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ous, nor the latter beneficial to the happiness of a , Even the wars of those times, of which we are now people. But lei us en le vor to trace, with as much speaking, were predicated upon other princ.ples than precis:on as is possible, the ameliorating miluence ai preseot agitate the continent ot Europe. The right of literature, upon the individuait and private charr. to lite, to liberty and the enjoyment of the product ters of men. And, here we may veature to remark, of his own industry, never invited the ancient üli'e. that not only the dispositions, but the very muiners rate barbarian either to aggression or defence. Hie and aspect of ihe people of different countries can knew of no rights, tor he k!lew not the pric.ples of undergo mulerial al erations, froin the accessions of his own nature ; and his incentives to war were his knowledge and refinement which literature is calcu- waits and his cupidity. Right was a term not found lated to imparc, Perbaps it might be found, upon in the vocabulary of his langu.ge; power gare dum experiment and investigation, that the dejcerel, vin- his title, by the possession of whatever cou:d allure d.ctive and sangunary countenance of de poor In- bis rapacity. He knew litike, perhaps noting, of dwn of our western forests, may, in some measure, the laws of nature and rere'ution, and he was, conbe chancierized by the condition of his mind. Is it sejuently, incapuble of discovering üle aboaract and easily to be doubied, that mental culture would open immutable principles of justice. Infine, he was ig; to him new sources of enj vment, and, by imparting norant; and, not being in possession of any recond fervor and activity to a langud unagination, brigit- of the knowledge and the fate of anterior generaei the gloomy expression which at preveni charac- tions, all atuempts to ameliorate such a condition terizes lus melanchoiy aspect? Can it be doubieri, were fruitiessmie pinions of his genius drooped in that mental culture would discover to him the true the vacuum of antiquity! springs of naman action, and by imparting a stron We have now bestowed some attention, upon the ger iaith in his own knowledge of the motives which probable condition of our species, unrefined by literaactuate enlightened minds, ettuce the indications of ture, and kinaided by the knowledge it imparts : let suspieion from his features, and clothe them with us endeavor to trace some of its progressive steps, the fascinations of open energy, and the inagnan- and salutary influences upon individusis and nations. mous indications of settled and systematic bravery? It cannot be doubied, thai the capacity of progress. Can it be doubter, that the cultivation of his mind, ling in knowledge, distinguishes humanity from the would, by rendering him conscious of equality wiih interior orders of creation; but, there can be little the courely Europe in and American votaries of lite difficulty in also acknowledging, that untaught and rature, enrighten the savage expressions which breathe savage man is but one remove from the condition of the treacheres of a timid soul, andi ettuce the charac- other animals in the universe. Abandoned to the teristics of an unhallowed propensity to revenge: formation ot his own desting, and put upon the disco. Canut he doubted, that an accession of mental ener- very of means to procure his own happiness, afier his gy would, by untolding the criminality of wantonly expuision froin Eden, he found himself in wani of shedding the blood of u rejlow bemg, animate his rug- every timg, and pressed upon by the difficulties and ged features with the mild serenity of benevolence, wangers of untried existence. Endowed will facul. and inculcate a salutary lesson of humanity and com- ties of strong perception, and feeing the hostile acpassion for the defenceless ?-Rut, what influence tion of the elements arounci him, ex; criment disclose would a knowledge of literature produce upon his ed the neans of ameliorating is painfil sensations, domestic enjoyments—and what imovations would it and he invested his body witi ature. The importuoperate in his political institutions ?-li would teach nities of hunger and thirst made irresistible claims him to feel the felicities of a local attachment, and on him, and experience suggested the means of alle. he would be no longer a vagabond. It would mstruct viation. Finding himself the sport of ciementary him in the useful art of procuring for himselt, not commotion, that the rains delugeri, that the thunders only the necessaries, but the luxuries of life, by mo- terrified, and that the very animals around him were derate exertion, and he would cease to be a robber. his enemies, he raised a shed to cover, and a rampart It would impart, to his mind and feelings, that just to defend him; and, it was not until after he bad equipoise of strength and sensibility, which leads to subdued the miseries of his primitive condition, and correct perceptions of the true science of life. And, felt elation at the conquist, that he found leisure to can we imagine, that, possessing a knowledge of the contemplate himself. Finding, that nature had ai. genuine polics of governments, his political institu- tached pleasurable sensations to the banishment of tions wouli exhibit such a compound ?