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sizes the three volumes which we have 1798. Exposition of the Rights of Mer before us, gives us very little encourage- and Citizens. A Commentary on the pure ment to expect that he will be able to ac- Law of Nature, and the natural Civil complish his promise. We shall enter mi. Law. This work is intended to elucidate nutely into the examination of the merits and to correct the principal paffages of the of this work when it is finished, and now pure law of nature, published a few years only observe, that it promises not to come since by Mr. S. who is professor of law at up to the Spirit of Pbilosopby, published Koenigsberg, in Pruffia. Laudable as it lately by prof. TIEDEMAN, of Marburg, is in an author to revise his former afferin Hessia.

tions from time to time, the frankness with Die vornehmsten Wahrheiten der natuer- which Mr. S. states his objections against lichen Religion und der Sittenlebre, &c. &c. prof. Kant's metaphysical doctrine of von L. E. SNELL. 1798. pp. 159. 8vo. rights, redounds equally to his honour. The principal Truths of natural Religion For liberty of thinking is the firft rule and Morality, according to the Principles which ought to be observed in the public of pure Reason, &c. &c. The author of interchange of ideas. However, we must this publication wishes that the principles take the liberty of making the following of critical philosophy may be rendered observation, by way of reply to the notion more generally useful. We cannot indeed which he entertains of his qualification for deny, that he possesses the talent of expref- opposing the system of the philofopher of fing his ideas in a clear and popular man- Koenigsberg. If a land-surveyor were to ner; however we must also observe, that persuade himself that he could measure a he exercises it at the expence of solidity field more accurately than many a great and consistency.

mathematician, he might be perfectly Woerterbuch zum leichtern Gebrauch der right. But were he to think himself caKantischen Schrifien, &c. &c. von C.Chr. pable, as a mere land-surveyor, of meaE. SCHMID, &c. &c. 1798. p. 608. 8vo. Turing a field of any possible figure, he Vocabulary for the better Use of the Kan. would conceive this opinion because he is tian Writings, 4th enlarged edition. None a land-surveyor and no geometrician. In of all the numerous writings which have the same manner a jurist by profession been published of late, to elucidate the would prove that he is no philosopher, new terminology of prof. Kant, has been were he to pretend that he, merely in the received with a more general applause capacity of a civilian, was capable of “surthan the vocabulary of Mr. S. The clear. veying the numberless details which preness of his expofitions and examples ren- sent themselves in the application of geders it really much superior to similar neral principles, and to point out their works; and we have every reason to think being erroneous where we expect it leaft." that it will be deemed a very valuable ac- For the fundamental principles of the docquisition to those who wish to obtain a trine of rights are no experimental knowcomplete knowledge of the system of prof. ledge and principles of right; the latter Kant, which hitherto has experienced are the laws of external legislature, and much opposition on account of its obfcur- consequently no fundamental principles. ity, and the numerous misconceptions to It is owing to principles originating from which his terminology gave rise.

reason, that such principles, of which we Allgemeine practif he Philosophie, &c. &c. can have no other but an experimental J. H. ABICHT, &c. &c. 1798. pp. XIV. knowledge, are nevertheless to be regarded u. 338 8vo. General practical Philo. as laws of right. The knowledge of the pofophy. The first volume of the Philofo- fitive law, and the practical application of phy of Morals ; second thoroughly revised it, may indeed serve to raise the consciousedition. The author's system is, as far nels of the notion of right, and to lead us as we can judge, nothing else but Eudae. to the knowledge of the fundamental prinmonism, and we wilh he would impartially ciples of right, but never can serve to enquire whether Eudaemonism also can be point out the fallity or justness of those morality ? Diffuseness, dryness, and a general principles, as the author feems to heavy, and frequently obscure, language, think. We muft therefore contest Mr. are the principal characteristics of this S.'s presumed qualification, as a mere ciwork, which promises to contribute little vilian, for refuting prof. Kant's system of or nothing to the promotion of moral hap- rights, and are perfectly convinced that piness.

