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and plenty of fine water: it is level, very and the character of the French clergy,
fertile, and woody, and produces every many of whom were among the most en-
fort of grain, particularly wheat, in abun- lightened and humane of men, it were to
dance : farms are rather larger than in be hoped the following corrected Rate-
fome counties that I have lately passed. ment will prove false; and it is recom-
But this county is most noted for the great mended to tlie Abbe Barvel, or some
quantity and good quality of its cyder and one of his friends, to prove its false-
perry : it is felling this year at from 30s. hood.
to 405. per hogshead of 110 to 120 gal It is related in Moore's Narrative, and
lons ; it is found cheaper than malt li- ellewhere, that in the reign of Louis the
quor, and forms the common drink of all 15th, the young Chevalier De la Bar, &
ranks of people. It is certainly an over- youth under twenty years of age, was
fight in the people of landed property that beheaded at Amiens, for striking the
apples, &c. are not more cultivated in ftatue of the holy Virgin with a fabre, in
other parts of the kingdom: the notion of a fit of inebriety. For what reasons I do
their not succeeding is in my opinion a not immediately recollect, but an English
great mistake.----Preiteign is a small, literary gentleman suspecting the truth of
ancient looking market town; the fur- the relation, as it regarded the mode of
tounding country hilly, but pleasant the Chevalier's execution, made it his
enough, and the foil good. Farms are business, fome years ago, to enquire on
from 301. to 300l. a year, and rent per the spot; the result, which was as fola
acre ros. to 60s.: it is neither a manufac- lows, he communicated to me. The un-
During nor a cominercial country but fortunate young man was condemned to
chiefly inhabited by farmers.

the horrid punishment of being broken
(To be continued.)

alive upon the wheel. Great interceffior
was made with the King, on the score of,

the culprit's youth, his noble extraction, Io the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, and the intoxicated state in which he was,

during the commission of the supposed SIR,

crime, and his Majesty was beginning to THE

"HROUGH the medium of your relent, when a certain bishop, near four.

widely extended Magazine, I heg score years of age, hastening to the royal leave to make known to the proprietors presence, intreated, or rather infifted, that and projectors of canal navigations, that his majeíty ineddled not in the affair, but I have invented a lock, by which vessels that he should suffer the law to have its may be conveyed through any fall with course : vehemently urging, that the half

, and, in some inítanees, one fourth deareft interests of religion were concerned of the water that is used upon the present The King, on this, supposed himself plan. The improvement is upon a simple bound in conscience, to facrifice the duties hydrostatic principle, and I shall be able of humanity to those of religion; and the to demonstrate the truth of it in one mi- pious patriarch, dreading thie effect of nute, to any gentleman or company, who farther powerful solicitation on the mind are desirous of purchasing the invention. of his royal disciple, departed with all

FREDERICK HILL. speed for Amiens, and caused the dread-
Loughborough, Jan. 20, 1799. tul sentence to be immediately executed;

and was even personally present, while
For the Monthly Magazine,

the coup de grace was delayed, and the

miserable wretch kept in the most excru-
OUR Magazine, Mr. Editor, is, I ciating torture, an hour and half!
hope, devoted to fimple, in oppofi-

tion to convenient truths. The truth of
an historical fact, more particularly when

P.S. I have been assured, by a French it involves important moral considerations, emigrant, of honourable as well as literary mult always be an interesting cbject of character, that the particulars relative to the onquiry: Should the characters of in

death of Voltaire, D'Alembert, and Diderot, dividuals, or bodies of men, stand implic into a certain Magazine, are to his


given by a certain author, and lately copied cated, the path of honourable exculpation knowledge, totally and circumstantially false, is open; the genuine friends to freedom

and never intended to be otherwise, thana of enquiry, having neither the deGre, nor conveniently true. Being in reed of farther the need, of those little arts which mark information on this head, I should feel myself the conduct of their opponents. For the highly obliged by the communications of any fake of poor humanity, to often outraged, corror Rondent of the Monthly Magazine

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1799.] List of a Kitchen Library....Mr. Busby on Modern Music. 35 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

LTHOUGH I am unable to give THER

WHERE are prejudices, the removal your correspondent Munnvö any infurmation respecting the origin of hats ration of the public mind. Before even an making, I am inclined to fuggest a small attempt be made practically to subdue accession to his kitchen library, if you established errors, it is necessary to render will allow me do so through the me- people willing to be convinced. No dium of your Magazine.

