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France and the Low Countries to fo de history. 4. Metaphysics and education. derving an object. Complaints have been 5. Mathematics, including naval and mimade of the profusion of wood consumed litary tactics, economy, arts, and main the public offices of France, for which nufactures, and the cominercial sciences. no better reason can be given than that 6. History and geography. 7. Criticism the ashes (now rendered doubly valuable and the Belles Lettres. 8. The history on aecount of the quantity of falt-petre of literature, general and particular, inmanufactured in every part of the repub- cluding miscellaneous works; and, 9. An lic) are the perquisites of the office- universal alphabetical index of books pubkeepers.
lished in this period, with the prices, to A very novel phenomenon we observe which is prefixed a portrait of Dr. Herin the French book trade. From the ex
For the accommodation of purtraordinary scarcity of ready money pre- chasers, each of these nine departments is vailing in the republic, the book fellers in to be sold separately. general are ruined, or at least unable to
The arts of every kind, whether libemake purchases of manuscripts; and the ral or industrious, appear to meet with few who have money, prefer applying it every encouragement in France at this in the funds, where they can gain an in- time; that of printing seems in full acTereit of forty per cent. for fpecie. The tivity. The C. C. Didot and HERHAN consequence is, that foreign booksellers have gone beyond our logographic attempt : repair from distant countries to Paris, to they have instituted what they call stereopurchase the copyright of the most valu- type printing, i.e. the form to be printed able Frenc! writers, and they could not off is composed of solid pages. They are enter into a more profitable speculation. not cast in a malš, but firinly cemented Thus Mr. Viewer, of Berlin, has lately or foldered together, after they are compurchased and imported into Germany, posed, so as that no part may be loosened the copyright of " Mercier's New Pic- by the action of the press or the adhesion ture of Paris," in four volumes, a work of the paper. We can easily conceive that contains a number of interesting ef- that the text may thus be preserved more says; it is reprinting at Berlin, and a perfect from the ordinary accidents of translation into German is preparing, by printing; but it is not so certain that the Citizen CRAMER, now at Paris. economy of the art will receive any ad
There is now in the press, at Weimar vantage therefrom ; since it must of nein Germany, one of the moit valuable cessity employ a vast additional quantity and extensive works that has appeared for of metal, and the folid forms must be very a number of years, in the department of liable to be defaced. There will be a literary history, entitled, “ The Universal saving in paper undoubtedly; as so much Repertory of Literature, from the Year need not lie on the shelves of the book1791 to 1795;" being a continuation of feller, but till the total of the advantages the former Repertory from 1785 to 1790, and disadvantages are taken into the acin three volumes, quarto, one of which is count and fairly balanced, we shall hesitate already published, the second to appear in to pronounce this novelty in the art an Easter, and the last at Midsummer; the improvement. fubscription price of the whole, eight Profeffor Faust, of Buckeburg, in Saxon dollars, or about twenty-eight Westplialia, stands, at this moment, in a fhillings sterling. It consists of a lyf- confpicuous point of view. Of his vatematic register of all the critical, gene- rious philanthropic works his " Catechism ral, or particular journals, of any value, of Health” is faid to deserve a place among and respectability, published in Europe the first elementary books, But his faduring this period; of an alphabetical vourite plan, and which occupies him at index of all the books that have appeared this moment, is the entire extirpation of within the same time, together with their the finall-pox. He considers it as a simprices, and likewise of the individual trea- ple epidemic disease, whose duration and tises and Essays contained in periodical prolongation are the effect only of ignoworks, with regular reference to the rance in the people, and indifference in “ Systematic Register;" and of alphabetic governmeuts, and that it ought to be cal tables of the principal fühjects treated made to dilappear like the leprosy. He of in the different clailes of books, ac- points out the 'way by which he conceives coreling to the following systematic ar- this daily scourge of the human race, said rangement. 1. Theology. 2. Juridical to sweep away one twelfth of the populaand statistical literature. 3. Medicine, tion of Europe, may be removed. In including phybcs, chemistry, and natural short, the professor is desirous to persuade
1799.) Fifty Articles of Literary and Philosophical Intelligence. the legislature of the different states of Eu- French, The list of the members of this rope, that by a consentaneous act of au- inftitute contains, among others, the ile thority they might decree the extinction luftrious names of Monge, Bauchamp, of the small-pox as easily as France de- Berthollet, Dolomieu, and Denon. The creed the abolition of royalty. J. C. G. following questions were proposed at their JUNCKER, professor of medicine at Halle, first meeting : 1. How improve the frucand the poet REINeike, have seconded ture of ovens for the preparation of bread the humane views of Professor FAUST in
to the army ?
