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says that he is nightly visited.
Not to defer his baptism, and delay
But neither word nor look betrayed a stale
He had no want, no pain, uo grief, no fear :
His baprism was in fitting time design'd,
Miglit yield, regarding his desire sincere,
Wlien, «Ye are come for me!» Yeruti cried;
Life's business then for him would be complete,
Note 1, page 552, col. 2.
So he forsooth a shapely boot must wear. And round about their presence when they came His leg had been set by the French after their conTliere shone an effluent light as of a harmless flame. quest of Pamplona, and re-set after his removal to liis
father's house. The latter operation is described as LXV.
having been most severe, but borne by him in luis And where he was be knew, the time, the place, wonted manner without any manifestation of suffering. All circumstantial things to him were clear.
For some time his life was despaired of. « When the His own heart undisturb'd. His Mother's face danger of death was past, and the bones were koil and Ilow could he chuse but know; or knowing, fear becoming firm, two inconveniences remained: one oc. Her presence and that Maid's, to him more dear casioned by a portion of bone below the knee, which Thau all that had been left him now below? projected so as to occasion some deformity; the other Their love had drawn them from their happy sphere; was a contraction of the leg, which prevented him from
That dearest love unchanged they came to slow; walking erect or standing firmly on his feet. Now as And lic must be baptized, and then lie too miglit yo. he was very solicitous about his appearance, aud in
tended at that time to follow the course of a military el mal á si mismo, por no hacersele a aquel de quien life which he had begun, lie enquired of his medical necesita. attendants in the first place whether the bone could be
del pie, acude al talon, Inumeremoved whicli stood out in so unsightly a manner.
dece con la lengua los remates de las costuras, porque They auswered that it was possible to remove it, but
no falseen las costuras de secas por los remates. Trethe operation would be exceedingly painful, much more menda vanidad, sufrir en sus pies un hombre la boca so than any which he had before undergone. He ne- de otro hombre, solo por tener aliñados los pies! Desvertheless directed them to cut it out, that he might dobla el zapatero el talon, dase uno vuelta con el calzador have his will, and (as he himself related in my hearing, á la mano, y empieza á eucaxar en el pie la segunda says Ribadeneira), that he might wear fashionable and porcion del zapato. Manda que se baxe la punta, y well-fitting boots. Nor could he he dissuaded from this bácese lo que manda. Llama ácia á sí el zapato con tal determipation. Ile would not consent to be bound fuerza, que entre su cuerpo y el espaldar de la silla during the operation, and went through it with the abrevia torpe y desaliñadamente al que calza. Dicele same firinness of mind which he had manifested in the luego que haga talon, y el hombre obedece como un former operations. By this means tlie deformity of the esclavo. Ordénale despues que dé en el suelo una pabonc was removed. The contraction of the leg was in tada, y el da la patada, como se le ordena. Vuelve a some degree relieved by other applications, and espe- sentarse; saca el cruel ministro el calzador del empeine, cially by certain machines, with which during many y por donde salió el calzador mcte un palo, que llaman days, and with great and continual pain, it was stretch costa, y contra el vuelve y revuelve el sacabocados, que cd; nevertheless it could not be so extended, but that it saca los bocados del cordoban, para que entren las cioalways remained something shorter than the other,
tas; y dexa en el empeine del pie un dolor, y unas Ribadeneira, Vita S. Ignatii Loyotæ, Acta ss. Jul., sedales, como si hubiera sacado de alli los bocados. t. 7, p. 659.
Agujerea las orejas, passa la cinta con una aguja, lleva A close-fitting boot seems to have been as fashionable las orejas á que cierren el zapalo, ajustalos, y da luego at one time as close fitting innominables of buckskin con tanta fuerza el nudo, que si pudicran ahogar á un were about the year 1990 : and perhaps it was as severe hombre por la garganta del pie, Je aliogara. Hace la an operation to get into them for the first time. « The rosa despues con mas cuydado que gracia. Vuelve á greasy shoemaker,» says Tom Naslı, « with his squir- devagarse á la mano el calzador, que está colgando del rel's skin, and a whole stall of ware upon his arm en-talon; tira del como quien retoca, da cop la otra mano ters, and wrencheth his legs for an hour logether, and palmadas en la planta, como quien asienta, y saea el calafter shows his tally. By St Loy that draws decp.»— zador, echándose todo ácia atras. Pone el galau el pie en Nash's Lenten Stuff. Hart. Miscel. vol. ii, p. 289, 8vo el suelo, y quédase mirándole. Levántase el zapatero, edition.
arrasa con el dedo el sudor de la frente, y queda respiThe operation of fitting a Spanish dandy with short rindo como si hubiera corrido. Todo esto se ahorraba laced quarter boots is thus minuiely described by Juan con hacerse el zapato un poco mayor que el pie. Pade Zavaleta, who was liistoriographer at the commence- decen luego entrambos otro tanto con el pie segundo. inent of Carlos the Second's reign.
