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quand il devenoit plus puissant, son souverain coupoit lui-meme les fanons de son etendard, pour le rendre quarré." - Tressan.

An incident before the battle of Najara exemplifies this. “ As the two armies approached near together, the prince went over a little hill, in the descending whereof he saw plainly his enemies marching toward him : wherefore when the whole army was come over this mountain, he commanded that there they should make an halt, and so fit themselves for fight. At that instant the lord John Chandos brought his ensign folded up, and offered it to the prince, saying, “Sir, here is my guidon; I request your highness to display it abroad, and to give me leave to raise it this day as my banner; for I thank God and your highness, I have lands and possessions sufficient to maintain it withall.' Then the prince took the pennon, and having cut off the tail, made it a square banner, and this done, both he and king Don Pedro for the greater honour, holding it between their hands displayed it abroad, it being Or, a sharp pile Gules: and then the prince delivered it unto the lord Chandos again, saying, 'Sir John, behold here is

your banner. God send you much joy and honour with it.' And thus being made a knight banneret, the lord Chandos returned to the head of his men, and said, “Here, gentlemen, behold my banner and yours! Take and keep it, to your honour and mine ! And so they took it with a shout, and said by the grace of God and St. George they would defend it to the best of their powers. But the banner remained in the hands of a gallant English esquire named William Allestry, who bore it all that day, and acquitted himself in the service right honourably.”.

Barnes.

Page 175. line 277.

Vidames.

This title frequently occurs in the French Chronicles; it was peculiar to France, “the vidame or vicedominus being to the bishop in his temporals as the vicecomes or vicount anciently to the earle, in his judicials.” — Peter Heylyn.

Page 175. line 279.

And silken surcoats to the mid-day sun
Glittering.

Joshua Barnes seems to have been greatly impressed with the splendour of such a spectacle. “ It was a glorious and ravishing sight, no doubt,” says he, “to behold these two armies standing thus regularly embattled in the field, their banners and standards waving in the wind, their proud horses barded, and kings, lords, knights, and esquires richly armed, and all shining in their surcoats of satin and embroidery.”

Thus also at Poictiers, “ there you might have beheld a most beautiful sight of fair harness, of shining steel, feathered crests of glittering helmets, and the rich embroidery of silken surcoats of arms, together with golden standards, banners and pennons gloriously moving in the air.”

And at Najara “ the sun being now risen, it was a ravishing sight to behold the armies, and the sun reflecting from their bright steel and shining armour. For in those days the cavalry were generally armed in mail or polished steel at all points, and besides that, the nobility wore over their armour rich surcoats of silk and satin embroidery, whereon was curiously sticht or beaten, the arms of their house, whether in colour or metal.”

Page 175. 1. 281.

- For not to brutal strength they deem'd it right

To trust their country's weal.

Nos ancestres, et notamment du temps de la guerre des Anglois, en combats solemnels et journées assignées, se mettoient la pluspart du temp tous à pied ; pour ne se fier à autre chose qu'à leur force propre et vigueur de leur courage et de leur membres, de chose si chere que l'honneur et la vie. — Montaigne, Liv. i. c. 48.

In the battle of Patay, Monstrellet says, les François moult de pres mirènt pied à terre, et descendirent la plus grand partie de leur chevaulx.

In El Cavallero Determinado, an allegorical romance translated from the French of Olivier de la Marche by Hernando

de Acuna, Barcelona, 1565, this custom is referred to by Un. derstanding, when giving the knight directions for his combat with Atropos.

En esto es mi parecer

Que en cavallo no te fies ;
Por lo qual has de entender
Que de ninguno con

fies
Tu lymosna y bien hazer.

Page 175. line 286.— Their javelins shorten'd to a wieldy length.

Thus at Poictiers, “ the three battails being all ready ranged in the field, and every lord in his due place under his own banner, command was given that all men should put off their spurs, and cut their spears to five foot length, as most commodious for such who had left their horses.". Barnes.

Page 176. line 293. Hræsvelger starting.

Hræsvelgr vocatur
Qui sedet in extremitate cæli,
Gigas exuvias amictus aquila :
Ex ejus alis
Ferunt venire ventum
Omnes
super

homines. Vafthrudnismal.
Where the Heavens remotest bound
With darkness is encompassed round,
There Hræsvelger sits and swings
The tempest from his eagle wings.

The Edda of Sæmund, translated by Amos Cottle. Among the idols of Aitutaki, (one of the Hervey Islands,) sent home among other trophies of the same kind to the Missionary Museum, is the God of Thunder, Taau. The natives used to believe that when Taau was Aying abroad, Thunder was produced by the flapping of his wings. Williams' Mis. sionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands, p. 109.

At the promontory of Malea on the ruins of the Temple of Apollo, there is a chapel built to the honour of Michael the archangel. Here we could not but laugh at the foolish superstition of the sailors, who say, when the wind blows from that place, that it is occasioned by the violent motion of Michael's wings, because forsooth, he is painted with wings. And for that reason, when they sail by Michael they pray to him that he may hold his wings still. - Baumgarten.

Page 177. line 335.— Or with the lance protended from his front.

In a combat fought in Smithfield 1467, between the lord Scales and the bastard of Burgoyne, “ the lord Scales' horse had on his chafron a long sharp pike of steele, and as the two champions coaped together, the same horse thrust his pike into the nostrills of the bastard's horse, so that for very paine, he mounted so high that he fell on the one side with his master.” -Stowe.

This weapon is mentioned by Lope de Vega, and by an old Scotch poet.

Unicornia el cavallo parecia

Con el fuerte pyramide delante,
Que en medio del bocal resplandecia
Como si fuera punta de diamante.

Jerusalen Conquistada, l. 10.

His horse in fyne sandel was trapped to the hele.

And, in his cheveron biforne,
Stode as an unicorne,
Als sharp as a thorne,
An anlas of stele.

Sir Gawan and Sir Galaron.

Florisel found this part of his horse's armour of good service, when in the combat of eighteen against eighteen, he encountered the king of the Scythians, geant demesuré ; il chevauchoit un grand animal de son pays, duquel nous ne sçavons le

nom : aussi etoit-il tant corpulent et membru, qu'on n'erst sceu fournir roussin qui l'eust peu porter. The first encounter .fut très belle jouste à voir, et au joindre des corps mourut treize chevaux, compris l'animal du Roy de Scythie, qui fut si lourdement rencontré par le destrier de Florisel, portant bardes de fer, et" une poincte acerée sur le chanfrain qu'il fourra si avant parmy les flancz de ceste grosse beste, qu'il atterrace avec les autres, et la jambe de son maistre dessouz.

Amadis, L. x. ff. 51, 52. The Abyssinians use it at this day; Bruce says it is a very troublesome useless piece of their armour.

Page 178. line 372.

To snatch the shield of death.

Thus did Juba catch up the shield of death to defend himself from ignominy. — Cleopatra.

Page 178, line 379. Their tower of strength.

Ωσπερ γαρ μιν πυργον εν οφθαλμοισιν ορωσιν. --Tyrtaus. Quarles has made this expression somewhat ludicrous by calling Sampson

Great army of men, the wonder of whose power
Gives thee the title of a walking tower.

Page 180. line 435. And when the boar's head

Smoked on the Christmas board.

Two carols for this occasion are preserved in Mr. Ritson's valuable collection of Ancient Songs. The first of these, here alluded to, is as follows :

Caput apri defero
Reddens laudes domino.
The bore's heed in hand bring I
With garlands gay and rosemary,
I pray you all synge merely

Qui estis in convivio.

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