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Apta minus videar, stricto procurrere ferro
Annuite; hire nostrisint prima pericula martis,
Si cuique vistanta animo, descendat in aquae
Planiciem pugnar; mihi si victoria cedat,
Credite victr noster si vicerit hostis,
Compede vincta abeam, et cunctis sin fabula sæclis.

Note 61, page 13, col. 1. Ruin'd now.

Hanc virginem contigit pascendo pecora in sacello quodam vilissimo, ad declinandam pluviam obdormire; quo in tempore visa est se in somnis a Deo, qui se illi ostenderat, admoneri. Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis de claris mulieribus. Joanna Gallica Puella, dum oves pascit, tempestate coacta in proximum sacellum confugit, ibi obdormiens liberandae Galliae mandatum divinitus accepit.—Bonfinatts. Heroinae nobilissimae Joanna Darc Lotheringa vulgo Aurelianensis Puellae historia. Authore Joanne Hordal serenissimi ducis Lotharingae consiliario. PontiMussi. 1612.

Note 62, page 13, col. 1. Saint Agnes stood.

Insanus judex eam nudam ad lupanar pertrahi jussit. At ubi beata virgo vestibus exuta est, statim crine soluto, tantam capillis densitatem ejus divina gratia concessit, ut melius illorum fimbriis, quam vestibus tecta videratur. Introgressa quidem Agnes turpitudinis locum. Angelum Domini preparatum invenit; eam mox tanto lumine perfudit, ut pre magnitudine splendoris, a nemine conspici posset.

The exclamation of St Agnes at the stake should not be omitted here:—“Then Agnes in the midst of the flame, stretching out her hand, prayed unto the Lord, saying, “I bless thee, O Almighty Father! who permittest me to come unto thee fearless even in the flames. For behold! what I have believed, I see; what I have hoped, I possess; what I have desired, i cmbrace with my hands. Therefore I confess thee with my lips, I desire thee with my heart, with my inmost entrails; I come to thee, the living and the true God!’” The whole passage as it stands in Acta Sanctorum is very fine : “ Tunc Vicarius Aspasius nomine, jussit in conspectu omnium ignem copiosum accendi, et in medium eam precepit jactari flammarum. Quod cum fuisset impletum, statim in duas partes divisa, sunt flammae, et hinc atque illinc seditiosos populos exurebant, ipsam autem B. Agnen peritus in nullo contingebat incendium. Eo magis hoc non virtutibus divinis, sed maleficiis deputantes, dabant, frcmitus inter se populi, et infinitos clamores ad colum. Tunc B. Agnes expendens manus suas in medio ignis his verbis orationem fudit ad Dominum : Omnipotens, adorande, colende, tremende, Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, benedico te quia per filium tuum unigenitum evasi minas hominum impiorum et spurcitias diaboli impolluta transivi. Ecce et nunc per spiritum sanctum rore coelesti perfusa sum; focus juxta memoritur, flamma dividitur, et ardor incendii hujus ad eos a quibus ministratur, refunditur. Benedico te pater omnipotens, qui etiam per flammas, intrepidam me ad te venire permittis. Ecce quod credidi jam video, quod speravi jam teneo, quod concupivi manibus jam complector. Te igitur labiis confi

teor, te corde, te totis visceribus concupisco. Ecce ad te venio vivum et verum deum ! » Acta Sanct. Tom. 2, p. 352. Jany. 21. Pita S. Agnates, Auc. S. Ambrosio. St Agnes, St Catherine, and St Margaret, were the saints

more particularly reverenced by the Maid of Orleans.

Note 63, page 13, col. 2. Was silence to my soul.

Through the scene are faintly heard
Sounds that are silence to the mind.
Charles Lloyd.

Note 64, page 15, col. 1. Effaced the hauberk's honourable marks. Afin d'empêcher les impressions que ce treillis de fer devoit laisser sur la peau, on avoit soin de se matelasser en dessous. Malgré ces précautions cependant il en laissoit encore; ces marques sappeloient camois, et on les faisoit disparoitre par le bain.—Le Grand.

Note 65, page 15, col. 2. Then bow'd her to the sword of martyrdom.

