mare currunt.

across the Atlantic Ocean. He said he had On the score of religion, Mr. Merry has foughts of beginning an epic poem on the heen taunted at by the bigots of the age. French revolution. Perhaps he waited for This is a matter which wholly concerned him, its happy termination ere he could finally felf; we have nothing to do with it. That resolve on the plan of fo great a work. His

he had fingular opinions cannot be denied : Tefidence in America, is faid to have confider and if he did not fhew the same abhorrence ably changed his difpofition which was na many do, to the doctrines of Diagoras, Pytưrally lively. He found neither the poli. thagoras and other heathens, it may be said ties, nor the people of the United States, to

for him as the first of those philosophers faid be what he had expected. He however de for himself, that his want of faith was rived all the comforts he could defire from chiefly caused by the evidence of the lucthe society of an affectionate wife, whom he ceffes of so many perjured men. dearly loved. Her good sense and regard for

Whether the new world inspired him with his welfare, made her not hesitate to accept

new notions concerning religion, we are not of the offers made to her in' the way of her able to say; but with regard to politics, his profeffion, and the acquitted herself in Ame

sentiments were stabile as the foundation of rica as in England, to universal admiration.

the universe: for upon a learned friend asking Upon the melancholy death of her husband, him on his arrival, whether his opinions were fhe resolved to return to Europe, and her arti

the same as when he saw hin laft in England, val in London is hourly expected,

he replied Cælum non animum mutant, qui trans Mr. Merry was in his forty first year when he died. He was of a genteei figure, inclined

At Konigsberg, O&tober 3, M. Reccard; he to corpulency, his height about five feet gen had published a number of astronomical obserinches. His countenance expresied uncom

vations. mon amenity and animation the true index

Jean-François Callet, born at Versailles, to his mind. He was a moft agreeable com

October 25, 1744; he made a rapid progress panion, and although he enjoyed the glass, it in his studies and had conceived an early taste was for the sake of company. His excess at

for the mathematics. "He came to Paris in table, if any, is more chargeable to the score 1768, where he had opportunities of making of eating than of drinking, though after all, himself a ftill greater proficient. In 1774, it is to be presumed his constitutional or habituaủ he fermed some excellent pupils for the school difinclination to bodily exercise, is the thing of engineers, where the examinations were to be most regretted as the cause of his pre- he obtained the prize which the Society of

fevere and the receptions difficult. In 1779, mature death. In America, his lofs is greatly deplored by Arts at Geneva had proposed relative to vis.

toes in a landscape (sur les echappemers). In many of the moit e lightened inhabitants. In England, it is more so by a numerous ac

1783, he finished his edition of the Tables de

Gurdiner, which was very convenient, useful quaintance, who have long admired his ta

and exact, and included several advantages lents, and esteemed his virtues. He was a cheerful and entertaining companion ; his which were not to be found in the others. In mind was as well fored with poetical images 1788, he was appointed profeflor of hydrograas his judgment was prompt to call them phy at Vannes, and afterwards at Dunkirk; forth; on which account he was never at a

he returned to Paris in 1792, and became Joss for an elegant and apt fimile, no more

profeffor of geographical engineers in the dethan for a pun

or a jest

. He had his moments pot de la guerre for the terin of four years. of gravity also, and might be said of him, The place having been suppressed, he conti, as it has been of another literary character nued to give lectures at Paris, where he was gone before him, that “no man ever uttered always consid:red as one of the best mathemaà moral sentiment with more dignity, or

tical masters lo be found there. In 1795, he dressed a gay one in more happy colouring."

published the new stereotype edition of the

Tables de Logarithmes, considerably augmented, He could reason or trifle just as it suited the occasion or the company.

He was always ge

with tables of logarithms of the finufes for nerous, though never rich, and his compassion

the new decimal division of the circle; these for the distreiles of others, has often been ma

were the first which have appeared. Towards pifested to a great degree, hy sharing with

the end of 1797, he presented to the Institute

the idea of a new telegraph, and of a telethem what was scarcely sufficient for his own wants. He had manyexcellent and enviable

graphical language, accompanied with a dice

qualities, and though 'resentful to a high degree, all adapted to it by a combination worthy so

tionary of 12,000 French words which were that resentment was unaccompanied by malice. His irascible temper was molt difcerni. able a mathematician. Thefe labours had ble when he beheld the vicious in fplendour, impaired his health; he had for some time and rapacious in security. Againa fuch cha- pait become asthmatical; yet, notwithstanding racters, his shafts could never be sufficiently his infirm condition, he has published again pointed and envenomed; and it may be said of this year an excellent memoir on the longia him on such occafions, as Scaliger said of the tudes at fea, under the modest title of SuppleRuman satyrist,

ment to the Spberical Trigonometry and 10 tbe Navi.

gation of Bezout. He died November 14, 1798, " Ardet, inftat, jugulat."

and has left behind him a daughter born at

In 1781,

Monthly Commercial Report.