2. To fisd a fubftitute his laudable design; they have together that may be used instead of barley in in concert presented three different ad- making beer ? 3. What are the best dresses to the congress at Raitadt, upon means for clarifying and cooling the wathe necessity of taking general measures ters of the Nile? 4. Are wind or water against the finall-pox: C. LENZ has mills the more suitable for use in Egypt? allo presented one of a like tendency to 5. What are the fittest resources to sup. the French Directory: it is therefore pro- ply the French army in Egypt with gunbable at least that an experiment may be powder ? 6. What is the present Itate tried how far the hope will be realized of of legislation in Egypt? and how may it extinguishing this loathsome and fre- be ameliorated ? 7. To produce a plan quently fatal disease, and with it doubt- of general regulation.--At the second less, as the means cannot be more diffi- meeting of this institute, Andreoffy, one cult, the mealles. Professor JUNCKER
of its inembers, reported, concerning the kas formed a society of more than a hun- article of gunpowder, that Egypt had aldred and fifty physicians, German, Dutch, ways received its supplies of fulphur and Swiss, who have solemnly engaged from Venice, that its charcoal was lupunitedly and personally to employ all their plied from the burning of the stalks of the energy for stopping the ravages of these lapine, that, however, faltpetre is fuffipests of the younger age*
ciently plentiful in Egypt, where it is There has been published at VENICE,
found both in native veins and also m2a work of some importance in the science nufactured, as in Europe. The faltpetre of Optics, by à philosopher, whose of Egypt he farther reported to be a niname is AMBROGIA FUSINIERI. Its trate of potash, and not like the French object is to prove, that the resistance of falepetre, nitrate of lime; the stalks of the refracting Media, and by no means Turkey corn are used in its preparation, the laws of Newtonian attraction, can and it is purified with white of eggs. alone account for the phænomena of the The gunpowder is manufactured by workrefraction of light.
men who remain naked while they are at In their hopes of Oriental empire, the work. It is of an excellent quality, and French have been induced to apply, with cheaper than gunpowder is in France. extraordinary zeal, to the study of the The Egyptian gunpowder was formerly living languages of the cast. The Per- an article of exportation to Leghorn. han, the Arabic, the Turkish, and the Ar- The Beys poffeffed no large magazines of menian languages form a particular courte gunpowder. At the third meeting of the of instruction, which is taught at the institute of Cairo, Berthollet read a meNATIONAL LIBRARY in Paris by a dif
moir on the formation of Ammoniac; Sul. ferent professor for each language. kowsky read a description of the road from
The French, as was announced in the Cairo to Salehieé; some conversation took last Monthly Magazine, have formed a place on the subject of mills, in which national institute at Cairo. In the un- water-mills were concluded to be the fittelt certainty and the difficulties of their pre- for use in Egypt. Berthollet read an acsent situation in Egypt, this institution count of the analysis of the gunpowder of can scarcely appear otherwise than ridi- Cairó, in whieh he thewed it to contain culously premature. And yet we cannot only of salt petre, and to be, as to its but view with respect a scientific and lite other ingredients, a mixture, of sulphur, rary activity, of which the ardour is not to be represed, even by such hardships which requires to be lixiviated anew be
charcoal, earth, and muriate of foda, as those of the Egyptian expedition of the fore it can be fit for ule ; Monge read a
The Cow Pox, which continues to be memoir on the inonuments of antiquity in practised by some of the principal physicians
Cairo, in which he proposed that a paria London with unvaried success, will, per- ticular vase of granite, covered with hiehaps, effect more towards eradicating the roglyphics, should be sent to France. Small Pox, than all the well meant projects The literature of GERMANY is still lo of the German professors.