Such is the legend of St Catherine, princess of Alexandria, whose story has been pictured upon sign-posts and in churches, but whose memory has been preserved in this country longer by the ale-house than by the altar. The most extravagant perhaps of Dryden's plays is upon this subject. In my former edition I had, ignorantly, represented Catherine as dying upon the wheel, and the description of her sufferings was far too minute. Dryden has committed the last fault in a far greater degree; the old martyrologies particularise no cruelties more revolting to the reader than he has detailed in the speech of Maximin when he orders her to execution. From a passage in the Jerusalem Conquistada it should seem that St Catherine was miraculously betrothed to her heavenly spouse. As the crusaders approach Jerusalem, they visit the holy places on their way. Qual visita el lugar con llanto tierno, Donde la herinosa virgen Caterina Se desposó con el Esposo eterno, La Angélica Rachel siendo madrina; Aquel Esposo, que el nevado invierno So cubrid con escarcha mat utina, El que tiene los ojos de palomas Y del labio de lirio vierte aromas. Lope de Vega. The marginal note adds, La Virgen fue Madrina, en los desporios de Caterina y Christo. Of St Margaret, the other favourite saint of the Maid, I find recorded by Bergomensis, that she called the pagan praefect an impudent dog, that she was thrown into a dungeon, where a horrible dragon swallowed her, that she crossed herself, upon which the dragon immediately burst and she came out safe, and that she saw the devil standing in the corner like a black man, and seized him and threw him down. Absurd as this legend is, it once occasioned a very extraordinary murder. A young Lombard, after hearing it, prayed so earnestly for an opportunity of fighting with the devil like St Margaret, that he went into the fields in full expectation that his desire would be gratified. A hideous old dumb woman came by; he mistook her for the tempter; her inarticulate noises confirmed him in this opinion, and he knocked her down and trampled upon her. The poor wretch died ofher bruises, but a miracle was wrought to save her murderer in consideration that his madness was a pious madness, and before she died, she spoke to excuse the mistake. This tale is told in that strange collection of ludicrous stories upon religious subjects, the Pia Hilaria. The authority referred to is Petr. Rausani Hist. lib. 35.

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Note 66, page 15, col. a.
The sacred sword.

« Puella petiit gladium, quem divinitus uti aiebat, erat facta certior in templo divæ Catherinæ in Turomibus, inter antiqua donaria pendere. Miratus Carolus, gladium inquiri, ac inventum protinus Puellæ afferri jussit.»—Polydore Pirgil.

Roland, or rather Orlando, for it is Ariosto who has immortalised him, was buried with Durindana at his side, and his horm Olifant at his feet. Charlemain also had his good sword Joyeuse buried with him. He was placed in his sepulchre on a golden throne, crowned and habited in his imperial robes, though a cilicio was next his skin ; one hand held a globe of gold, the other rested on the gospels, which were lying on his knees. His shield and sceptre were hung opposite to him, on the side of the sepulchre, which was filled with perfumes and spices, and then closed. Tizona was buried with the Cid, no living man being worthy to wield that sword with which Rodrigo, even after death, had triumphed ; and which had been miraculously half drawn from the scabbard to avenge the insult offered by a Jew to his corpse.

Note 67, page 16, col. 1.
They partook the feast.

« Cette cérémonie chez les grands s'annoncoit au son du cor, ou au son d'une cloche ; coutume qui subsiste eneore dans les couvents et les maisons opulentes, pour annoncer le couvert et le diné. Après le scrvice des viandes, c'est-à-dire après ce que nous appelons entrées, róti et entremets, om sortoit de table pour se laver les maims une seconde fois, comme chez les Romains, de qui paroit etre venu cet usage. Les domestiques desservoient pendant ce tems; ils enlevoient une des nappes et apportoient les confitures (qu'on nommait epices) et les vins composés. A ce moment, fait pour la gaieté, commenfoient les devis plaisants et joyeux propos, car dans ce bon vieux temps on aimoit beaucoup a rire. C'étoit alors que les ménétriers venoient réciter leurs fabliaux, lorsqu'on admettoit leur présence. » Le Grand.