259 Vannes in 1793. According to a tradition in nished him with the greater part of the fo. his family, he was descended from that of reign measures; but he added to it a number Descartes ; the author from whom this me cf his own researches, together with differtamoir was translated has not been able to come tions and calculations on the ancient measures, at the genealogy, but he adds, it is sufficient population and agriculture. He had also exfor the glory of Callet, to have done honour ercised himself in other parts of mathemato a name fo celebrated.

tics, as the screw of Archimedes. At Padua, (November 18, year 5) Toaldo, he published a Theory of the Laws of Nature, 2 useful astronomer; he is fucceeded in the in which he refuted Newton and Nollet, and observatory at Padua, by his nephew M. Chi- established a new geometrical foot of 123 lines miniello.

and a quarter (a line is the twelfth part of On March 29, year vi. Bertrand Augustin an inch); in this work he treated of the Carrouge, a very celebrated astronomer. He pyramids of Egypt, &c. He was so thoroughly was born at Dol, in the ci-devant Bretagne, convinced of the importance of his discoveries, October 8, 1741 ; he had calculated a thou- that he took for his motto, E puteo veritas. He fand stars for the Celestial Globe, published by was last of all employed in reducing the ima citizen Lamarche, fucceffor of Fortin; he had mensity of foreign measures to decimal mea. made many calculations for the Connoisance des sures, when the economy of government suptems, and for the second edition of Lalande's presied his stipend, which plunged him in mi. Aftronomy .Hehas printed several memoirs in sery and despair and at length occafioned his the Connoissance des tems, and some days before death. The Institute is at present foliciting his death had sent him some tables to calculate pecuniary aid of government for his widow the phases of the moon, better than those and children. which are inthe Elemens de Navigation of Bou Beauchamp, brother of Beauchamp of Arles, guer and La Caille; they are in the Connoif- whom he accompanied in the expedition to sance des tems for the year 1801. Carrouge Arabia, together with Hyacinthe Receveur, was very poor, when he became Administra- pupil of the latter, who had already given tor General of the Posts, from the confidera

very prompt indications of zeal and capacity. tion which citizen director Reveilliere-Le This loss, which is a very great one for astropaux had for his merit; this elevation how nomy, had disgusted Beauchamp for the AraEver did not prevent him from still consecrat bian

voyage and even thrown him into despair, ing his time and talents to astronomy. so that he had quitted the same and returned

June 15, Alexis-Jean Pierre Paucton, born tu Arles; the minister however has sent to near Lufian, February 10, 1732, and cele- him . to rejoin General Buonaparte and the brated for his Metrologie; a vast collection of learned men with him in Egypt, and he will the measures of all countries, which appeared, doubtless contribute to the success of that în 1780. This undertaking was suggested to important expedition, in whatever relates to him by Lalande, the astronomer, who also fur- the geographical and astronomical part of it.


of on , rope ; and also to Manilla, by a ship called the Helsingoer, has engaged much attention in the mercantile world; and in whatever light it is viewed, the matter certainly deserves investigation ; but as several respectable names, particularly that of a director of the East India company, are implicated in a very great degree in the business, we decline entering into further particulars, till the publication of the papers moved for at the late general court at the India-house, shall have enabled us to form an impartial opinion on the subject.

From the report of a committee of the House of Commons on the state of the East India company's affairs, it appears, that the debts owing by the company in Great Britain, amounted on the ist of March, 1798, to 7,284,6941. ; that the effects of the company in England, and a float outward, consisting of annuities, cash in their treasury, goods sold not paid for, goods unsold, cargoes afloat, and other articles in their commerce, amounted at the same period to 13,211,370l.; and that the sales of the company's goods, which in February, 1793, were estimated on an average to amount to 4,988,300l. amounted in the year 1797-8 to the sum of 4,718,8221.