much more under the influence of men of trade than of men of genius and science; The former it is, in his opinion, an inand its ancient spirit of laborious compia difpenfible law of our existence, to be larion still retains fo inch of its wonted lieve, without demanding those proofs, of afcendency, that extracts, abridgements, which it is, by its nature, unsusceptible. and compilations from the succettive, new The latter is never to be received by the literary productions, continue to fill a very mind without the most rigorous discuflarge proportion of that multitude of vo- fions of reasoning. KANT's primary lumes with which the German preiles in- knowledge is equivalent to the knowledge cessantly teein. The French narrative of of sentiment in the Savoyard Curate's the voyage of M. de la Péroufe ; those Confeifion of Faitli, by ROUSSEAU, details which were communicated in the to the First Truths of BUFFIER,—to the English newspapers concerning the Afri- Common Sense of Red, BEATTIE, and can travels of Mr. Mungo Park; a French OSWALD,--to those instincts and senses publication by the brothers D'Arbois, on which are fo multipled in the writings of the illes of Corcyra and Ithaca, and on Lord KAIMES. His experimental knowthe Egean fea; Iaafiron's thort account ledge, which every person recognizes, as of the colonial establishment of Sierra acquirable by reasoning, observation, and Leone and Boulama, on the western coast experiment. But, KANT, in expressing of Africa, have excluded almost all other his doctrines, was led to' use the technical articles of importance, from the two latest · langnage of Wolffius, of Leibnitz, of Burnumbers which have fallen into our hands, girsdicius. He himself delighted, like of one exceedingly respectable German Aristotle, to speak in the language of abjournal.
Atraction and generalization, religiously By the progress of events in the Tur- avoiding the inaccurate terins of common kish dominions, and by the late descent life : and hence arises the greater part of of a Russian fleet through the Black Sea, his obscurity. Emulating Bacon, he the attention of the inhabitants of Ger- withed to comprehend all human knowmany appears to have been, in a particu- ledge in his arrangements. In the atlar manner, turning upon those parts of tempt he was obliged to invent new terms, the globe. We find in a recent number and to apply to objects, many new defiof a German periodical work a very cu- nitions, the very accuracy and truth of rious hydrographical memoir, concerning which give them often an air of odd and the navigation and the coaits of the Black uncouth peculiarity. Like the late Dr. Sea, which has been produced to gratity Hulton of Edinburgh, he seems to have this temporary curiosity. The publica- accustomed himself to meditate much more tion of a valuable German map of the than he read : and hence he fails to emBlack Sea, with great and important al- ploy with ease the language of books. He terations, was announced in our last has certainly often erred in ranking among number.
the primary principles of knowledge,' That spell of myfticism which involved truths, which are but secondary and expethe writings of KANT, and to those who rimental ; nor are those reasonings always delight in the unintelligible, proved their jult, from which he deduces thole which best recommendation, now begins, in spite he accounts to be truths of experiment. of the extravagancies of his pupils, to be But he is, undeniably, a great man, and gradually dilpelled. KANT perceived the the first metaphysician in Germany: It reasonings of Malbranche, Berkley, and is in this light that Kant's philosophy Hume to have rendered the belief of the is now viewed among his fellow-counreality of things, material or spiritual, in- trymen. Those who would understand compatible with the old metaphysical dec. his works ought to be, first, familiarly trine,--that ideas are the only medium of conversant with the metaphysical writcommunication between the human mind ings of Locke, Hume, Reid, Condillac, and all other things. He was anxious to Leibnitz, Wolffius, and Bacon, othergive a new stability to the first principles wise they will read Kant in vain. of human knowledge. For this end, he The favourite feats of German literadistinguished all our knowledge into the ture are itill Leiplig, Gottingen, Jena, two classes of (1.) primary, criçinal, per- Weimar, Hamburgh, Berlin, Vienna, haps innate knowledge, which must be Frankfort. These places, either as emipossessed and believed before we can make nently corim arcial, as the seats of uniany progress in obfervation and renton- verûties, and the residences of men of leting; and (2.) experimentai knowiedge, ters, on account of particular establish
that which is primary, and ments of printers and booksellers, or for discoverable by reasoning and obtervation. Other reasons, have become to the litera
1799.] Fifty Articles of Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.