Note 68, page 16, col. i.
Or luscious witb metbeglin mingled rich. *

« ll y avoit plusieurs sortes de ces vins préparés qu'on servoit après les viandes. 1. Les vins cuits, qui sont encore en usage dans quelques provinces, et qui ont conservé le même nom. 2. Ceux auxquels on ajoutoit le suc de quelque fruit, tels que le More, fait avec du jus de mùres. 3. Ceux qu'on assaisomnoit avec du miel, comme le Nectar, le Medon, etc. 4. Ceux où I'on faisoit infuser des plantes médicinales ou aromatiques, et qui prenoient leur mom de ces plantes, /ins d'Absynthe, de Myrte, d Aloes, etc. Le Roman de Florimont les appelle vins herbe*. 5. Enfin ceux dans lesquels, outre le miel, il entroit des épices. On appelloit ces derniers

du nom général de Pimens. Cétoient les plus estimés de tous. Nos auteurs n'en parlent qu'avec délices. Il cat manqué quelque chose à une fete ou à un repas, si on n'y eút point servi du piment : et I'on en donnoit même aux moines dans les couvents à certains jours de I'année. » Le Grand.

Note 69, page 1 6, col. 1. 0f Cornwall. Sir Tristram du Lyones.

Note 7o, page 16, col. 1. Tbe dolorous stroke.

Sir Balin le Sauvage.

Note 7 1, page 16, col. 1. like that diviuest Tuscam.

Ariosto.
Note 72, page 16, col. 2.
thou canst not with thy golden belt.

Du proverbe Bonne renommee vaut mieux que ceinture doree.

Lisant um arrest ancien qui est encores pour le jourd 'huy inseré aux registres du Chastelet de Paris, j'estimay qu'en ce proverbe il y avoit une notable sentence, et une longue ancienneté tout enseml»le. Car par arrest qui est du 28 de Juin 142o, il est porté en termes exprés que deffenses sont faites à toutes femmes amoureuses, filles de joye, et paillardes de ne porter robbes à collets renversez, queiies, ne ceimtures dorees, boutonnieres à leurs chaperons, sur peine de confiscation et amende, et que les huissiers de parlement, commissaires et sergents du Chastelet qui les trouveroient, eussent à les mener prisonnieres.

Au surplus (je diray cecy en passant) à la miemne volonté que ceux qui donnerent cest arrest eussent tourné la chamce, et que non seulement ces ceintures dorees, ains en toutes autres dorures, et affliquets, iis eussent fait dcffenses à toutes femmes d'honneur d'emporter, sur peine destre declarees putains: car il n'y auroit poimt plus prompt moyen que cestuy, pour bannier le superfluité et bombancc des dames.—Pasquier.

Note 73, page 17, col. 1.

I knew w rsrlr. « Haec igitur Janna Pulcella virgo, cum magnam gloriam in armis esset adepta, et regnum Francorum magnâ ex parte deperditum, e manibns Anglorum pugnando eripuisset, in suâ florente ætate constituta, non solum se morituram, sed et genus suae mortis

cunctis praedixit. » Bergomensis.

Note 74, page 17, col. 1. There is a patl. « There is a path which mo fowl knoweth, and whieh the vultures eye hath not seen : the liom's whelps have mot trodden it, nor the fierce lion passed by it. » Job, xxviii, 7, 8.

Note 75, page 17, col. a. As they did hear the loud alarum bell. In sooth the estate of France was them most miserable. There appeared nothing but a horrible face, confusion, poverty, desolation, solitarinesse and feare, The leam and bare labourers in the country did terrifie even theeves themselves, who had nothing left

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them to spoile but the carkasses of these poore miserable creatures, wandering up and down like ghostes drawne out of their graves. The least farmes and hamlets were fortified by these robbers, English, Bourguegnons and French, every one striving to do his worst : all men of war were well agreed to spoile the countryman and merchant. Even the cattell, accustomed to the larume bell, the signe of the enemy's approach, would run home of themselves without any guide by this accustomed misery. This is the perfect description of those times, taken out of the lamentations of our ancestors, set down in the original, says De Serres. But amidst this horrible calamity, God did comfort both the king and realme, for about the end of the yeere, he gave Charles a goodly sonne by queen Mary his wife.

Note 76, page 17, col. 1. Was as a pilgrim. « O my people, hear my word: make you ready to the battle, and in those evils, be even as pilgrims upon the earth. ”— 2 Esdras, xvi, 4o.