he has advanced nothing that could invali. Erklaerung der Rechtedes Menschen und des date it. The conclusion of this work, Buergers, &c. &c. von TH. SCHMALTZ, which treats on the notion of the state and

of

Retrospect of German Literature...Mathematics, &c. $65 of its object, has our full approbation for the year 1999 treats particularly on Mr. S. examines and rejects with much the earth and the moon, and concludes acuteness the theory of the object of the with miscellaneous astronomical accounts. state consisting in the cultivation and edu. The language of the author is correct, and cation of man, and we regret that we adapted to the capacities of that class of have no room to spare for a summary of readers for whom this almanae is des his arguments against an opinion which, figned. if adopted and put in practice, would un- Astronomisches Jahrbuch fueř das fabr, doubtedly introduce the most intolerable von Bode. 1798. pp. 248; 8vo. Altrodespotism,

nomical Annals for the Year 1801, togeResultate der Philosophirenden Vernunft, ther with a Collection of the latest Tracts, &c. &c. von GEORG Deves. Q. Th. Observations, and Accounts relating to the 2798. Results of Reason, philosophizing astronomical Sciences, &c. &c. The lovers on the Nature of Morality, &c. &c. The of astronomy will thank Mr. Bode for the results of reason, philosophizing on the sumptuous treat which he has prepared nature of morality, which Mr. D. has col- for them in these valuable annals; the lected in the second volume of his work,, contents of which are too copious to ade are nothing else but extracts from the' mit of an extract in our retrospect. writings of prof. KANT, and of those phi- Theoretische Aftronomie, von F.T.SCHƯ. losophers who have adopted his new ly. BERT, &c. &c. 1798. Th. I. pp. 184. Item, namely, of Hufeland, Mulchelle, A. Tb. II. pp. 367. Tb. III. pp. 342. Theo. bicht, Schmid, Reinbold, Gebhard, Schau. retical Astronomy. With eight plates. mann, Heydenreich, Jakob, Maimon, Schil. The numerous additions to our knowledge ler, and Ficbte. The only use which this of the heavenly bodies which we have obo work can produce, consists in enabling tained within the last twenty years, as those who wish to obtain some knowledge well by. the most remarkable discoveries, as of the inquiries of those philosophers into by the application of the acutest analysis, morality, and what is conneEted with it, deserved undoubtedly to be collected in a and have no opportunity of reading their complete theory of astronomy, and to be works themselves, to survey their leading systematically arranged. This has been tenets with one glance in a summary com- ably executed by Mr. S. in his theoretical pilation.

astronomy, which recommends itself by MATHEMATICS.

the most perspicuous order, solidity of arAlmanach fuer Liebhuber der Weltkunde, gument, and a philosophical spirit. &c. &c. 1798. 4. 1799. Almanac for NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. Lovers of Cosmology, with plates. None Beytraege zur Geschichte der Philosophie, of all the sciences which the German al. berausgege, ben von G.G.FUELLEBORN. manac-makers endeavour to prepare for No. IX. 1798. pp. 188; 8vo. Contribua the palate of the fashionable world, is more tions towards a History of Philosophy. homogenous with the idea of an almanac No. IX. This valuable collection has been than the doctrine of the motion of the supported hitherto chiefly by the indivi. heavenly bodies, and of the phenomena dual activity of Mr. F. whose diligence which it produces. The present almanac was assisted only in the first numbers by a is, as we think, extremely well calculated few literati. This work seems to come for that purpose. That for the year 1798, mence a new epocha with the present contains previous explanations of astrono. number, in which we meet at once with mical notions and expressions. Then fol. two contributions from celebrated writers. lows an instruction in the knowledge of 1. Timaeus the Locrian, on the Soul of the the stars by means of the fiderial ligns, World; a perspicuous and correct translaa which is completed in the almanac of tion of this tract by Mr. BARDILI. The 1799, to which a fiderial map is affixed. general observations on Timaeus contain Both almanacs give an account of the an- a pertinent elucidation and estimation of nual course of the planets, of the eclipses the philosophical opinions occurring in this of the sun and the moon, of the approxi- tract. 2. On the Traditions concerning Hermation of the moon, the planets, and the motimus of Klazomenae. A critical Essay,. fixed stars, of the eclipses of the satellites by Prof. CARUS of Leipzig. This trea of Jupiter, &c. &c. The almanac fortise is a pattern of critical inquiry; and

1998, contains also more particular ac- places the author's penetrating spirit of incounts of the heavenly bodies, and of the vestigation and happy talents of combinalatest astronomical discoveries : of the Co- tion, as well as his erudition, in a very pernican system, the sun, and the moon, advantageous light. The results of his and, finally, of the comets. The almanac investigation are a truly valuable acquisi. MONTHLY MAG. XLVII.