Some alteration is about to take place in the duties and drawbacks on East India goods of different kinds.

An act has been passed to continue to the 24th of June, 1800, the act passed in the year 1755, for granting a bounty on certain species of British and Irish linens exported.

A committee of the House of Commons has been some time engaged in considering the most effectual means for the improvement and extension of the British herring fishery.

It has been thought necessary to suspend the operation of the convoy act of the last session, with respect to a part of the Newfoundland trade, by permitting thips to fail from certain ports in the island of Newfoundland without convoy.

The present high price of copper has also been the subjet of parliamentary interference. It has lately risen to 1231. and 1241. per ton, and as this unprecedented price, which is prombly occafioned, in a great measure, by the increasing-export by the Eaft India company,

which now amounts to about 3000 tons per annum; and, perhaps in some degree by the new copper coinage, causes a great additional expence in the copper, sheathing of all sorts of vessels as well as in various manufactures. The House of Commons on the 20th instant, refolved, That the East India company ought to be prohibited, for a limited time; from contracting for any copper ore or copper for the purpose of exportation, and from exporting, or permitting to be exported, any copper ore or copper, except such as has been already contracted for ; alíos that it is expedient that copper ore or copper should be permitted to be imported for his majesty's service without payment of duty:

Most kinds of leather are at a high price. The great consumption of calf leather for milió tary accoutrements, has contributed much to advance the price of that article. Red Morocco skins have risen about ics. within the last twelve months, being at present from g6s. to 1448. per dozen. Elack Spaniih have risen 35. or 4s. in the last two or three months, being from 455. to 1 14s. per dozen. Scotch white sheep are from 5l. 155 to 61. 55. ; and English white kids from gl. to 151. per hundred. Skivers, for bookbinders, are 2s. or 35. dearer within the last two months, being at present from 14s. to 245. per dozen. Calf, for ditto, are from 78s. to 545. per dozen. Rusia hides, rough, are cheaper than they were fonie time since, being af present about 25. to 25. 2d. per pound, for heavy fkins; light ditto to 28. 8d. Raw skins or pelts, have experienced a great rise on the last market, and are now 61. 55. per hundred.

The spring trade of the filk manufactory has been very good, having been assisted by cona fiderable orders for exportation. There has been very little variation in the price of raw and thrown filk during the last three months, as most of the manufacturers supplied themselves about that time, but as the import has been very small, the market is scanty of the best filatures, and some inconvenience begins to be experienced from the detention of this article by the late frost, and since from want of convoy. A very considerable arrival of blk from Hamburgh, is expected shortly, in consequence of which, the present stock in the hands of the merchants is to be purchased at very moderate prices; but the manufacturers, aware of the daily expected fleet, avoid buying as much as posible. The Persian manufaca turers have been deftitute of white novi for some months, which has obliged many to fubftifute filk of an inferior quality.

The East India company have declared for sale on the itt of May, 25,oco bags, 95 baskets, and 10 calks of sugar. Prompt day the 5th of July.

The total quantity of sugar imported into Great Britain from the Wet Indies in one year, from January 1798 to January 1799, was 2,361,715cwt. the duty on which was 2,070,3771. of which, 305,3541. was repaid as drawbacks on raw sugar exported, and 216,6591. as bounty on refined lugar exported. The quantity of rum imported in the same period, was 4,196,193 gallons, the duty on which amounted to 95,9961.

Notwithstanding the large quantities of Stock now buying up by the Commiflioners of National Debt, in consequence of the redemption of the Land Tax, in addition to their former purchases, the Public Funds have rather fallen than risen during the last month. The expectatation of a deferred loan may probably be the cause.

MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. THE weather for the most part of the month has been unusually severe; cold northerly

winds, attended with froits, have almoit constantly prevailed ; and in fonie of the more northern districts there have been light falls of snow.

The goneral business of agriculture has not, however, heen much retarded by these cir. cumstances; in many dry and warm situations, oats and even barley have already been lowon though not to any great extent.

The process of vegetation, especially in winter corn and grasses, has not proceeded with its arcutomed degree of vigour. If fine weather should, however, soon take place, we are rather inclined to believe, that the check which has been given by the late severity of the season, may, in some measure, prove bereficial to the future crops. No material injury has certainly yet been done to the growth of any thing.