Note 77, page 17, col. 1. Cast the weak nature off. * Let go from thee mortal thoughts, cast away the burdens of man, put off now the weak nature. “And set aside the thoughts that are most heavy unto thee, and haste thee to flee from these times.”— 2 Esdras, xiv., 14, 15.

Note 78, page 18, col. 2. Worthy a happier. Digna minus misero, non meliore viro. Ovid. Note 79, page 18, col. 2. And I must put away all mortal thoughts. 2 Esdras, xiv., 14. Note 80, page 20, col. 1. Ruin rush'd round us. To succeed in the siege af Orleans, the English first

secured the neighbouring places, which might otherwise have annoyed the besiegers. The months of August and September were spent in this work. During that space they took Mehun, Baugenci, Gergean, Clery, Sully, Jenville, and some other small towns, and at last appeared before Orleans on the 12th of October. —Rapin.

Note 81, page 20, col. 2.

Soon sadden'd Orleans. The French king used every expedient to supply the

city with a garrison and provisions, and enable it to maintain a long and obstinate siege. The lord of Gaucour, a brave and experienced captain, was appointed governor. Many officers of distinction threw themselves into the place. The troops which they conducted were inured to war, and were determined to make the most obstinate resistance : and even the inhabitants, disciplined by the long continuance of hostilities, were well qualified in their own defence, to second the efforts of the most veteran forces. The eyes of all Europe were turned towards this scene; where, it was reasonably supposed, the French were to make their last staud for maintaining the independence of their monarchy, and the rights of their sovereign.-Hume.

Note 82, page 20, col 2. The sire Chappelle. This title was not discriminately used by the French. Chappelle is sometimes styled le sire, and sometimes gentilhomme de Beausse by Daniel. The same title was applied to the Almighty, and to princes; and Selden observes from Pasquier, a these ancient barons affected rather to be stiled by the name of sire than baron, and the baron of Coucy carried to that purpose this rithme in his device: Je ne suis roy ne prince aussi, Je suis le sire de Coucy.

Note 83, page 20, col. 2. Can never wield the crucifix that hilts His hallow'd sword. “At the creation of a knight of Rhodes a sword with a cross for the hilt was delivered to him in token that his valour must defend religion. No bastard could be a knight hospitaller, from whose order that of Rhodes was formed, except a bastard to a prince, there being honour in that dishonour, as there is light in the very spots of the moon.”—Fuller's Historie of the Holy Warre. Note 84, page 20, col. 2. And that young duke. Alençon. Note 85, page 20, col. 2. La Hire, the merriest man. • In the late warres in France between king Henry the fifth of England and Charles the seventh of France, the French armie being in distresse, one captain La Hire, a Frenchman, was sent to declare unto the said French king the estate and affaires of the warre, and how for want of victuals, money, and other necessaries, the French had lost divers townes and battailes to the English. The French king being disposed to use his captaine familiarly, shewed him such thinges as himself was delighted in, as his buildings, his banquets, faire ladies, etc. and then asked the captaine how hee liked them : “Trust me, sir, quoth the captaine, speaking his mind freely, “I did never know any prince that more delighted himself with his losses, than you doe with yours.”—Stowe. La Hire had just time before an engagement to make a general confession of his sins, and tell his confessor that they were all of them very soldier like ones. This done, he made this prayer:—“ Dieu je te prie, que tu fasses aujourd'hui pour La Hire, autant que tu voudrois que La Hire fit pour toi, s'il etoit Dieu et tu fusses La Hire.” The epitaph of Thomas Hodmandod was evidently suggested by this ill-directed jest of La Hire. It is surprising how few witticisms are original.

Note 86, page 20, col. 2. Of ruin. • They pulled down all the most considerable buildings in the suburbs, and among the rest twelve churches and several monasteries; that the English might not make use of them in carrying on the siege.”—Rapin. Monstrelet.

Note 87, page 21, col. 1. No more the merry viol's note was heard.