Llega el último y fiero trance de darle el dinero. Recoge « Entra el zapatero oliendo á cansado. Saca de las el oticial sus baratijas. Recibe su estipendio, sale por hormas los zapatos, con tanta dificultad como si deso- la puerta de la sala mirando si es bucna la plata que le llara las hormas. Siéntase en una silla el galan; hincasc ban dado, dexando á su dueño de movimientos tan el zapatero de rodillas, apoderase de una pierna con corpes como si le hubiera echado unos grillos. tantos tirones y desagrados, como si le enviaran á que «Si pensaran los que se calzan apretado que se achile diera tormento. Mete un calzador en el talon del can el pie. Si lo piensau se enganan. Los huesos no zapato, encapíllale otro en la punta del pie, y luego se pueden meter upos en otros: con esto es fuerza que empieza á guiar el zapato por encima del calzador. si le quitan de lo largo al zapato, se doble el pic por las Apenas ha caminado poco mas que los dedos del pie, coyunturas, y crezca ácia arriba lo que le meuguan de quando es menester arrastrarle con unas tenazas, y aun adelante. Si le estrechan lo ancho, es preciso que se arrastrado se resiste. Ponese en pie el paciente fatigado, alargue aquella carne oprimida. Con la misma cantidad pero contento de
zapatos le vengan angostos; y de pie que se tenian, se quedan los que calzan sisado. de órden del zapatero da tres o quatro patadas en el Lo que hacen es atormentarse, y dexar los pies de
peor suelo, con tanta fuerza, que pues no se quiebra, debe de hechura. El animal á quien mas largos pies dió la ser de bronze.
naturaleza segun su cantidad, es el hombre; porque, « Acozcados dan de si el cordoban y la suela; pellejos como ha de andar todo el cuerpo sobre ellos, y no son cn fin de animales, que obedecen á golpes. Vuelvese á mas de dos, quiso que anduviesse seguro.
El que se sentar el tal señor, dobla ácia fuera el copete del zapato, los quiere abreviar, gana parece que tiene de caer, y de cógele con la boca de las tenazas, binca el oficial junto caer en los vicios, donde se hará mayor
mal, á él entrambas rodillas, afirmase en el suelo con la mano piedras. La parte que le puso Dios ad hombre en la izquierda, y puesto de bruzas sobre el pie, hecho arco fábrica de su cuerpo mas cerca de la tierra, son los los dos dedos de la mano derecha que forman el jeme, pies : quiso sin duda que fuera la parte mas humilde de va con ellos ayudando á llevar por el empeine arriba el su fábriea , pero los galanes viciosos les quitan la bucordoban, de quien tira con las tenazas su dueño. mildad con los aliños, y los ensoberbecen con el cuyVuelve á ponerse en una rodilla, como primero estaba; dado. Enfada esto á Dios tanto, que abiendo de lacer empuña con la una mano la punta del pie, y con la al hombre animal que pisasse la tierra, lizo la tierra de palma de la ora da sobre su mano tan grandes golpes tal calidad, que se pudiesse imprimir en ella la huella como si los diera con una pala de jugar a la pelota; del hombre. Abierta dexa su sepultura el pie que se que es la necesidad tan discreta, que se hace el pobre levanta, y parece que se levanta de la sepultura. Tre
que en las
menda crueldad es enloquecer con el adorno al que se a boukin, brings the ears together that they may fasten quiere tragar la tierra á cada passo.»- El dia de Fiesta. the shoe, fits them to their intended place, and ties the Obras de D. Juan de Zavaleta, p. 179–180.
