were opened, the baptistery was found conversion under Sisebut. « Qui initio regni Judæos ad full of water, and all the children born within the pre- Fidem Christianam permovens æmulationem quidem ceding twelve months were baptized. Theudisclo, an habuit, sed non secundum scientiam : potestate enim Arian king, set his seal also upon the doors for two compulit, quos provocare fidei ratione oportuit. Sed successive years, and set a guard there. Still the mira
sicut est scriptum sive per occasionem sive per veritaculous baptistery was filled. The third year he suspected pipes, and ordered a trench to be dug round the
In the seventeenth, and last council of Toledo, it was decreed building; but before the day of trial arrived, he was
that the baptistory should be shut up, and sealed with the episcomurdered, as opportunely as Arius himself. The trench pal scal, during the whole year, till Good Friday; on that day the was dry, but the workmen did not dig deep enough, bishop, in his pontificals, was to open it with great solemnity, in
token that Christ, by his passion and resurrection, had opened the and the miracle was continued. When the victory of
way to heaven for mankind, as on that day the hope was opened of the catholic party was complete, it was no longer neces- obtaining redemption through the holy sacrament of baptism. sary to keep it up. The same baptistery was employed Morales, 12, 62, 3. to convince the Spaniards of their error in keeping
2 Monarcbin Lusitana, 3, 7, 19.
» Pere Tomich. c. 34, ff. 26. Easter. In Brito's time, a few ruins called Oscla, were
* Hist. Goth. apud Flores. Espana Sagrada, T. 6, 486. shewn near the river Cambria; the broken baptistery 5 Espana Sagrada, T. 0. 474.
tem, Christus annuntiatur, in hoc gaudeo et gaudebo.” por noso alvedrio veniremos en consentimiento de la -S. Isidor, Christ. Goth. Espana Sagrada, 6. 502. sua morte. Ca, si nos esto fiziessemos, logo seria nues
The Moorish conquest procured for them an interval co, que la profezia que diz, congregaronse de consuno of repose, till the Inquisitiou was established, and by its contra el Sennor, et contra el suo Messias. E damos damnable acts put all former horrors out of remem vos este consejo, maguera sodes homes de muyla sabrance.
peoça, que tengades grande aficamento sobre tamana When Toledo was recovered from the Moors by fazienda, porque el Dios de Israel enojado con vusco, Alonzo VI, the Jews of that city waited upon the con non destruya casa segunda de voso segundo templo. queror, and assured him that they were part of the ten Ca sepades cierto, cedo ha de ser destruyda ; et por tribes whom Nebuchadnezzar had transported into Spain; esta razon nosos antepassados, que salieron de captinot the descendants of the Jerusalem Jews who had vcrio de Babylonia, siendo suo Capitane Pyrro, que emcrucified Christ. Their ancestors, they said, were en- bio Rey Cyro, ct aduxo nusco muytas requeças que tollo tirely innocent of the crucifixion ; for when Caiaphas de Babylonia el anno de sesenta et nueve de captivithe high-priest had written to the Toledan synagogues dade, et foron recebidos en Toledo de Gentiles que y to ask their advice respecting the person who called moravan, et edificaron una grande Aljama, et non quihimself the Messiah, and whether he should be slain, the sieron bolver a Jerusalem otra vegada a edificar TemToledan Jews returned for answer, that in their jud;- ple, aviendo ser destruido otra vegada. De Toledo ment the prophecies seemed to be fulfilled in this per- catorze dias del mes Nisan. Era de Cesar diez y ocho, y son, and therefore he ought not by any means to be de Augusto Octaviano setenta y uno.»—Sandoval, 71. put to death.
This reply they produced in the original
ealous as some of his Gothic command of King Galifre. Alonzo
gave ear to the predecessors, or bis Most Catholic successors, he story, had the letter rendered into Latio and Castilian, might have found a fair pretext in this letter for orderand deposited it among the archives of Toledo. The ing all the Jews of Toledo to the font, unless they Jalter version is thus printed by Sandoval :
would show cause why they should adhere to the opi« Levi Archisinagogo, et Samuel, et Joseplı, homes bo
nion of Caiaplias and the Jerusalem Jews, rather than
to that of their own ancestors. nos del Aljama de Toledo, a Eleazar Muyd gran Sa
General Vallancy believes that the Spanish Jews were cerdote, e a Samuel Canud, y Anas, y Cayplias, homes bonos de la Aljama de la Terra Santa, Salud en el brought into the Peninsula by Nebuchadnezzar, and ad
mits these Toledans as authority. He quotes Count Dios de Israel.
