1799) Book Societies.--Enquiry concerning Religion in France. ibem branding all free liberal discussion as however is now trying, and as yet with factious; and rejecting every book which success; by two reading societies which contains sentiments contrary to the ruling have been founded in consequence of the fykem, we have great realon to fear that letters upon the subject which have apour liberty is expiring, and the dark night peared in your Magazine. These socieof monkish ignorance and barbarisin once ties rejecting the usual practice of apmore approaching. For it deserves par- pointing a standing, annual Committee, ticular notice that the popith clergy and chuse a new one every three months, comofficers of the holy inqnifition, adopted posed of four or more of the members as this very method to support their abiurd, their names stand in the subscription impious superstition : every opinion they book, and as this list is varying continudisliked was danned, and every book ally by the adınission of new members 3 fuppressed which had not their imprima- it is highly probable the same four persons tur. Heresy, fedition, innovation, the can never be together more than onca danger of the church, atheism, &c. &ce upon the committee. ' 2. It is a standing were as much the alarm-bells formerly as rule that when any book upon a controat present, and were rung in pretty much versial subject, or which happens to octhe fame changes. Our ancestors nobly casion a controversy is admitted, that at despised this jargon, and at the hazard of least one answer shall also be admitted ; their lives laid the foundation of that and if the committee refuse this, any beautiful edifice, which has fince become member may order the answer by his own the residence of science, arts, and liberty. authority. 3. Books admitted, are not Little did they imagine that posterity to be retained or expelled without the after enjoying the glorious, diffusive et consent of 3-4ths of the whole body of fects of their magnanimity to long, would subscribers at a general meeting. fo far lose their virtue as to connive at, if Every seven years, each member may not approve those measures which must propose at a general meeting to have a infallibly overturn this fabric, and sub- book expelled, upon which occasion the jeet them once more to the ignoble caprice librarian fhall infpect his book to find vat of clerical authority,

which of the members have read the book It would perhaps be difficult to con- proposed, and they shall hallot whether it trive a plan for collecting the various in- Thall be rejected or otherwise. There Atances of bigotry and narrowness of spi- rules have as yet prevented any evil conserit, which the clerical managers or their quences arising from party spirit; and agents have practised in the selection or are transcribed in hopes they might deexpulsion of books for our reading socie- serve the notice of other Societies, as well ties; otherwise such a collection would be as the free discussion of your readers. useful, in many important respects. Moft


LIBERTAS. of our best books upon the subject of civil and religious liberty are included in the

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. * Index Expurgat." and their places are fupplied with the flimfy writings of apos.

SIR, tate patriots, aspiring priests, or the OUR canting tribe of vital-christianity-men, the national institute of France, whose mountain-like faith enables them and your retrospect of French literature, to believe that the religion of the merciful are valuable articles, which are rendered Jesus tolerates the spreading of discord, peculiarly interesting by the late astonishwar, and misery throughout the world. ing changes in the itate of that country:

But though experience has proved that The thoughtful observer will trace with the indiscriminate admission of members anxious curiosity the conduct and im. into our reading societies, has greatly provement of a people fo metamorphosed. perverted the main design of their institu- I have frequently made inquiries retion, yet as this is partly owing to some specting the present state of Christianity defeet in the rules, and partly to the con- among them,-but was never satisfactoduct of the friends to liberal discussion, rily answered. Has recollection of the who have too often given up their autho- tyranny and fuperftition of their old church rity, and retired in disgust; it seems pos- produced the same effect on the bulk of fible to redress the evils complained of, the people as the contemplation of it did without having recourse to those restric- upon their philosophers ? Is the number tions which Indagator proposes, and which of French protestants increased since the in their turn would be charged with nar- revolution? or are they generally gone rowness and illiberality. The experiment over to deisin? Have any considerable


Dec. 27.