-of elemen- his painful and comfortless situation, and that he was tary principles, neither defined nor understood ;-of susceptible of higher than negative enjoyments, lnis laws enfeebleil by opposition, and nearly depending faculties were roused, and he sought in experiment a for existeace upon individual consent? And, let us knowledge of the means of positive happiness. From even proceed in examine, and compare, with the pre- the stores of his menor, he drew the images on wirat sent generations of Europe, the savage character of hal afforded him pleasure, alid what had been proour own ancestors, and we cannot but be struck with ductive ot' pain; and, reasoning upon the future by the contrast. The faithful page or history might the past, he embraced the one and wided the other. here be made to unrol one of the most sanguinary But, the knowledge of what experiment bad impart. pictures upon the records of time. We might see the ed, would be of no importance to any out himseif, country from wirici our forefathers einigrated, raras- and those who would listen in the simple story of his ed in succession by military despots, who were such experience, for he bad no athentic means of trans-cessively allured by popes of phinder, to wade to its initting his knowiedge to poster ty: tradition, indeed, empire through the devastation and carn.ge of the r might be the vencie of its conveyance, to perhaps predecessors - And we could be at no luss to discii-he third successive generation, but, what it,utiluyer, in the hordies of burb'rians that were embolied ions would it be doomedi to u dergo, fom ignorarce for such conquest and robbery, the progenitors cfnd defective memory. Literature alone could fire the present enlightened inhabitants of Europe and rish the means of its authentic Trunsmissili, ndjeour own country. Indeed, it is not improbable, in: serve, in wifi characters, a losible record of the if he ifancy of all nations could be passed in review knowledge ind ihe fute of past generatina". But, and the night of antiquity invued by the genus o fer having made the discutery of his capacity for rese.sch, we could scarcely be peisiluded to recog. positive enjoyment, and whilst progressing in the mize, in the civilization of live present ge! er tions, licitous esperience of new Wanis with the means the oilspring ui such barbarviis ini süllyuminijums.lursupplyni .cin, Iliada Furgot to cuiculaie, with: ita
asion, how much was required to render him happy, sorted to in some countries, and pillars and publio
- and he coveted every thing around him. Omitting edifices in others. But, knowing all these to be liafor a time to reverence the aclmonitions of experience, ble to decay, and that their true meaning might be waich in vain held forth the salutary lesson, that in easily misunderstood or forgotten, he was not saorder to secure his own, he must respect the rights tisfied with a medium of intelligence, until literature of others, he became, in succession, a prey to the arose to record the knowledge and the fate of past genecondictions of rapine, and the ravages of war. Find- rations –Then, the affections of man for his posic: ing, that the ties of common interest, and the senti- rity were revived, and his desire to be remembered ments of common danger, were uniting his fellow with gratitude and admiration was spurred into new beings into families, tribes, and nations, he consented, energy. Feeling a secret pleasure in the approbafirom necessity, to impart to rulers of his own se- tion of his contemporaries, and that to con.mand lection the right to command his concurrence in their admiration was productive of happiness, ha strengthening the confederation that afforded him could not long be satisfied with their praises alunes protection. And, experience disclosing to him the but, knowing the means to be within his reach, and necessity of establising rules for the adjustment of impelled by a sentiment of iminortality, he proceeded bis claims, and tribunals invested with power to en- to record his knowledge and experience, and the des force them and preserve their balance, he found, in sire of fame magnified itself into a ruling passion ! submitting to the salutary dictates of legislative and He commenced, by perpetuating, in literary characjudicial wisdom, security for the protection of his ters, the traditional romances of heroes and distina rights, and liberty for their enjoynient. But, must guished men ; and because the powers of his fancy not succeeding generations, wanting the wisdom of were inversely to his acquisitions of rational knowa t.at experience which gave rise to the salutary insti- ledge, the early stages of his literature, present notutions of their predecessors, have fallen into anarchy thing but poetical descriptions of prodigies that ne. and confusion? How easily, in fruition and the lapse ver existed, and historical transactions that defy beof time, must they have parted with a remembrance lief. But, in progress of time, and by impercepiible of the genuine value of all the institutions of their degrees, experience began to correct the exuberance ancestors ;-wid, because tradition could not revive, of imagination, and he commenced the slow and pain. in the minds of succeeding, the wisdom of former ful process of arriving at distinctions between the ages—and, there existing no means of perpetuating probable and impossible-until, with the help of hie. a record of the knowledge and the fate of past gene- roglyphical and other fountains of ancient lore, he rations, the history of man, before the birth of lite- succeeded in transmitting through successive ages, rature, could have presented nothing but a sanguina- a legible record of the knowledge and the fate of pasí ry catalogue of dreadfiul revolutions in his fortune. generations !