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tion to the inquirer into the history of an- larly pleased with a Specimen of a new eient philosophy. 3. GARVE on the His Pharmaceutical Nomenclature, contained in tory of Philosophy. 4. Supplements to the No. I. as we are perfectly convinced that History of Physiognomy, from the Editor. it will prevent a great deal of confusion s: Fragments on the Philosophy and Man- which the old one frequently occafionis, ners of Aristotle.

and that the new names are not only Physische Ketzereien, &c. &c. von J.G. Thorter, but also much more accurate than G. Ruediegern. 1709. pp. 121; 8vo. those which have been used hitherto. Physical Heresies, or Atteinpts to introduce Chemische Abbandlungen, von J. F. an easier and more simple Manner of ex- WESTRUMB. Dritter Band, ersters Heft. plaining natural (Phenomena, we fup- 1798. pp. 86. Chemical Tracts. Vol. III. pose?) into natural Philosophy. The No. I. This work of Mr. W. is a very author displays, indeed, a great deal of interesting and valuable repércory of the physico-mathematical knowledge, and an ingenious experiments of a diligent and extensive erudition; but we have not the able chemist, whose name is honourably least apprehension that he will succeed in recorded in the annals of German chemilhis attempt of overturning the established try. The present number contains a che. theory, which is supported by the greatest mical analysis of the water of the new munatural philosophers of our age, as his riatic saline mineral spring, lately discovered manner of explaining the principal natural at Pyrmont. phenomena is rather more difficult and

CONOMY. complicated, instead of being easier and Ueber den Schaden der aus einer willmore fimple, than that which is generally kuebrlichen Verkleinerung der Bauerngueter, adopted.

&c. &c. von C. MEERWEIN, 1798. 8vo. Merkwuerdige Beyspiele zur Kenntniss On the Injury which must necessarily arise der Seelenkraefte der tbiere, &c. &c. 1798. to every State from the arbitrary ReducPp. 206; 8vo.

Remarkable Instances, rion of Farms. The author endeavours to tending to promote the Knowledge of the prove that large farms, if well cultivated, mental Powers of Brutes, for young People are one of the principal pillars of every and curious Lovers of Animals. Collectedy ftate; and that the reduction of such farms, arranged, and illustrated by J. G. Tri. if rendered general in a whole ftate, neMOLT. A collection at once amusing and cessarily must produce poverty. Sensible inftru&tive.

as we are of the extensive practical knowTbeoretische Bruchftuekke ueber die Natur ledge, and the laudable zeal for the geneder Erde, &c. &c. von S. P. T. 1798. ral good, which the author displays in this Theoretical Fragments on the Nature of work, we cannot help lamenting the parthe Earth, and of the folar and planetary tiality, contradictions, and the diffuseness World, with Relation to different Sciences. which depreciate the value of this compoThe author's singular hypothesis is too fition, which is great in many respects. high for our mechanical comprehension, Einleitung zur Kenntniss der Englifeber and it would only be wasting time useleff- Landwirthschaft, &c. &c. von A. THAER. ly, were we to attempt to follow this phy. 1798. pp. 813. 8vo. Introduction to the fical Icarus in his flight.

Knowledge of English Agriculture, and Grundriss der Pbyžic, &c. &c. von H. F. its late theoretic and practical Improveo LINK. 1798. pp. 284; 8vo. Sketch ments, tending to promote the Improve. of Natural Philosophy, for the Use of aca- ment of German Agriculture; for the Ule demical Lectures. This sketch is to ferve of thinking Farmers and Oeconomists. as a manual to students and amateurs of The author displays an intimate knownatural philosophy. It contains nothing ledge of the agriculture of this country, but what, in the Itricteft sense of the word, and feems to have carefully digefted his belongs to natural philosophy, and may observations. He has ably commenced cul. serve to the tyro as- an useful compen- tivating a field which hitherto has been dium.

much neglected by his countrymen; and CHEMISTRY.

his book contains a variety of intelligence Journal der Pharmacie, &c. &c. von and observations, which will render it alDr. J. B. TROMSDORFF. 1798. 8vo. most as interesting to an English reader as Journal of Pharmacy, for Physicians, Apo- it must be to the ceconomists of Gera thecaries, and Chemists. Vol. V. No. I. many. and II. The present numbers of this va- Handbuch der gesammten Landwifib. luable periodical work contain a variety of febaft, &c. &c. von J. L. G. LEOPOLD. important matter, and of extremely inte. Zweiter Tb. 1798. pp. 494. A complete refting obfervations. We were particu. Manual of Hulbandry. This very useful Retrospect of German Literature... Oeconomy. 567 work is to be completed in the third that the country people should be enabled, volume. The two firft volumes contain by judicious principles, deduced from exa greater mass of highly valuable intelli- perience, to increase and to ameliorate the gence in a small compass than many volu- produces of the country, and for that pur. minous works, treating on the same gene- pofe should be sufficiently initiated in the rally interesting subject.