attempts been made to promote free en- royal authority. But it ought to be parquiry with respect to religion, and to pro- ticularly noticed, that the first coinage pagate the knowledge of pure Christianity? was made in the year 1652. Instead thereIf any

of your correspondents will favor fore of afcribing this measure to “ the the public with intelligence in answer to aspiring fpirit ” of the people of Massasuch questions, I doubt not that the pub- chusetts, the Doctor might justly have Iic will be gratified. It will be peculiar- faid, that the coloxists being nearly deJy acceptable to

V. W. serted at this time by the rulers at home,

on account of the civil wars, and the va. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

rious forms of government which afterwards followed, were obliged to coin

money from absolute necessity. The folIT T would be acceptable to many of your lowing extract from the Memoirs of the readers, if you could give them any

Jate truly patriotic Thomas Hollis, will information relative to a fociety of Jesuits prove this to have been the princip:1, if which met at Avignon about nine years

not the only cause, and consequently point. fince; a society, which Mirabeai, in his out the mistake which Dr. Robertson has had some dark political schemes in agita- William Temple, resided several years in New History of the Illuminets,” conjectured inadvertently fallen into.

" Sir Thomas Temple, brother to Sir tion. Rumour afferts, that many princes England duringthe interregnum. After the reof Europe were connected with them, that Poration when he returned to England, the king their Ichemes are involved in almost impe- feat for him, and discoursed with him on the nietrable oblcurity. Perhaps the Abbe state of affairs in the Massachusetts, and disBARUEL, who, if I am informed sight, covered great warmth against that colony. is the only person in England who por. Among other things, he said they had inkefles the work of Mirabeau, before alluded vaded his prerogative by coining money. Sir to, may be able to inform you more of Thomas, who was a real friend to the colony, their designs than he deems prudent to do, told his pajely that the colonists had but especially as he afiirts that most of the little acquaintance with law, and that they prevailing infidelity in Europe ariles from thought it no crime to make money for their the fuppression of the order of the Jefuits. own use. In the course of the conversation, I am, Sir, your's, SCRUTATOR.

Sir Thomas bok some of the money out of his pocket, and presented it to the king. On

one side of the coin was a pine-tree, of that To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine. kind which is thick and bushy at the top. SIR,

Charles asked what tree that was? Sir Thomas informed him it was the royal oak,

This acliberal and valuable mis

count of the matter brought the king into cellany, to make a few observations upon good humour, and disposed him to hear what the following passage in Dr. Robertson's Sir Thomas had to say in their favour--callHistory of America," Jately published. ing them a “ parcel of honest dogs.” After enumerating foveral instances of the

The jocular turn which Sir Thomat address and ambition of the colonists in the gave to the story, was evidently calculated northern provinces, the historian goes on : to ainuse the monarch in his own way,

“ These were followed by an indication and had the desired effect, in disposing still less ambiguous of the aspiring spirit him to hear with good humour that jult prevalent among the people of the Malachu- defence of the colonies which Sir Thomas fetts. Under every form of government the was so well qualified to make. We find right of cciring money has been considered as a

he pleaded that the colonists thought it prerogative peculiar to sovereignty, and which 10 fubordinate member of a fate is entitled use-at a time too when the confusions in

no crime to make money for their own to claim. Regardless of this established the mother country prevented them from maxin, the general court ordered a coinage of tilver money at Bofton, ftaniped with the receiving those occasional supplies of coin name of the colony, and a tree, as an apt.

which were absolutely necessary for com- . ivmbol of its progrefiive vigour. Even this mon circulation. Such an uncommon exwarpation passed without notice.”

igency required an uncommon expedient; From the above passage, it seems to be and this will account for the proceedings the opinion of Dr. Robertson, that the of the people of Massachusetts in a much people of the Massachusetts asumed this more rational manner than Dr. Robertson

peculiar prerogative of fovereignty,” in has done : for it is highly improbable that detace of, or at least in opposition to the they should alpire after independence at

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Sea-Sickness.-- Income Tax..