Itronger instance can, perhaps, be adduced With the exception of Dr. BEDDOES'S of a settled adherence to one opinion, at well-known “ History of Isaac Jenkins," least on scientific subjects, than that I think Mrs. Trimmer's writings are which we find in certain mufical amateurs ; better calculated to interest and instruct I mean the partisans of the old school. the poor

than those of any other person I They are so involved in their partiality have met. She adapts the style and phra- to what is called ancient mufic, as absoseology of her little tracts to their taste lutely to be persuaded that all genius neand comprehension, without reminding cessary to the production of sound harmony them of her condescension, or their in- and original melody, has long since been feriority; and her piety is of that kind extinct: to be a modern, is to be disquali, which has a tendency to mend the temper, fied for their approbation. as well as to regulate the conduct.

The names of Purcel, Handel, Corelli, The Life of Benjamin Franklin," and Geminiani, instead of being held written by himself, is a work of general forth as stimulatives to rivalship, or to utility: the narrative is remarkably in- imitation, are hung in terrorem, over the teresting, and while the writer must be al- heads of living composers; and are only lowed to have possessed uncommon powers employed to check those exertions which of mind, his life would seem to teach, they ought to excite and encourage. Forthat persons may arrive at eminence by tunately, this subject of complaint has the exercise alone of temperance, industry, not existed in the fame degree in literature, and frugality. But I forgot, I have only or the other arts and sciences. Here the to suggest books, and not to make com fields of improvement have been left fairly ments on them.

open, and the endeavour to surpass forLife of Benjamin Franklin," written mer works has, under due encouragement, by himself.

given birth to more useful discoveries and Franklin's Esays,” and Poor Rich- nobler fyltems of thinking, than those ard's Almanack.

known to our forefathers. Had the injufHistory of Isaac Jenkins,by Doctor tice I am pointing out been exercised to. Beddoes.

wards the great masters above cited; had Mrs. Trimmer's Family Magazine,” they, because they were moderns, been printed in 1788, by and for John Mar- considered as incapable of succeeding to fhall and Co. Aldermanbury Church- the merits of their professional ancestors, Yard, Bow-lane, London.

so great a disadvantage must, in some 6. The Servant's Friend,by Mrs. measure, have suppreffed those talents Trimmer, ditto.

which they fo forcibly displayed. The Two Farmers,” by Mrs. Triin Perhaps, in wo province of the harmo

.nic art, has this obstacle to dawning taDr. Mavor's " British Nepos.

lent more formidably obtruded itself The History of Sandford and Mcrlon." among the lovers of ancient music, than Robinson Crusoe.

in that of oratorial composition. With “ A selection of cheap repository books, them it is not sufficient to allow that Han

" The Shepherd of Salisbury del's facred dramas have been hitherto Plain. « The Happy Waterman.The unequalled; we are obliged to grant that Lancashire Collier Girl," and Patient he towers above every thing to be expected Joe.

from future genius; and that in this de- The Reports of the Society for bettering partment all human ability must fiuk bethe Condition and encreasing the Comforts fore him. This prejudice, Sii, has unof the Poor.

happily extended itself to some modern I shall be happy if the above list meet professors of eminence; and I am intimate the approbation of Munnöö, and I am, with a master of high and deserved reSir, your obedient and humble fervant, pute, who, on being pressed by his Edinburgh,

E. F. friends to compose an oratorio, said : No Jarrucry 71799,

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mer, ditto.