knot with such force, that if it were possible to strangle « In comes the slioemaker in the odour of haste and a man by the neck of his foot, strangled the gallant fatigue. He takes the shoes off the last with as much would be. Then he makes the rose, with more care than difticulty as if he were skioning the lasts. The gallant grace. He goes then to take out the shoeing skin which seals himself upon a chair; the shoemaker knecis down,
is still hanging from the heel; he lays hold of this, strikes and takes possession of one foot, which he handles as the sole of the foot with his other hand as if settling it, if he were sent there to administer the torturc. He and draws out the skin, bringing out all with it. The puts one shoeing skin in the heel of the shoe, fits the gallant puts his foot to the ground, and remains looking other upon the point of the foot, and then begins to at it. The shoemaker rises, wipes the sweat from his guide the shoe over the shoeing skin. Scarcely has it forehead with his fingers, and draws his breathi like one lol farther than the toes when it is found necessary to who has been running. All this trouble might have been craw it on with pincers, and even then it is hard work. saved by making the shoe a little larger than the foot. The patient stands up, fatigued with the operation, but Presently both have to go through the same pains with well pleased that the shoes are light; and by the shoe- the other foot. Now comes the last and terrible act of ma ker's directions he stamps three or four times on the payment. The tradesman collects his tools, receives bois floor, with such force that it must be of iron if it does money, and goes out at the door, looking at the silver not give way.
to see if it is good, and leaving the gallant walking as « The cordovan and the soles being thus beaten, sub-inuch at his case as if he had been put in fetters. mit; they are the skins of animals who obey blows. « If they who wear tiglat shoes think that thereby they Our gallant returns to his scat, he turns up the upper- can lessen the size of their feet, they are mistaken. The leather of the shoc, and lays hold on it with the pincers: bones cannot be squeezed one into another; if therefore the tradesman kneels close by him on both knces, rests the shoe is made short, the foot must be crooked at the on the ground with his left hand, and bending in this joints, and grow upward if it is not allowed to grow forall-Four's position over the foot, making an arch with ward. If it is pinched in the breadth, the flesh which is those fingers of the right hand which form the span, thus constrained must extend itself in length. They wlio assists in drawing on the upper part of the cordovan, are shod thus miserably remain with just the same quanthe gallant pulling the while with the pincers. He then tity of foot. puts himself on one knee, lays hold of the end of the . Of all animals, man is the one to which, in proporfoot with one hand, and with the palm of the other tion to its size, nature has given the largest feet; because strikes his own hand, as hard as if he were striking a as bis whole body is to be supported upon them, and lie ball with a racket. For necessity is so discreet that the has only two, she chose that he should walk in safety. poor man inflicts this pain upon himself that he may give He who wishes to abbreviate them acts as if he were none to the person of whose custom he stands in need. inclined 10 fall, and to fall into vices which will do him « The end of the foot being thus adjusted he repairs more injury than if he fell upon stones.
The feet are 10 the heel, and with his tongue moistens the end of the part which in the fabric of the human body are The scams, that they may not give way for being dry placed nearest to the earth; they are meant therefore Tremendous vanity, that one man should allow the to be the brumblest part of his frame, but gallants take mouth of another to be applied to his feet that he may away all humility by adorning and setting them forth in liave them trimly set out! The shoemaker unfolds the bravery. This so displeases the Creator, that having to heel, turos round with the shoeing skin in his band, and make man an animal who should walk upon the earth, begins to fit the second part of the shoe upon the foot. he made the earth of such properties, that the footsteps le desires the gallant to put the end of the foot down, should sink into it. The foot which is lifted from the an: the gallant does as lie is desired. He draws the shoe ground, leaves its own grave open, and seems as if it towards him with such force that the person who is thus
rose from the grave. What a tremendous thing is it being shoed is compressed in an unseemly manner he-then to set off with adornments that which the earth tween the shoemaker's body and the back of the chair. wishes to devour at every step!» Presently he tells him to put his heel down, and the
Notc 2, page 552, col. 2. man is as obedient as a slave. He orders him thien to
Whiling with books the weary bours away. stamp upon the ground, and the man stamps as he is ordered. The gallant then seats himself again; the
« Vede quanto importa a liçao de bons livros! Se o cruel operator draws the shoeing skin from the instep, livro fora de cavallerias, sahiria Ignacio hum grande caaod in its place drives in a stick which they call costa, valleyro; foy hum livro de vidas de Santos, sahio lium lie then turns upon it the punch, which makes the grande Santo. Se lera cavallerias, sa hiria Ignacio hum holes in the leather, through which the ribbons are to Cavelleyro da ardente espada; leo vidas de Santos salio pass; he again twists round his band the strip of hare-hum Santo da ardente locha.»— Vieyra, Serman de St skin which hangs from the heel, and pulls it as if he Ignacio, t. i, p. 368. were ringing a bell, and leaves upon the upper part of See, says Vieyra, the importance of reading good the top a pain and marks as if he had punched the holes books. If it had been a book of knight errantry, Iguain it. He bores the ears, passes the string through with cio would have become a great kniglit errant; it was
the Lives of the Saints, and Ignatius became a great " A piece of haro-skin is used in Spain for this purpose, as it ap- saiut. If be had read about knights, he might have pears by the former extract from Tom Naula chut squirrel-skin was proved a Knight of the Burning Sword : he read about in England,
* Which is used to drive in upon the last to raise a sboe higher in saints, and proved a saint of the burning torch. ibe instep.