31 time when their historians represent them For the Monthly Magazine. able to defend theinielves again't their ta?. EXPENDITURE is a tolerably fair

criterion of individual means: the

annuitant is expected to live more humÀ writer of such distinguished talents bly than the capitalist of equal income a as the late Dr. Robertson, will always the father of many children more humbly enjoy the good opinion and confidence of than the father of fewer children : the prohis readers: his mistakes, therefore, will fessional man, whole resources are perbe of more consequence, and deserving of fonal, than he who has a business, or mabeing amended. That our eloquent hit- chinery, or a farm to bequeath to his fuctorian is under a mittake, though, no

cessors. Society estimates with tacit doubt an inadvertent one, in the prefent equity these relative circumstances, and instance, is next to certain; nor will his pursues with efficient disapprobation, both candid readers be displeased with any re- the miser and spendthrift. The taxation spectful attempt to set this mistake in a of income confounds all these distinctions: clear light. It may be added too, as some it extorts from the proprietor of short ankind of proof in this cate, that, during nuities as much as from the proprietor of the late unhappy American war, when

an equal income in perpetual stock: frons the whole tribe of hireling scribblers and the professional man as much as from the aipiring priests were, with profligate manufacturer of equal earnings. On the induftry," ransacking every dirty corner mifer, whom it is the interest of the to discover and accumulate charges against state to encourage, it bears very hard the colonists, in order to stimulate the cre

on the spendthritt, whom it is the interest dulous John Bull to bleed freely, the of the state to discourage, it bears very coinage business was never, to the best of

foft. my recollection, enumerated in the black

If income be made a criterion of taxa. catalogue of their high crimes and misde- tion, the scale of contribution should rise Your conitant reader,

in arithmetical as that of income does in A FRIEND TO TRUTH. geometrical proportion : elle the burden

of pressure will fall very heavily on men of

finall incomes, and very lightly on men Co the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

of large incomes, which would be flagrant

injustice. SIR,

Thus, if £200 yearly pays 5 per cent. N your entertaining and useful Maga


7 per cent.

800 writes fenfibly upon fea sickness. In ad


12 per cent. dition, however, I should place, as the.


15 per cenc. first and greatest of all preventives, the

And so on. acquiring the habit of being able to walk This is so manifest, as to be always and stand upright, without reeling to and acted upon in the affetlinent of the numefro: for it is my opinion, and I speak rous claffes. from experience in my own person, that But all tax on income must be attended the continual reeliog motion of the body with a vexatious inquisition, inconvenient, is the real cause of fea fickness,

if not fatal to commerce, with an annual In people of delicate constitutions, as mutability of expentive ascertainment, and there is a chance of being fick before the highly favourable to fraud in the collechabit of walking upright is acquired (in tors; and with a subornation of perthort voyages in particular). I would re.. jury oppreslive precisely to the virtuous commend lying in bed with the eyes for and weritorious. Ten per cent. may be the most part shut. Another circumstance the first demand, but all taxation is prois, that in the intervals of vomiting, small gressive; a fimilar requisition in Holland draughts only of lea water, or, in prefer- has been extended to 37 per cent. on the ence, an infusion of camomile or ginger capital, and has destroyed all motive to should be taken. As a further confirma- industry, by convincing every one of the tion of the truth of the above opinion, it impossibility of getting forward. may be proper to conclude, by adding, - When taxes are universal, and affect all that any motion long continued, whether the members of a community, the interest in a boat on fresh water, or on dry land, to throw them off becomes universal is liable to induce the same kind of fick allo. Such taxes are most likely to pess. I am, Sir, your's, &c, d. A. Gimulate violent means of riddance. It Nav. 5, 1798.

was against a poll-tax that Walter Tyler


10 per cent.

provoked posed of

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provoked the people of England, and deal of corn and turnips, but the latter are against a rent-tax that Wilhelm Tell fown broad-cait, very thin, feem unhoed, provoked the people of Switzerland to and are bad crops. Treftray is a small rise, by an affault on the tax-gatherers. ftraggling village, where there is an iron Such taxes have, therefore, the further forge belorging to Harford, efq. of demerit of insecurity: the bow-string of Bristol. Jones, eiq. has an elegant taxation is least apt to snap when com- seat in this neighbourhood.