The few turnips which have escaped the severity of the weatherg. will soon be cleared of by the fattening cattle, many of which, in some places, ftill remain on hand.

Fodder is rather scarce in the northern districts ; hay and straw have consequently increased much in price of late.

The latter is, indeed, extremely high. GRAIN.

In many parts of the country is plentiful, and does not yet rife much in price This is particularly the case with Wheat, which averages throughout England and Wales, 505. 5d. Rye 335. 3d' Barley 295. Oats 2cs. 5d. Pease 38s And Beans 335. gd.

Hops. Kent bags 91. 155. to sol.4s. pockets vol. 16s. to 11l.45.; Suilex bags 91. 1os. to gl. 155. pockets iol. to iol. 155.

CATTLE. Beef in Smithfield market sells at 35.4d. to 45. 4.d. per stone of 81. finking the osal. Mutton gs. to 45.

HORSES. Those for the purposes of the farm, have still an extremely dull fale; but good faddle Horses fetch high prices.

Hay averages in St. James's Marke 25. 375. per load. Straw al, 198. 64



No. xliv.]

MAY 1, 1799.

[No. 4. of Vol. VII.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. stition about him. In early life, he was SIR,

at the Hague as Chaplain to the Princets I

WAS concerned to see in your last of Orange, wbose esteem he obtained; but Number an unfavourable representation he lost that of her husband (afterwards given of that eminently good inan Bishop King William), by a piece of conduct Ken, more especially as it is exceedingly which, in my opinion, redounds to his hounjust. Your correspondent says, “ that nour. One of the Prince's particular fathe Bishop had a very lively taste for mu. vourites had seduced a lady in the train of fic and poetry, and fang a hymn every the Princess under the pretext of a promise morning to his lute, which he had com of marriage, which he afterwards refused poled the preceding evening. It seems to perform. Ken by his labours brought that this chaunting of hymns was less an the feducer to fulfil his engagement, which expression of his piety, than an exhalation fo displeased the Prince that he threatened of his bile, and a foother of his political to discharge hiin from the service. Our disappointment.” He thus alludes to his divine, not brooking such usage, gave in custom :

his resignation, and certainly would have “ Eas'd of my sacred load, I live content, gone had not the Prince condescended to " In hymns, not in disputes my passion vent. request him to continue.

The writer Should in justice have quoted On another occasion, his integrity was the two preceding lines :

remarkable. While he was prebend of I gladly wars ecclefiaftic Ay,

Winchester, the famous Nell Gwyn being “ Where'er contentious fpirits I descry." No man was of a more pacific, or less Doctor's prebendal house was pitched upon

at that City with King Charles II. the discontented fpirit, than Bishop Ken; and for her residence; but he refused her adthough he could not bring his conscience mittance, and the was obliged to procure to transfer his allegiance from his Sove- other lodgings. reign, yet he took care to avoid giving Monarch was not at all displeased with his

The good-humoured any countenance to the warm non-jurors, Chaplain's conduct, as he was convinced and was held in fuch esteem by Queen of his sincerity; and without any solicitaAnne for his exemplary humility and pi- tion appointed

him to the bithopric of Bath ety, that she settled a pension of 2001. a

and Wells. The Doctor's behaviour in year upon him. The little poetical expression pasion, known. Bishop Ken, though a firm ad

the last illness of the King is universaliy seems to have put the notion into the head of your correspondent, that the Bishop felt vourable and friendly to dissenters; and

vocate for episcopacy, was yet very fahis disappointment and loss; but when the good man adopted it, I ain fenfible he the pious and ingenious Mrs. Rcwe in

particular was on terms of great intimacy never formed the idea which is here at.

with him. I am, Sir, yours, tached to it. His meaning is, that while

London, April 10, 1799. - J. WATKINS. other divines are engaged in all the fury of religious and political controversy, he feels

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. himself happier in his privacy and obscu

SIR, rity, amusing himself with facred poesy.