work 4 D2

fundamental principles of natural philoNuetzliche Bemerkungen fuer Garten-und fophy, natural history, chemistry, and ma. Blumenfreunde, &c. &c. von J.H. ALBO- 'thematics; to which we should add, a NICO. No. 6. 4. 7. 1598. Useful Ob• knowledge of the most common diseases servations for Lovers of Gardens and of cattle, and of the best method of curing Flowers.

them. The method of instruction which Annalen der Gaertenerey, &c. &c. von he proposes is extremely appropriate, but NEUENHAHN. No. 7. 1798. pp. 128;. cannot be specified here for want of room. 8vo. Animals of Gardening; together with We only observe, that his proposals dea general Intelligencer for Lovers of Gar- serve serious confideration ; and that indens and Flowers. This interesting pe- ftitutions formed after Mr. R.'s plan riodical work, mentioned already in our would be highly beneficial to any counlast Retrospect, continues to furnish much try. useful matter.

Der besorgte Forstmann, &c. &c. von J. 1. Taschenkalendar auf das Jahr, 1798, C. BARON von LINKER. The anxious &c. &c. von Baron BOUWINGHOUSEN Forester. No. IV. 1798. pp. 194. The von WALLMERODE. Pocket Almanac present number of this interesting collecfor Lovers of Horses, Breeders of Horses, tion of economical essays, of which we Veterinarians, and Superintendents of large already have made honourable mention in Mews. With plates.

our last Retrospect, continues to furnith 2. Melgeschenk zur belebrenden Unter. matter for serious consideration. It conbaltung fuer Liebbaber der Pferde, von tains seven essays, treating on the destrucSEYFFERT von TENNEKÉR. 1798. tion committed by various kinds of cater, Tb. I. pp. 190. Tb. II. pp. 250. Hali- pillars in forests, a subject which deserves yearly Gift, intended to afford instructive the most diligent investigation of all cultiAmusement to Lovers of Horses. No. 1. is vators of woods. a periodical work of several years standing, Der neufte deutche Stellevertreter des Inand of generally acknowledged merits. dischen Zuckers, &c. &c. The lately-disco. No. 2. is an imitation of the preceding vered German Substitute for Sugar; the almanac. It is to be continued half-year- most important and useful Discovery of ly, and promises to succeed as well as its the 18th Century.. 1799. PP. 44. 8vo. prototype, if the author continues to select The German chemists have of late years his inaterials with as much diligence and made various attempts to prepare fugar taste as the two first volumes display. from the juice of inland plants. MARG

Versuch ueber den besten Plan zu einer GRAF, an eminent chemist of that ingepractischen Schule fuer den Ackerbau, &c. nious nation, was the first who proluced &c. An Essay on the best Plan of a prac- a beautiful loaf-lugar from the juice of tical School of Agriculture, &c. &c. by carrots; but this invention was not proseK. G. RAIN. 1798. 41 Cheets, 8vo. In cuted any further, on account of its being every state in which agriculture yet stands dearer than that imported from the Westin need of many important improvements, Indies, and the juice was used only in some this object undoubtedly can be obtained places, boiled down to the thickness of by no better means than by a particular honey. After the foundation of the Ameinstitution, in which young people receive rican republic, the cultivation of the mapletheoretical and practical instructions in the tree was introduced in Prullia by Mr. von proper management of husbandry, and by BURGSDORF; and prof. HERMSTAEDT sending them afterwards back again to prepared of its juice, as well as of that of their families, to apply and to propagate their the acer platanoides, and the acer pjeudo, knowledge and experience ainong their platanus, Linn. a beautiful white sugar, fellow-citizens. The present treatise, which which he, however, was not capable of obtained the prize of the royal society of divesting of an unpleasant tafte, which sciences at Copenhagen, which proposed the rendered it rather' unpalatable. Mr. question :. Wbat ought to be taught in such BRAUMNELLER made leveral experian institution, and