such as

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man ought to attempt such a talk after sure applause in the fublimer walks of the Mr. Hande!. No one, I believe, ad science. He who at the moment he is mires more than myself the hitherto un preparing a facred composition for public rivalled excellence of that illustrious Ger- performance, is told by the advocates for man ; yet, I have been careful not to luf- the music of the last age, that no man, fer that admiration to inftil the fear of be- after Handel, will ever be qualified to ing lost in the blaze of his transcendant compofe an oratorio, cannot but feel the powers ; nor to thwart the hope of ex- weight of an opinion fo detrimental to hibiting some faint beams uneclipled by himself and every future composer. It his splendor. It was with this emulous was therefore my with, through the mefpirit that Beaumont and Fletcher, un- dium of your widely-circulated publicadazzled by the radiance of nature's tion, to joiten the obduracy of this presweetest. child,' aspired to his path of judice; and to expatiate on the injurious glory, and

nature of an attachment, which, while

it obitru&ts the present candidate for reTheir brilliant course round Shakespeare's putation, deprives the public of the noblest golden sun.

efforts of living talent. Let me then hope, Prompted by the fame sentiment, I Sir, that I may induce the friends of anhave been laborious in my art, and my if not with indulgence, to the compati;

cient harmony to listen with impartiality, productions in manuscript are voluminous. The day is approaching on which I pro

tions of those moderns who revere the old pote to make my first appeal to the public masters, and who endeavour to forin their judgment, 1 am consequently deeply in- style on the same great basis. tereited in the removal of a prejudice

THOMAS BUSBY. which opposes every modern effort to en Vauxhall-Road, Jax. 25, 1799.


PROCEEDINGS at large of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE of France, on

the 4th of July, 1798, as published by the Secretaries. NOTICE of the Labours of the Class of displacing of the caloric, which be

Physical Sciences during the last quarterly conies a disaggregative power. Since Sitting, ty Citizen LASSUS, Secretary.

chemists have directed their researches to "HE class of Phylical Sciences, dur- the matter of heat, it is well known that

Things the three months which have coalhis one of the weakeft conductorshop

just elapsed, has heard the reading of it. Citizen GUYTON has demonstrated many memoirs relative to chemistry, na- by pyrometrical experiments, that a subs tural history, rural economy, and the art stance inclosed in coals, only receives at of medicine, as applied to men and ani- the same fire two-thirds of the heat of a mals.

*fimilar substance placed in filicious fand, Citizen GUYTON, in treating of ano. The confequences to be drawn from this malies in the concatenation of affini. fact, may terve to rectify the processes of ties, has shewn that these apparent de réduction and fusion employed to the previations open to chemists a vait field for sent time, new discoveries. He has examined the Many chemical operations have been reasons why there is no combination be- hitherto isteri upted for want of a power tween the azote and the oxigen which exist to augment the intensity of the fire. The

fo abundantly in the atmosphere, and in application of an hydraulic principle to the state of expansion conimenly so fa che coniti uction of Macquer's furnace, 'vourable to an union. He points out the has enabled Citizen GUYTON to carry means of producing it by the exprellion heat to such a point, that a crucible of of caloric in an apparatus capable of sup platina was beginning to enter into porting nine or ten tines the weight of the fusion; a circuittance not observed beatmosphere.

fuie. The laine chemist has also been making We have had occasion to remark, in the experiments on the reciprocal decompoti- preceding fitting, that the colouring mattion of falts at a' tumperature below ice,

ter of the emerald of Peu is not iron, as a phenomenon the chiervation of which

KLAPRÖTH, a Pruslian cheinist, had anbeconies so important in the operation nounced, but rather the oxide of a new and management of saline substances.

metal discovered by Citizen VAUQUEHe discovers the cause of it in the LIN, in the red lead of Siberia. The last


To re

1799.] Proceedings of the National Institute, 4th of July, 1798.