153 ture of Germany, what Athens, Elis, and accurate, and the most unaffected narraPifa were
to that of ancient Greece. tives of voyages and travels which have Books are incessantly manufactured and ever been published in Europe. It is but fold in them: and amid much mere book- a meagre abridgment of Niebuhr's tramaking there are allo many labours of ge- vels, of which an English translation was nuine erudition, occasional inventions and some years since published. . Of the discoveries evincing true philosophical pe- DANISH Drama, there has been recently netration, and not a few effuffons of po- presented to us an elegantly tranllated speetical genius of superlative excellence. cimen, under the title of “ Poverty and
Thofe Imperial prohibitions which havel Wealth,” which shews it to be, in comedy, been recently opposed against the impor- very nearly of the same character with tation of the production of foreign lite. that which now prevails on the theatres of rature into Ruflia, cannot but very ma
Britain and France. terially retard the advancement of know- SWEDEN no longer possesses a Linledge and civilization in that extensive næus, a Scheele, or a Bergman, but there empire. But the establishment of so many arz not wanting in it eminent chemists of the emigrant nobility of France in the and naturalists, the pupils of those great Russian provinces will, necessarily, tend
“ The Elements of Chemistry," by to counteract this effect to a certain de. Fourcroy, so well known by various gree. Nor will it be easily possible either translations in the English language, have to drive the literary arts from that footing been recently translated as well into the which they have already gained in Rur- language of Sweden as into that of Denfia, or to prevent them from continually mark. The university of Upsal is still acquiring there new influence. A new adorned by men of distinguished literary Rusian Atlas is mentioned in the conti- and scientific activity. nental literary journal as a work worthy A Professor GURLITT, of Klooterof applause. There is reason to believe Bergen, an eininent feminary of educathat we might yet borrow from the Ruf- tion in the Prussian dominions, has recently sians, as from other nations, various im- published at Magdeburgh a very curious provements in our arts of domeitic ac- production, on the nature and liistory of commodation. We have had a recent op- the ancient art of working in Mosaics. portunity of seeing a model of a Ruflian The lovers of the fine arts will, of course, stove for warming an apartment, which, be eager to procure this erudite and eleon account of its equable diffusion of gant treatise, and to allign it a place heat, its long preservation of that heat, in their libraries, beside the writings of without waste, and its capacity of assuin- Winckelman. ing the form, even of any elegant piece A French gentleman, resident at Munich, of furniture, may, perhaps, more than in Bavaria, has executed a translation of vie with any thing of the same fort that the valuable essays of Count Rumford, has been mentioned in the ingenious and which is now printing in the press of beneficent communications of Count Rum- Manget at Geneva. ford.