Gebelin, and refers to Strabo and Ezekiel,
The proof « Azarias voso home, Maeso en ley nos aduxo las car- from Ezekiel rests upon the word Orb, Earb, Warb, or tas que vos nos embiavades, por las quales nos faziades Gharb; which is made into Algarve! saber cuemo passava la facienda del Propheta Nazaret, A Jew in Tirante el Blanco (p. 2. c. 74. f. 243.) er
facie muchas sennas. Colo por esta vila plains the difference between the different races of non ha mucho, un cierto Samuel, fil de Amacias, et Jews. They are three, he says. One the progeny of fablo nusco, et reconto muchas bondades deste home, those who took counsel for the death of Christ; and que ye, que es home homildoso et manso, que fabla they were known by this, that they were in continual con los laçeriados, que faz a todos bien, e que facien- motion, hands and feet, and never could rest; neither dole a el mal, el non faz mal a ninguem ; el que es could their spirit ever be still, and they had very little home fuerte con superbos el homes malos, et que vos shame. The second were the descendants of those malamente teniades enemiga cou ele, por quanto en wlio put in execution and assisted at the various parts faz el descubria vosos pecados, ca por quanto facia esto, of the sufferings and death of Christ, and they never le aviades mala voluntad. El perquirimos deste home, could look any man in the face, nor could they, withen que anno, o mes o dia, avia nacido: et que nos lo out great difficuliy, ever look up to heaven. The third dixesse: falamos que el dia de la sua Natividade foron were the children of David, who did all they could to vistos en estas partes tres soles muelle a muelle, fizieron prevent the death of Christ, and shut themselves up ia soldemente un sol; et cucmo nosos padres cataron esta the temple that they might not witness it. These are senna,
asmados dixeron que cedo el Messias naceria, et affable, good men, who love their neighbours; a quiet que por aventura era ja nacido. Catad hermanos si peaceable race, who can look any where. por aventura ha ja venido ct non le ayades acatado. Thomas Tomaio de Vargas, the editor of the spurious Relataba tambien el susodicho home, que el suo pay le Luitprand, says, that not only many Hebrew words are recontava, que ciertos Magos, homes de mucha sapien- mixed with the old Spanislı, but that, prô dolor! the cia, en la sua Natividade legaron a tierra santa, perqui- black and stinking Jewish blood had been mingled with riendo logar donde e niono sancto era nacido; y que the most pure blood of the Spaniards, (p. 96). They Herodes voso Rey se asmo, et disposito junto a hoines were very anxious, he says, to intermarry, and spoil the sabios de sua vila, e perquirio donde nasceria el Infante, pure blood. And he adds, that the Spaniards call them por quien perquirian Magos, et le respondieron, en putos, quia putant. « But,» says Sir Thomas Brown, Betlem de Juda, seguo que Micheas depergino profeto. «that an unsavoury odour is gentilitious, or national Et
que dixeron aqueles Magos, que una estrella de gran to the Jews, we cannot well concede. And if, (accordcraredad, de luenne aduxo a tierra santa: catad nouing to good relations), where they may freely speak it, sca esta quela profezia, cataran Reyes, et andaran en they forbear not to boast that there are at present craridad de la sua Natividade. Otro si, catad non per- many thousand Jews in Spain, France, and England, sigades al
que forades tenudos mucho honrar el recibir and some dispensed withal even to the degree of priestde bon talante. Mais fazed lo que tuvieres por bien hood, it is a matter very considerable, and could they aguisada; nos vos dezimos que nin por consejo, nin be smelled out, would much advantage not only the
church of Christ but also the coffers of princes. The plaints that the people would avoid the service if they ground that begat or propagated this assertion might could. Habits of settled life seem throughout Europe be the distasteful averseness of the Christian from the to have effeminated the northern conquerors, till the Jew upon the villainy of that fact, which made them Normans renovated the race, and the institutions of abominable, and ‘stiuk in the nostrils of all men.' chivalry and the crusades produced a new era. Which real practice and metaphorical expression did after proceed into a literal construction; but was a
Note 4, page 385, col. 1. fraudulent illation; for such an evil savour their father
Thou, Calpe, sawest their coming : ancient Rock
Renowned, no longer now shalt thou be called, Jacob acknowledged in himself, when lie said his sons
From Gods and lleroes of the years of yore, had made him stink in the land, that is, to be abomi Kronos, or hundred-handed Briareus, nable unto the inhabitants thercof.-Another cause is Bacchus or Hercules; but doomed to bear urged by Campegius, and much received by Christians;
The name of thy new conqueror. that this ill savour is a curse derived upou them by Gibel-al-Tarif, the mountain of Tarif, is the received Christ, and stands as a badge or brand of a generation etymology of Gibraltar: Ben Hazel, a Granadan Moor, that crucified their Salvator. But this is a conceit says expressly, that the mountain derived its name from without all warrant, and an easy way to take off dis- this general. lis former appellations may be seen in pute in what point of obscurity soever.»—Vulgar Er- the Historia de Gibraltar, by Don Ignacio Lopez de rors, Book iv, ch. 10.