37 analyses of this chemist prove that the of France, and that the kali produced by emerald is composed of filex of alumine, it is precisely of the fame quality as that of a particular earth, to which they have of Spain: the second by laying down all given the name of glucina, of lime, and the necessary instructions hitherto wanted, of oxide of chrome. Hence it appears,' relative to the culture and combustion of that the emerald, and the beryl or aigue- this plant, for the fabrication of kali. marine, are two ftones perfectly fimilar, Some years ago Citizen Clover, an composed of the same principles, with the associate member of the institute, had anexception of the colouring matter. nounced the possibility of converting iron

By a scientific application of chemical into caft-steel, without having recourse to experiments to the art of dying, Citizen any preliminary cementation. This

proCHAPTAL has discovered a limple process ceis which he has brought to perfection, of easy execution, to give cotton a yellow is so much the more valuable for the arts thamoy colour, more or less intense. It in which caft-Iteel is employed, as it may is particularly by mixing alumine with be procured by this means without having oxide of iron, that this ciemist impresses recourse to cementation, or to natural on his colours a soft velvety glots, which steel, wherever there is to be found good is never given by oxide employed alone. iron, a mixture of alumine and flex, and He has examined the different processes chalk. by which the same oxide is combined with The goodness of a piece of artillery is the red of madder, to form the violet well known to depenut essentially on the colour, and has reduced some very com- operations connected with the alloy and plicated operations to simple principles. the fusion of the metal.

The pewter He has also explained the reasons why no' which enters into its composition someother vegetable substance can be substituted times acquires so much heat during the in dying cotton to the gall-nut, whatever service as to enter into fusion, which has quantity of it may be applied.

a tendency to injure the cannon. To give a stuff the beautiful red colour medy this inconvenience, Citizen BEAUME known by the name of Andrinople red, proposes to harden the copper with nickel they make use in the operation of kali, ar with what was formerly called regulus or foda, oil, gall-nuts, fumach, madder, of antimony; neither of these substances fulphur mineral, and many other sub- being so fusible as pewter. Itances, Citizen CHAPTAL has investi Experiments made at Rambouilet and gated the action of the three principal in different parts of France, have already mordicants, oil, gall-nuts, and allum, demonstrated the possibility of propagating employed in dying cotton ied. After- and preserving in all its purity the race of wards treating of the more complicated Spanish sheep on the soil of the French reand obscure operations of the art of dying, public. Citizen GILBERT has communihe has furnished a new proof of what cated the most copious instructions on this chemistry may do for the improvement important point of rural economy, and has of the arts, when it is directed by a sinple furnished grounds for the best founded and luminous theory.

hopes relative to the naturalization in Kali or foda is not confined to the France of thote valuable theep, who e operations of dying cotton only: Soap- race is perpetuating without any degea manufactories, glass-houses for white neracy. glass, and bleaching fields have a demand The conquests which we owe to our and occasion for Spanish kali. France army of the north, by augmenting the imports of it annually to the amount of riches of the museum of natural history at four millions, by the ports in the Medi- Paris, have given Citizen LAMARCK an terranean only. It was necessary there. opportunity of tracing with precision tho fore to encourage amongst us the culture dittinctive characters of the cuttlefilh, (la of the plant which furnishes the kali of seche) the calmar, and the pulp, la Alicant, in order to secure on the spot, poulpe) which had been confounded and supplies for our inost valuable manufac- blended into one single kind. He has extures, and to enrich agriculture and com- posed an error prevalent among fome namerce with an annual product of four mil- iuralists, who had mistaken a pulp, which lions. This is what Citizens CHAPTAL has a habit of lodging in the thell of the and Texier have performed; the first by argonaut or the papyraceous nautilus, for proving, from a series of many years' that animal itself; there is a species of experiments, that the plant which fur- cray-fish called Bernard the Hermit (Bernishes the kali of Alicant, may be culti- nard L'Hermite ) which lodges, in a similar vated with succes on the southern coasts manner, in werent forts of Baell-fith.