November 5. Trestray to Abergavenny

in Monmouthshire, lever miles. The TOUR OF ENGLAND. country as before described, except in the (Continued from page 276.)

quantity of fruit which is less here. The

method of ploughing as, mentioned in Journal of a Tourthrough almost every county yesterday's journal. I to-day obterved a

in England, and part of Wales, by Mr.JOHN farmer fowing wheat near Abergavenny ;HOUSMAN, of Corby, near Carlisle; who was engaged to make the Tour by a gentle

a yoke of eight oxen were drawing one man of ditinction, for the purpose of col. plough, which were attended by two men, lecting authentic information relative to one to drive the cattle, and the other to the state of the poor. The Journal com- manage the plouglı ; another yoke of prises an account of the general appearance eight oxen were drove up and down the of the country, of the foil, surface, build- ridges after ploughing, in order to fadden ings, &c. with observations agricultural, or compreis the earth; an unnecessary opecommercial, &c.

ration. The farmer valued thele oxen at JOVEMBER 4, went from Mon- sil. each, one with another; their motion mouth

in Moninouth- was extremely flow, and consequently litThire, 13 miles. The foil of this district is tle work was done in a day. In the saine generally a dryish gravelly loam, the fur- field one man was fowing wheat, and face very hilly, but the country extremely another harrowing with three hortes, while pleasant, and the road good; pieces of the mafter fat on horseback directing the wood-land on the sides of hills; farms and several operations of this poffe. This field fields small; neat cottages here and there ; had grown clover one year ; the foil a fine fruit in abundance. I frequently saw 60 or and rather light loam. Thus here are 80 bushels of apples lying in heaps previous five men, fixteen oxen, and three horses, to their being inade into cyder : many of doing what in Cumberland or Norfolk these apples are redftreaks. Belides the would be done to equal perfection, and regular orchards, apple and pear trees are almost in as little time by one man and often planted on hedges, and their fruit two horses. I in vain endeavoured to drops into the road, of which the pro- laugh or reason this farmer out of his abprietor feem very careless. The farmers surd system; cufton and prejudice hau here plough much with oxen, and these taken too deep root in his mind. Aberanimals are often yoked to a plough along gavenny is an ordinary built market towni, with horfes, fometimes three or four horses containing about 2500 inhabitants, and and two or more oxen in one draught; is a place of no trade nor manufacture. they are busy sowing wheat on three or Farms in the vicinity are generally small, four bout ridges. The narrowness of about 40l. to gol. a year ; rent 10s, to these ridges is, in my opinion, a great 31. 1os, per acre. The town stands on a disadvantage; nor is that lyttern at all level, but several hills surround it at a necessary in such land, where no water can sınall dittance, fome of which are covered hurt it; and even where it is subject to that with the smaller sorts of wood, inconvenience, water-furrows cut in the

November 7. I went from Abergahollow parts would effe&tually screen it, venny to Hereford, 24 miles, in this pare at least, as well as small ridges. In this of my tour I came in light of Glamorday's journey I mistook the road a little, ganshire, and was nearly touching Breckand therefore was under the necessity of nockshire, boch of which seein rather crossing the country a few miles along by mountainous or hilly. About fourteen roads in order to reach the place I wanted or fifteen miles the country is very billy, to be at. The villages and places I was di- and the road, which in general is good, rected to enquire for,have all Welfh names, parles along narrow vallies. The soil is and the cottagers and farmers moftly rather light and gravelly; fields small; fpeaking in that language, I found forne hedges planted with thorn and bazel, but difficulty in obtaining proper directions. moit of the latter : corn of all sorts raised This part of the country produces a good in great quantities, but the ground does