The instrument which most frequently served for an accompaniment to the harp, and which disputed the pre-eminence with it in the early times of music in France, was the viol; and indeed, when reduced to four strings, and stript of the frets with which viols of all kinds seem to have been furnished till the 16th century, it still holds the first place among treble instruments under the denomination of violin. The viol played with a bow, and wholly different from the vielle, whose tones are produced by the friction of a wheel which indeed performs the part of a bow, was very early in favour with the inhabitants of France. Burney's History of Music.

Note 88, page 21, col. 1.
Call'd on Saint Aignan's name.

St Aignan was the tutelary saint of Orleans. He had miraculously been chosen bishop of that city when Attila besieged it. “Comme les citoyens effrayez eurent recours a leur prelat, luy, sans se soucier, pour le salut des siens, sortit de la ville et parla a Attila. Mais ne Tayant pu flechir, il semit en prières, fit faire des processions, et porter parles rues les reliques des saints. Un prestre s'étant mocqué, disant, que cela navoit de rien profité aux autres villes, tomba roide morte sur la place, portant par ce moyen la peine de son insolente temerité. Apres toutes ces choses, il commanda aux habitants de voir sile secours n’arrivoit point; ayant été répondu que non, il se remet en prieres, et puis leur fait mesme commandement: mais nappercevant point encore de secours, pour la troisieme fois il se prosterna a terre, les yeux et l'esprit vers le Ciel. Se sentant exaucé, il fait monter a la guerite et luy rapporte-t-on que l’on ne voyoit rien si non une grosse nuée de poussiere, il assuere que c'etoit le secours d'AEtius et de Teudo Roy des Goths, lesquels tardans a se montrer a l'armee d'Attila, S. Aignan fut divinement transporte en leur champ, et les advertit que tout estoit perdu, s'ils attendoient au lendemain. Ils parurent aussi-tost, et forcerent Attila de lever si hâtivement le siege, que plusieurs des siens se noyerent dans la Loire, d'autres sentretuerent avec regret d’avoir perdu la ville. Et non contens de cette victoire, le poursuivirent si vivement avec le Roy Merouee, que se vint joindre a eux, qu'ils le defirent en bataille rangée pres de Châlons, jonchant la campagne de 180,000 cadavres.”—Le nouveau Parterre des fleurs des vies des Saints. Par P. Ribadeneira, André du Val, et Jean Baudoin. Lyons, 1666.

Note 89, page 21, col. 2.
At Troyes.

• By the treaty of Troyes, Charles was to remain in quiet possession of the royal dignity and revenues. After his death the crown with all its rights and dominions, devolved to Henry and his heirs. The imbecility of Charles was so great that he could not appear in public, so that the queen and Burgundy swore for him.”—Rapin.

Note 90, page 22, col. 1.

Salisbury, their watchful chief. • The besiegers received succours in the very beginning of the siege; but the earl of Salisbury, who considered this enterprise as a decisive action for the king his master, and his own reputation, omitted nothing to deprive the besieged of that advantage. He run up round the city sixty forts. How great soever this work

might be, nothing could divert him from it, since the success of the siege entirely depended upon it. In vain would he have pursued his attack, if the enemies could continually introduce fresh supplies. Resides, the season, now far advanced, suggested to him, that he would be forced to pass the winter in the camp, and during that time be liable to many insults. Among the sixty forts, there were six much stronger than the rest, upon the six principal avenues of the city. The French could before with ease introduce convoys into the place, and had made frequent use of that advantage. łut after these forts were built, it was with extreme difficulty that they could, now and then, give some assistance to the besieged. Upon these six redoubts the general erected batteries, which thundered against the walls.”—Rapin.

Note 91, page 22, col. 1. The six great avenues meet in the midst. Rheims had six principal streets meeting thus in one centre where the cathedral stood. Au centre de la ville, entre six avennes, S'élève un sacré temple à la hauteur des nues. Chapelain. I know not whether towns were usually built upon this plan. Note 92, page 22, col. 1. Possess'd the Tournelles. The bulwark of the Tournelles being much shaken by the besiegers' cannon, and the besieged thinking it Proper to set it on fire, the English extinguished the flames, and lodged themselves in that post. At the same time they became masters of the tower on the bridge, from whence the whole city could be viewed. Rapin. Note 93, page 22, col. 1. The wild-fire balls shower'd through the midnight sky. Drayton enumerates these among the English preparations for war. The engineer provided the petard To break the strong portcullies, and the balls

Of wild-fire devised to throw from far
To burn to ground their palaces and halls.