what would be the best ments, on å large scale, to extract sugar method of instruction delineates a most from wheat, in which he succeeded; but excellent plan for such an agricultural could not bring his fyrup to a proper conAcademy, The learned author proposes, fiftençy. Mr. ACHARD, of Berlin, was more successful in this branch of oecono- quifition to the perufal of the thinking micalchemistry than any of his predeceso artist, and promise that he will meet in it fors, having made the important discovery with observations and ideas, concerning the that the common beet root (Beta vulgae character of that statue, as judicious as vis, Linn.), which is used very much in they are novel. II. On the Obječts of the Germany as food for cattle, yields, by an Plastic Arts. This treatise contains very easy process, an excellent sugar, which in valuable rules for the artist with regard to every respect is equal to that which we allegory, and a variety of useful obfervaobtain from the West-Indies, and can be tiens. III. On the Truth and Probability fuld a: a much lower price. Prof. KLAP- of Works of Art. An interesting and wellROTH, another eminent chemift, has written dialogue. III. On Etrurian Mojoined Mr. Achard in these experiinents, numents. In two letters... The first letter and both have presented a memorial con- describes and criticises a variety of Etrurian cerning this discovery to the king of Prufe monuments, which are preserved at Flo. sia, which, together with the whole pro- rence, and the second treats on several ar. cess, is contained in the present interesting chitectonic remains of Etrurian antiquity. pamphlet. One hundred weight of beet IV. Raphaels Works, especially in the Varoot produces, according to repeated expe. tican. This elegant and pleasing treatise, riments, eight pounds of refined sugar, the continuation of which we have to exwhich can be sold at about nine-pence per pect in the course of the work, is particupound. However, not every method of larly devoted to the contemplation of the growing the beet root renders it fit for masterpieces with which Raphael adorned being advantageously used for that pur- the halls and apartments of the Vatican. pose; and Mr. Achard, who was occupied If the learned editor and his affiftants conmore than fifteen years with various expe. tinue this periodical work with the diliriments on the cultivation of it, has re- gence, judgment, and penetration with served the result of his labours for himself, which they have set out, we may expect and obtained a patent from the king, in that the artist will be led deeper into the confequence of which he has established an fan&tuary of the fine arts, than the modest extensive plantation of this useful plant. title promises. One German square mile will produce Geschichte der Zeichnenden Kuenfle, &c. 3,675,670 lb. of refined sugar. Time will &c. von J. D.FIORILLO. Erster B. 1798. Thow how far şhiş invenrion is practicable pp. 466; 8vo. History of the Arts of Deon a large scale. If it should fucceed, it fign, from the Period of their Revival to will warránt, at least, in some degree, the the present Time. Our author seems to bombaftiç title of the present interesting be inclined to divide the whole history of pamphlet,

more

modern art into several parts, and to treat ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.

on every one of them in particular; for Propyläen, &c. &c. Herausgegeben, von this reason he discusses in the present voGOETHE. 1798. Propylaea (out-courts). lume only what relates exclusively to paintA periodical work. No.]. The

young ing. If we consider the present work in man," says the celebrated editor, in his this point of view, namely, as a part of a simple and madest, though animated, in- whole, we cannot but be satisfied with it. zroduction," who feels himself attracted Mr. F. is intimately acquainted with the by nature and the arts, imagines himself literature of arts, has every where used the able to penetrate in a short time, by unre. best sources with scrutinizing, care; cen, mitted exertions, to the inmost sanctuary; fured and corrected errors, judged with he, perceives, however, after long peram, scientific precision, and gives a concise and bulations, that he still is in the out-courts. ļucid account of his subject. This observation has occasioned the title Neue Garten-und Landschafts Gebaude, of this work, in which Mr. G. promises von W.G.BECKER. No. 1. 1798. Folio. to furnish remarks upon, and inquiries in. New garden and rural Buildings. With to nature, as far as it is an object for are plates. çifts, as well as on the plastic and elocutive Deutliche Anweisung fuer den Zeichensarts, and to pay in the progress of it a pe- chueler. Mit. 4. Kupfern. Von F. W. culiar regard to the theory and criticism FACIUS. 21 Tb. 1. Heft. 4to. 1798. of poetry. The first disquisition of the Plain Instructions for the Student of first number greats on the celebrated group Drawing. With four plates. Vol. 2d. of Laocoox, the description of which is ex- ist No. The first plate contains fetches of tremely animated, and drawn with great animals, the second of plants. Opposite to, diligence and acuteness. We can safely each sketch is a drawing which exhibits the reconinend this elaborate and claffical dil fame objects completely finibed. The

engraving

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