Nothing could seem more probable than that Cervan
Tomo divin, che lo vite de Santi Conserva, e de la etado prisca e nova, Qade per far la brama sna contenta Tal opra ua fido serro a lui presenta.
Il volume. che spiega in ogni parto
Tutto giocondo a contemplar s'appighia
Contempla dopo il Serafico Magno
tes had this part of Loyola's history in his mind when He described the rise of Don Quixote's madness, if Cervantes bad not shown himself in one of his dramas to be thoroughly imbued with the pestilent superstition of his country.
El dichoso Rufian is one of those monstrous compositions which nothing but the anti-christian fables of the Romish church could have produced.
Landor, however, supposes that Cervantes intended to satirice a favourite dogma of the Spaniards. The passage occurs in his thirteenth conversation.
« The most dexterous attack ever made against ilic worship among catholics, which opens so many side chapels tu pilfering and imposture, is that of Cervantes.
« Leopold. I do not remember in what part.
« President. Throughout Don Quixote. Dulcinea was the peerless, the immaculate, and death was denounced against all who hesitated to admit the assertion of her perfections. Surely your highness never could have imagined that Cervantes was such a knight crrant as to attack knight erradtry, a folly that had ceased more than a century, if indeed it was any folly at all; and the idea that he ridiculed the poems and romances founded on it, is not less improbable, for they contained all the literature of the nation, execpting the garniture of chapterhouses, theology, and pervaded, as with a thread of gold, the beautiful liistories of this illustrious people. He delighted the idlers of romance by the jokes he scattered amongst them on the false taste of his predecessors and of his rivals; and he deliglated his own heart by this solitary archery; well knowing what amusement those who came another day would tiud in picking up his arrows and discovering thic bull's-eye hits.
« Charles V was the knight of La Mancha, devoting his labours and vigils, his wars and treaties, to the chimerical idea of making all miuds, like watches, turn their indexes, by a simultaneous movement 10 one point. Sancho Panza was the symbol of the people, possessing sound sense in all other matters, but ready to follow the most extravagant visionary in this, and combining implicit belief in it, with the grossest sensuality. For religion, when it is hol enough to produce enthusiasm, burns up and kills every seed entrusted to its bosom.»—Imaginary Conversations, vol. I, 187.
Benedetto di Virgilio, the Italian ploughman, thus describes the course of Loyola's reading, in his heroic poem upon that Saint's life.
Mentre le vote indebolite vene
Quinci ritrova il Celestin, che spande
Chiara tra l'altre nola è Caterina,
Quloci comanda, che i volumi ornati
E tra i Romiti mira Ilarione,
I volumi verpati in dolci canti
Mentre in questo penetra e meglio intende
Gia gli sgombra gli errori e già gli accende
diiy, which no flight could escape, and with a fatal In guisa il cor, che distilla in piauto;
cffect that nothing could resist. It destroyed with its Lagrime versa, e le lagrime sparte Bagnan del libro le vergate carte.
pestilential breath whole families and tribes; and the
horrid scene presented to those who had the melancholy Qual duro ghiaccio sovra i monti alpini
and aftlicting opportunity of beholding it, a combinaDa la virtù del sole intenerito,
tion of the dead, the dying, and such as, to avoid the Suol liquefarsi, o di bei cristallini
horrid fate of their friends around them, prepared to. Rivi l'herle inoffiar del suol fiorito; Tal da la forza degli ardor divini
disappoint the plague of its prey, by terminating their Del Giovanetto molle il cor ferito,
own existence. Hor si discioglie in tepidi liquori,
« The habits and lives of these devoted people, which E rigan del bol volto i vaghi fiori
provided not to-day for the wants of to-morrow, must Com'altri nel cristallo, o nel diamante
have heightened the pains of such an affliction, by leavSpecchiarsi suol, tal ei si specchia, e mira
ing them not only without remedy, but even without Nel specchio di sua mente, indi l'errante
alleviation. Nought was left them but to submit in Vita discerne, onde con duol sospira: Quinci risolve intrepido e costante
agony and despair. Depor gli orgogli giovanili e l'ira,
« To aggravate the picture, if aggravation were posPer imitar ne l'opra e ne gli effetti
sible, may be added the putrid carcasses which the I celesti guerrier del libro leui.