And at the siege of Harfleur he says:

Their brazen slings send in the wild-fire balls. Balls of consuming wild-fire

That lickt men up like lightning, have 1 laught at,
And tost 'em back again like children's trifles.
B. and F. The Mad Lorer.

“I do command that particular care be had, advising the gunners to have half butts with water and vinegar, as is accustomed, with bonnets and old sails, and wet mantles to defend fire, that as often is thrown.

• Every ship shall carry two boats lading of stones, to throw to profit in the time of fight on the deck, forecastle or tops, according to his burden.

“That the wild-fire be reparted to the people most expert, that we have for the use thereof, at due time; for that if it be not overseen, giving charge thereof to those that do understand it, and such as we know can tell how to use it; otherwise it may happen to great danger.”—Orders set down by the duke of Medina to be observed in the voyage toward England. Harl. Misc. vol. i.

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« Some were preparing to toss balls of wild-fire, as if the sea had been their tennis-court.”—Deliverance of certain Christians from the Turks, Harl. Misc. vol. i.

Note 94, page 22, col. 2. Poisonous pollution.

Thus at the siege of Thin sur l'Escault:—w Ceulx de lost leur gectoient par leur engins chevaulz mors et autres bestes mortes et puantes, pour les empuantir, dont ilz estoient la dedans en moult trant destresse. Car lair estoit fort et chault aimsi comme en plein este, et de ce furent plus constraints que de nulle autre chose. Si considerent finablement entre eulx que celle messaise ilz ne pourroient longuement endurer ne souffrir, tant leur estoit la punaisie abhominable.”—Froissart, i. 38.

This was an evil which sometimes annoyed the besieging army. At Dan a pour la puantise des bestes que lon tuoit en lost, et des chevaulx qui estoient mors, lair estoit tout corrumpu, dont moult de chevaliers et escuyers en estoient malades et merencolieux, et sey alloient les plusieurs, refreschir a Bruges et ailleurs pour éviter ce mauvais air.”—Froissart, i. 175.

Note 95, page 22, col. 2.
Shrouded in unwholesome vaults.

At Thin sur l'Escault, a La sist le duc charier grant foison d'engins de Cambray et de Douay, et en y cut six moult grams, le duc les sist lever devant la forteresse. Lesqlz engins gectoient nuyt et jour grosses pierres et mangonneaulx qui abatoient les combles et le hault des tours des chambres et des sailes. Et en contraigmoient les gens du Chastel par cest assault tresdurement. Et simosient les compaignons qui le gardoient demourer en chambres men sales quilz eussent, mais en caves et en celiers.”—Froissart, i, 38.

Note 96, page 22, col. 2. Eager to mark the carrion crow for food. Scudery has a most ingenious idea of the effects of famine: during the blockade of Rome by the Goths, he makes the inhabitants first eat one another, and then eat themselves.

La rage se meslant a leurs douleurs extremes,
Iis se mangent l'un l'autre, ils se mangent eux-mesmes.
Alaric,

Fuller expresses the want of food pithily:- The siege grew long, and victuals short.”

Note 97, page 22, col. 2. When in the sun the Angel of the Lord. ... And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of Heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God: ... that ye may cat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them.”—Revelation, xix. 17, 18. The same idea occurs in Ezekiel, though not with equal sublimity. ... And thou, son of man, thus saith the Lord God, speak unto every feathered fowl, and to every beast of the ficki. Assemble yourselves, and come ; gather yourselves on every side to my sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, even a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood.

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Note loi, page 24, col. 2. IIis silence threaten'd. Son silence menace. Le Moyne. Note 1 oz, page 25, col. 1. See the fire consume him. Reasons for burning a trumpeter. “The letter she sent to Suffolk was received with scorn, and the trumpeter that brought it commanded to be burnt, against the law of nations, saith a French author," but erroneously, for his coming was not warranted by the authority of any lawfull prince, but from a private maid, how highly soever self-pretend, d, who had neitier estate to keep, nor commission to send a trumpeter.”—Puller's Profane State.

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* De Serres.

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