We learn, from a very extensive memoir intercepting substances, present very senss on the organ of the voice, by Citizen ble analogies between the phenomena of CUVIER, that most birds have, indepen- Galvanism and those of electricity. Some dently of an inferior glottis, which is the ellential differences, however, appear to principal organ of the voice, a superior militate against this analogy, and will not larynx; a mechanism, which enables them fuffer us to admit, at least for the present, to vary their tones with the more facility, the identity of a common principle. Howas they can, by means of it, easily change ever it may be, these phenomena, excited the state of their glottis, the length of by art, are so intimately ronnected with their trachea, and the aperture of their those of the animal economy, that it may upper larynx. It results from this or

be adviseable, in order to catch these conganization, that the deepest tones, and nections, to look in the one for the applithe harmonics of the came tones, are cation of the others. The result of these produced by the allongation of the tra- experiments, made to verify the phenochea, and the greatelt relaxation of the mena of Galvanism, have been lately comglottis; whilft, by the contraction of the mitted to the press. trachea and the condensation of the glot (The other classes in our next.) tis, the bird produces tones higher in proportion to the shortness of the trachea, PROGRAMMA of the Prizes of the NAtogether with all the harmonics of the

TIONAL INSTITUTE OF SCIENCES and tone, which corresponds to that degree of Arts, proposed in the public Sitting of contraction.

Fuly 41b. Some observations, which confirm the

CLASS of Moral and Political Sciences. utility of mild mercurial inuriate, or caloinel, in the treatinent of the smallpox, by Citizen DESESSARTs, together THE class of Moral and Political Sciences with some profound researches by Citizen

had proposed the following question as Huzard, on a malady which affects the subject of the prize for the year VI.:

What are the objetis and conditions for, and the organs of generation in hories, have also been the object of the attention according to which, a refublican flate may judge

it expedient to open fubiic loans ? of the class. Many of its members have been principally occupied with the care of ascertaining hy a multiplicity of expe- mily to extend, and wbat limits should be prescribed

How far ought the power of a father of a fasiments, the phenomena of Galvanitin. This name is given to a discovery which

to it, in a well-conjlituted republic ? Dr. GALVANI, a member of the Instituie of Bologna, made many years ago, and

To determine what are the great changes whicb from which it results, that when a con bave taken place on the surface of the globe, tiguous series of metals, commonly differ- and weich are either indicared or proved by bijtory? ent from one another, are put into contact on the one side with a nerve, and on The class of Moral and Political Sciences the other with a muscle, or cven with had proposed the foilowing question as a subdifferent and distant parts of the same ject of the prize for the year

VII.: nerve, at the instant of the double contact, Wkat are the propereft inftitutions on which te a rapid and convullve motion takes place found the morals of a people ? in the muscle into which the nerve is dila Class of Literature and Fine Arts, tributed. This phenomenon seems to prefent to the mind the idea of a circle, a

The class of Literature and Fine Arts proportion of which is formed by the exci- poses for the subject of the prize of poetry : tatory metals, and the other by the ner

Liberty; as an odi, a fun, adijcourse in verse, vous and mufculas organs. Different lib. .01 an rpinli. stances may concur to forin this circle, and to excite its effects. Other lirierent one's

Class of Mathematical and Physical Sciences. may break the circle, and fufpend or in SUBJECT OF TWO PRIZES IN PHYSICS. tercept those effects. It has been remarked,

The class of Mathematical and Physical that there are fobiances which feeen to

Scienes of the Instiruite bad proposed in the extinguish this singular faculty in the year i V. as the fubject of a prize which it animal, while others excite and se efia- deminirc, of the year Vil the use to which

was to adjudge in the public afembly of Venblish ir when it appears dead or dormant. the liver is applied in the different clafles of The rapidity of the effect, and the promp- animals. The memoirs were to have been ricude of the communication, the nature received before the in Germinal of that year, and the participation of the exciting and ni ibon clos doad juilsed it neceiiy to reierve





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