The hymn which the Bishop constantly I CANNOT express how much I admire made use of in the morning, is that beau

your Monthly Magazine; and I am glad

to find that the tale is so considerable. You Awake my soul, and, with the sun,

have obliged, ine by the insertion of the ar“ Thy daily stage of duty run,”' &c.

ticle I formerly sent you. With this I fend to which he added that elegant doxology, a continuation of my discussion (f the doc« Praise God from whom all bleilings flow,' trine of phlogiston. The papers are to be &c.

printed in the Medical Repo .tory, pubBilop Ken wás a man of truly primi- lished at New York; but this work goes tive principles and piety, and though a into few hands compared with the great genuine ascetic, had no portion of fuper number of your readers, MONTHLY MAG. No. XLIV,


tiful one,


Wishing the continuance of the success is produced. But this is not the case you so well deserve, I am, Sir,

when finery cinder is revived in these cir. Yours fincerely, J. PRIESTLEY. cumstances, though I purposely prepared Norihumberland, Dec, 22, 1798. some by melting iron in the open air, in

which cafe I imagined that some pure air AS I have no other view in this discus- would be attached to it. In making this fion, than to discover the truth with re- finery cinder, I observed that steel gained spect to the question which I have brought no sensible addition of weight in the probefore the Public, I shall communicate with cess, and iron much less than when it is the same freedom any thing that occurs to made by means of m; something, no me in favour of the new system, as well as doubt, being thrown off from it when it is facts that feein to inake against it. I there. heated in the open air, which cannot effore frankly acknowledge, that I have laid cape when it is surrounded by steam in a too much stress on the argument from close vessel. When it was prepared in a finery cinder not dephlogisticating (or on- close glass vessel with water in it, by means ly in the flightest degree) marine acid; of a burning lens, it gained weight; but having thought this a proof of its contain- when it was done over mercury, the ading little or no oxygen. For this effect is dition to its weight was litt le or nothing. not always produced by red precipitate, Since an iron tube is dissolved by heat. which is known to contain a large quan- ing manganele in it, I thought it very tity of oxygen, or pure air, nor by flowers pollible that the fame dephlogisticated air of zinc, which is always taken for granted from this substance might unite wi the to contain much of it.

iron, and that the finery cinder made in On the first pouring of spirit of salt on this manner might be found to contain the red precipitate fresh inade, I have had some. But when I lately heated iron afan evident sinell of dephlogisticated marine fected in this manner in inflammable air, acid, but not afterwards. Also the black I did not find any fixed air in the resie powder of mercury and lead, which gives duum; so that it appeared to have got pure air by heat, does not dephlogisticate nothing but water from the manganese ; marine acid, though it makes it give an being the very same thing with the finery offensive smell. But then there is other cinder which is made by means of steain. evidence of these substances containing Though, therefore, tinery cinder not oxygen, not only when exposed to heat; dephlogisticating marine acid, is no proof but, with respect to the red precipitate, of its not containing oxygen, no politive when it is even dissolved in the inarine evidence has yet been produced that it acid ; and no evidence of any kind that does ; and there is every presumption that finery cinder contains this principle. For it does not. And so important a thing as this solution of the red precipitate, heated an entire new system of chemistry cannot with a burning lens in atinospherical air, be admitted on mere possibilities. causes an addition to its quantity, from the Whenever inflammable air is procured by dephlogisticated air expelled from it; means of a metal, since water is always prewhereas, when the solution of finery cinder fent, Antiphlogistians say, that it comes is treated in the same manner, the con- from a decomposition of this water. But trary effect is produced. The quantity of since they say that water consists of 85 parts air is diminished, and it is less pure than in weight of oxygen to : 5 of hydrogen, there before. The same was also the confe- ought to be fome evidence of the produc. quence of heating a solution of iron in tion of this proportion of oxygen at the the fame acid in these circumstances. I same time ; and yet this has not been done had the same result with a solution of by any proper evidence, which is the profinery cinder precipitated by caustic vola- duction either of fome acid, of dephlogistile alkali. This was also the consequence ticated air, or of some substance into which of heating a solution of iron in marine it is acknowledged to enter. acid, treated in the same manner. Since, The only reply of the Antiphlogistians therefore, finery cinder, both in this folu- has been, that whenever inflammable air is tion, and without it, has the faine effect on procured by means of a metal, that metal the atmospherical air in which it is beated is reduced to a calx, and this calx weighthat iron has ; I conclude that they both ing more than the metal, must contain the contain the fame principle, viz. phlogiston, oxygen required. And because the calx though the finery cinder has much less of of mercury yields dephlogisticated air, it than the iron.

and its additional weight is owing to it, Another proof of a calx containing pure they prefume that all metallic calces de air, or oxygen, is that, when it is revived rive their additional weight froin the fame in inflammable air, a quantity of fixed air principle, and therefore they do not hesi


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