wolves, with a furious voracity, dragged forth from the Ignutio Loiolu, Canto 2. 1617.
huts, or which were mangled within them by the dogs, The Jesuits, however, assure us, that Loyola is not the whose hunger was satisfied with the disligured remaios author of their society, and that it is not allowable of their masters. Nor was it uncommon for the father either to think or say so. « Societas Jesu ut à S. Igna- of a family, whom the infection had not reached, to tio de Loiolâ non ducit nomen, ita neque originem pri- call them around him, to represent the cruel sufferings mum, et aliud sentire aut loqui, nefas. (Imago primi and horrid fate of their relations, froin the influence of Sæculi Soc. Jesu, p. 64.) « Jesus primus ac præcipuus some evil spirit, who was preparing to extirpate their auctor Societatis,» is the title of a chapter in this their race; and to incite them to baftlc death, with all its secular volume, which is a curious and very beautiful horrors, by their own poniards. At the same time, if book. Then follows « Beata Virgo nutrix, patrona, imo their hearts failed them in this necessary act, lie was altera velut auctor Societatis.» Lastly, « Post Christum himself ready to perform the deed of mercy with his et Mariam Societatis Auctor et Parens sanctus Ignatius.» own hand, as the last act of his affection, and instartly
« On the 26th August 1794, the French plundered the to follow them to the common place of rest and refuge rich church of Loyola, at Azpeitia, and proceeding to
from human evil.» Elgoibas, loaded five carts with the spoils of the church
Note 5, page 553, col. 2. of that place. This party of marauders consisted of 200.
And from the silent door the jaguar turns away. The peasants collected, fell upon them, and after an obstinate conflict of three hours, recovered the whole I may be forgiven for not having strictly adhered to booty, which they conveyed to Vittoria in triumph. natural liistory in diis instance. The liberty which Among other things, a relic of Loyola was recovered, lave taken is mentioned, that it may not be supposed which was carried in procession to the church, the to have arisco from ignorance of this auimal's babils. victorious peasants accompanying it.»-Marcillac, Hist.
The jaguar will not attack a living borse if a dead de la Guerre de l'Espagne, p.
one be pear, and when it kills its prey it drags it to its
den, but is said not to eat the body till it becomes puNote 3, page 552, col. 2.
trid. They are caught in large traps of the cage kind, Vaccination.
bailed with stinking meat, and then speared or shot It is odd that in Hindostan, where it might have been through the bars. The Chalcaquines bad a braver way supposed superstition would have facilitated the intro- of killing them: they provoked the animal, fronted it, duction of this practice, a pious fraud was found neces- received its attack upon a thick cruncheon, which they sary for removing the prejudice against it.
beld by ibe two ends, threw it down while its teeth Mooperal Streenivaschary, a Brahmin, thus writes to were fixed in the wood, and ripped the creature up beDr Anderson at Madras, on vaccine inoculation. fore it could recover. (Techo, p. 209) A great profit is
u li might be useful to remove a prejudice in the made by their skins. The jaguar which has once tasted minds of the people, arising from the term cow-pock, luman flesh becomes a most formidable animal; such being taken literally in our Tamul tongue; wliereas a beast is called a tigre cevado, a fleshed tiger. There there can be no doubt that it has been a drop of nectar was one who infested the road between Santa Fé and from the exuberant udders of the cows in England, and Santiago, and killed ten men; after which a party of no way similar to the humour discharged from the soldiers were sent to destroy it. The same thing is said longue and feet of discased cattle in this country.»
of the lion and other beasts of prey, probably with Forbes's Oriental Memoirs, vol. iii, p. 423.
truth ; not as is vulgarly supposed, because they have a
particular appetite for this kind of food, but because Note 4, page 553, col. 1.
having once fed upon man, they from that time regard For lyrapnous fear dissolved all natural boods of man.
him like any animal of inferior strength, as their naMackenzie gives a dreadful picture of the effect of cural prey. «It is a constant observation in Numidia, » small-pox among the North American Indians.
says Bruce, « that the lion avoids and tlies from the «The small-pox spread its destructive and desolatiog face of men, till by some accident they have been power, as the tire consumes the dry grass of the field. brought to engage, and thic beast has prevailed against The fatal infection spread around with a baneful rapi- him; then that feeling of superiority, imprimed by the