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Mr. Housman's Tour continued in Herefordshire, &c. 33 hot seem to produce weighty crops. The and other grain. This is about the mid. hills are many of them planted with hazel dle of the wheat feed-time, and the farand other linall sorts of wood ; finall farm- mers are busily employed in that business; houses and cottages appear on the hill. they plough with three or four horses; lides, and the whole has very much the but I obferved two ploughs going in one cast of some of the western parts of Cum- field in a singular manner; they were eich berland, only in the latter place there are drawn by three horses, and had each'one not those large orehards to be seen which man only attending them. This ingehere present themselves at every turn.- nious farmer, although he had no notion In the other diitrict of this day's journey of yoking two horses a-breast, contrived the scene changes : the surface is level, to fix wheels to the plough in such a way foil contains much clay, and is very that after being placed in the furrow at tertile in the production of grain. Mon

Mon- every turn, it will go regularly of itself, mouthshire seems to pollets plenty of fine and the ploughman has nothing more to transparent brooks; a good air; dry foil; do than guide the horses. By that means and naturally produces fern.


of a driver is saved; however, also much wood, and a great inany fruit- the improvement can only be adopteda trees: the face of the country is ex- where there are few stones, and on level, tremely uneven, and in some places moun- loose ground.

The furface is pretty tainous: both parishes and churches are level, till I coine near Wales, where a {mall. Sheep are of various forts, but hilly country again commences: most of rather small than otherwise; cattle large, thote hills are beautifully covered with and pretty well made. Corn seems the wood. Farms along this district appear farmers' principal dependence ; they are pretty large, and the soil productive. now busied in iuwing wheat, the ridges The turnir culture, however, is most for which are generally no more than four wretched; the.crops are never thinned nor times about: turnips are also cultivated; hoed, and are bad in the extreme.--Here they are sown broad-caft, and never after. I saw several small fields of hops. The wards touched, and .consequently the produce of the orchards is what many of crops are very poor. Hereford stands in the farmers chiefly depend on for the pay2 fine, level, fertile country; is a clean, ment of their l'ents : in this day's jouropen, well-built, and pleasant town, con- ney I met with more fruit ground than I taining about 7, 50o inhabitants: the river had seen in any other district ; and the Wye países close to it. This town car- crops of apples and pears seem to have ries on no manufacture of confequence, heen pretty good this year. The people nor does it feein to have inuch trade: are now pulling them and making cyder many of its streets are spacious, and the and perry, which operation is very fimhoulés well built. I spent the Sunday ple. The fruit is first laid in heaps a few afternoon in walking down the fide of the days, then mashed or bruised with a large river Wye to Holm Lacey, five miles. stone turned by a horse ; it is afterwards Holm Lacey is a seat of the Duke of put into a hair press, which is screwed Norfolk, who has a very large estate here. down with a long lever, and the liquor The house is small, but be:zutifully fitu- runs out into a sort of trough from which ated in a pleasant and large park; and in it is immediately taken in that state and the neighbourhood of several other fine

put into the hogshead, where it remains seats and parks. The vale formed by the till it clears, and becomes fit for use. river is exquisitely beautiful, and very Among several large heaps of apples there fertile. A great quantity of large timber was one which I estimated to contain 400 grows in his Grace's parks, and other bushels. Buillings are rather old fashiongrounds ; but this country, in general, is ed, particularly towards Wales, where very wody, and contains an immense they are generally of wood or lath and number of fruit-trees. The Duke has plaíter: I passed through one large vilgot two fine elks in one of his parks. lage, or rather, I believe, a finali inarket All the country round Hereford, so far town, where I did not see a single stone or as I have seen, is pleasant, the foil a fer- brick house. I suppose a want of free. tile loam, and produces much wheat and stonz, and the great abundance of wood other grain. The river sometimes over- in these parts in former times, has given faws its banks, and does damage. rise to this systein of building. This is

November 11, went from Hereford to even yet a very woody country. The Presteign, in Radnorshire, 23 miles-A Meep finall, want horns, and are whitea fruitful and pleasant country; the soil a faced. Herefordshire seems, in general, clayey loam, and produces much wheat to enjoy a falubrious and temperate air, MONTHLY MAG. NO, Xli.



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