The FRENCH continue to cultivate DENMARK does not, just at this mo- science and literature with much of that ment, present to us any thing fo interest- energy with which they conquer countries, ing in literature as the celebrated ac- and dethrone kings. Some important excount by NIEBUHR of the discoveries and periments on GALVANISM, of which we observations of tlaat famous million of ihall be able, next month, to preteno Literati, which was sent under the an abstracted account to our readers, auspices of Count Bernstorff to explore evince the national institute to poslefs the geography and natural history of the all those abilities for scientific research East. But, we have the pleasure of in- which were formerly displayed in the meforming our readers, that Niebuhr, the moirs of the academy of sciences. only survivor of those who went upon late ineeting of the society for the improvethat expedition, still lives in comfort and ment of the art of healing, at Nancy, in good health at Copenhagen. The son, a very Lorraine, there were read two valuable elegant and well-informed young man, essays on the medicinal properties of Iron, is now in Britain ; is in no mean degree and on the natural history of several vaa master of the English, and will, very rieties of the Laurel tree. The former of probably, be induced to give to the British these essays was the production of Propublic a complete tranllation of his fa- feffor Mandel, and was replete with intether's whole work, which is, in truth, one resting mineralogical and medical facts. of the most faithful, the most scientifically The diversities of form under which iron MONTHLY MAG. No, XLII,
is found to exist in nature ; those changes A Dr. LACOMBE, professor of midwhich art has power to accomplish upon wifery, has recently given great offence to it; its attractability to the magnet, and almost all the other members of the mediits property of asting as a conductor to cal faculty in Paris, by an outrageous the elečtric' fluid; those strong affinities public attack against that which is called with oxygene which enable it to enter to in midwifery the Cæfarian Operation. He readily into combination with air, water, has challenged the advocates of this prac, and faline substances, were among the tice to public difputations. Several very most remarkable classes of facts, into the turbulent scenes of dispute have passed detail of which he entered in the natural between him and his adversaries. He and chemical history of this metal. In triumphs as victorious and invincible, speaking of its influence on the animal they, after contending in vain to hils, and æconomny, he considered iron as existing cough, and laugh, and talk him to silence, in a certain proportion in the blood and complain, that he will fuffer none but other humours when the human body is himselt to utter a word as long as he is in a state of health; and as occafioning able to speak, and that when his animal various diseases by its diminution under fpirits are exhausted, he then escapes rethat proportion, or its augmentation above futation only
by retiring under the preit. He selected chlorosis as one of the tence of excessive fatigue from the scene most remarkable of the diseases which of the dispute. He denies that Julius have this origin. In opposition to the Cæsar was cut out of his mother's womb, theory of Dr. Rollo he maintained, that rejects the credibility of almost every fact it is an excess, not a deficiency, of oxy- in history that represents the Cæsarian gene in the blood, which occations chlo. Operation as capable of being practised rosis, and that it is not oxyde of iron, but with success; affirms, that in the fixteenth unoxydated iron, in a state of extreme di- century, this practice was proscribed in vision of its paris, which must be admi. France on account of its certain danger nistered for the cure of this diftemper. His and inutility, complains that a practice, effay concluded with a curious enquiry which is ncither more nor less than actual into the reality of those medical proper- assassination, should have, in the enlightties which have been afcribed to the mag- ened eighteenth century, become common net; the result of which led him to state, in France, and almost in France alone; that though not capable of working those and asserts, that, with proper care, deliwonders of cure, which have been attri- very is in all cases possible, even without buted to it, the magnet will still, however, the use of instruments. in several cafes, prove an useful remedy.
'THE NEW PATENTS lately enrolled. MR. THOMASON'S FOR STEPS TO is screwed to the joint of the step, so that CARRIAGES.
when the roller bears against the lever, it (With a Plate.)
will of course raise upthe steps. The handle
of the door is made to go through, so that To
in conveniently in and out of a car- pulling to the door, occasions the roller to riage, without the affittance of a servant bear upon the bended lever, and to raise to let down and put up the steps. The up the steps before the door is halt way invention which the patentee offers to the fut. A fpring then begins to act, which public, differs very little in appearance folds the iteps Hat; the lower frame B. from the steps in general use, and appears dides into the upper frame C. A selfto effect that object. They fold up nearly acting bolt secures them firm together, in the same manner, do not occupy inore
and prevents the whole from making any room, stand in the same place, within the noise in the carriage. carriage, and are not so heavy. They In the opening of the door, the steps are unfolded and let down by the action will unfold and defcend with the same raof opening the carriage doos, and folded pidity as the door is opened, and if a pers up by the action of thutting the carriage son opens the door regularly, the teps door.
will descend finoothly, and without noite. To the bottom of the door, near the -A servant in putting up and letting hinge, is fixed an iron roller wheel, which down the fieps thould take hold of the wheel runs on a bended lever. The lever brass handlu D. and he will easily put them