Ayala. The derivation of the word Calpe is not known: The Mahommcdans also hold a like opinion of the Florian de Ocampo identifies it with the English word uusavouriness of the Jews, and account for it by this galloping, in a passage which will amuse the Spanish legend, which is given by Sale. « Some of the children scholar. « La segunda nombradía fue llamarle Calpe, of Israel abandoned their dwellings because of a pesti- cuya razov, segun dicen algunos, procedió de que los leuce, or, as others say, to avoid serving in a religious Andaluces ancianos en su lengua vieja solian llamar war; but as they fled, God struck them all dead in a Calepas y Calpes á qualesquier cosas ephiestas y levancertain valley. About cight days or more after, when ladas, agora fuesen peñascos, ó pizarras, ó maderos, ó their bodies were corrupted, the Prophet Ezekiel hap- piedras menores, como lo significamos en los diez y ocho pening to pass that way, at the sight wept; where- capítulos precedentes: y dicen que con estar alli junto upon God said to him, “Call to them, 0 Ezekiel, and I de Gibraltar sobre sus mariņas el risco, que ya dixe muy will restore them to life.' And accordingly, on the pro- encumbrado y enliesto, qual hoy dia parece, lo llamaphet's call, they all arose, and lived several years after; ban Caipes aquellos Andaluces pasados: y por su resbut they retained the colour and stench of dead corpses pecto la mesma poblacion vino tambien á tener despues
No faltan otras personas que as long as they lived, and the clothes they wore were aquel proprio nombre. changed as black as pitch, which qualities they trans- siguiendo las Escrituras Griegas pongan esta razon del milted to their posterity.”
nombre Calpes mucho diversamente, diciendo, que One of our own travellers' tells us of a curious prac- quando los cosarios Argonaulas desembarcaron en Estical application of this belief in Barbary. « The Moors pava, cerca del estrecho, segun ya lo declaramos, el of Tangier',» he says, « when they want rain, and have tiempo que bacian sus exercicios arriba dichos, de salprayed in vain for it, set the Jews to work, saying, that los y luchas, y musicas acordadas, bien asi como los though God would not grant it to the prayers of the pastores espanoles comarcanos recibian contentamienfaithful, he would to the Jews, in order to be rid of their to grande, mirando las tales desenvolturas y ligerezas, stink.) Ludicrous as this is, South bias a passage con- no menos aquellos Griegos recien venidos notaban alcerning the Jews, which is little more reasonable, iu gunos juegos, dado que trabajosos y dificiles, que
los one of his sermoos. « The truth is,» be says, « they mesmos pastores obraban entre si para su recreacion У were all along a cross, odd, untoward sort of people, deporte; particularmente consideraban un regocijo de and such as God seems to have chosen, and (as the Pro- caballos, donde ciertos dias aplazados venian todos á se pliets sometimes phrase it) to have espoused to himself, juntar como para cosa de gran pundonor. upon the very same account that Socrates espoused « El qual regocijo hacian desta manera. Tomaban Xantippe, only for her extreme ill conditions, above all yeguas en pelo, quanto mas corredoras y ligeras podian that he could possibly find or pick out of that sex: and haber, y puestos ellos encima desnudos sin alguna ropa, so the filtest argument bodi wo exercise and declare his ataban en las quixadas barbicachos de rama, torcidos admirable patience to the world.»--Vol. i, 421. y majados á manera de freno, con que salian del puesto
dos á dos á la par corriendo lo mas que sus yeguas poNote 3, page 385, col. 1.
dian, para llegar á cierta senal de pizarras enhiestas ó A yoke
de maderos hincados y levantados en fin de la carrera. Of iron servitude oppressed and galled
Venidos al medio trecho de su corrida saltaban de las Of the condition of slaves under the Spanish Wisi-yeguas en tierra, no las parando ni deteniendo : y asi
Irabados por el barbicacho, corrian tambien ellos á pie, goths, I have given an account in the lutroduction to sin las dexar, puesto que mas furia llevasen : porque the Chronicle of the Cid. This also, like the persecu- si las dexaban ó se desprendian dellas, y no sustentaban tion of the Jews, must greatly have facilitated the Moor
el freno continuamente, hasta ser pasada la carrera, ish conquest. Another facilitating cause was, that notwithstanding their frequent civil disturbances, they had perdian la reputacion y las apuestas, quedando tan in great measure ceased to be a warlike people. The amenguados y vencidos, quanto quedaria triunfante many laws in the Fuero luzgo, for compelling men to
quien primero llegase cou su yegua para tomar la presa military service, prove this. These laws are full of com que tenian en el fin de la carrera sobre las pizarras ó
maderos biocados. Quando saltaban de sus yeguas, "Hist. of the Captivity of Thomas Pellow, p. 257. dicen que les iban hablando porque no se detuviesen,
The children of the soil.