-A record, that holds up to our view, Discouraged in some measure by his want of success, the memory of past times, and the science of ages: and losing confidence in his own judgment, man, in that perpeinates, for our inspection, the lives of those the rigor of life, and the meridian of intellect, was of our progenitors who were worthy of admiration thus seen to submit himself to the direction and con- and fame, and prevents the oblivion of those who trol of traditionary wisdom issuing from the trem. were entitled to execration and infamy: that leads bling lips of infirm and superannuated age! and, us, easily, into all the sources of individual and naafter ascertaining by a lesson of experience the inu- tional prosperity, and points out the callses of indivi.. tility of applications for advice to such an oracle, he dual and national misfortune : that comprises a salu. voluntarily submitted his judgment to the dominion tary lesson for the individual, and a cotle of princi. of impostors of every descripuon--magicians, astro-ples for the contemplation of the statesman and polilogers, soothsayers, who, pretending to a prescience tician ; a mirror that reflects the materials of which of the future, without judging by the past, after a the successive governments of the world have been circle of vicissitudes, and abuses of christian divini-composed, and rescues from forgetfulness, the true ty, led him, a captive of the grossest superstitions, to causes of their elevation and decline:-A record the foot of the throne of ecclesiastical despotism - which constitutes the only source, from which, at At length, fatigued and disgusted with traditionary this day, can be drawn a knowledge of the true causes lore, and indignant at the oppressive impositions of that are reviving, in our own country, the expiring those who pretended to the mysticisms of sorcery, energies, and departing splendor of Europe-witi magic and astrology, and recollecting that he had out the aid of literature, an authentic enunciation only learned to guard against evils by being subject- of the christian religion, and the revealed volitions ed to their intiuence, he began to suspect, that in a of Deity, could scarcely have been heard by the pre. knowledge of the past was to be sought the only sent generations; and, we might have been wandermeans of obviating the miseries of the future. He ing in a labyrinth of error, and subjected to depr vaPenembered, among many oth r suggestions of pro- tions of all due earthly comforts and supreme consofound reflection, that he has detected himself in de-'lations of christianity. The exercises connected with viations from his own happiness, by experiencing the its pursuits, soften and dignify the human soul; and, heavy pressure of calamities annexed to the commis- by pointing out the means of alleviating the miseries sion of certain deeds, and he formed a code of laws, inseparably attached to our conditions, cultivaten which he denominated those of nature. Referring our sensibilities, and elicits the tear of compassion bis knowledge of particular facis to the discovery 07 for the miseries of those around us. It is a record, general principles, he next unfolded the elements of whose admonitions henumb the gripe of avarice, and sritiee; and, not having learned as yet “ to barter so- relax the muscles of extortion; that never fails to lid strength for feeble splendor,” he defined them to incite us to espouse the cause of the oppressed, ard be knowledge explainable upon those general princi- to feel an intcicst in overwhelming the powerful opples. He had not as yet, however, found means of per-pressor! In fine, it is to the salutary influence oriepetuating a knowledge of the result of his experi- rature, that we are, in a great mersure indebted for ence, and the efforts of his reason : and, feeling some che individual, domestic and national happiness we vanity for his exertions,and willing also that posterity enjoy; and a rational calculation with the hope of might be benefited by his discoveries, and culogize certainty may be indulged, that our condition can bis memory, he tried varions expedients, to leave be. never suller a mutation, unul by disregard of its rus hind him testimonies of his sagacity, and monuments spirit we cease to deserve itae felicities that trova in of his power. kieroglyphics and pyramids were re- its footsteps.
Legislature of Connecticut. necessary to take highly important, it became proper
for me to obtain the reasonings and opinions of the On Tuesday the 25th ult. the General Assembly comcil on the occasion. commenced their extra session at Yew-llaren. llis That body was accordingly convened at Hartford, excellency governor (iriswold was prevented, by the and it give me greut satı: fiction to find that their delicate state of his health and the badness of the opinions concurred with my own. Thirk:ng it necesweather, firm prosecuting his journey from Lyme sury however, to pursue my journey, h.s honor goto New-laven. We trust he will be able to meet vernor Smith, was so good as to take charge of the the legislature before the close of the session. correspondence, which had become necessary on the
Aficribe two houses were assembled in the coun- occasion; and by his leiter to the secretary of war cil chamber, lieutenant-governor Sith communica-of the 2d of July, communic.ited the opinion enterted to then the following message from his excellen- tained in this state, and our determinaticn respectcy governor Griswolil, together with the correspon- ing the requisition. dence which had passer between the executive of Con The secretary in reply, dated July 14th, in larguage nect out and the general government on the subject unusual, and altogether unexpected, appeaied to of the drafted initia.
claim a promise, contained in my litter of the 12th MESSAGE.
of June, to execute any requision which should be Gentlemen of the Council, wr. Speaker, and made by general Dearborn. This strange insinuation Gentlemen of the 1911se of Representatires, which originated in expressions of civility to the
Several important matters growing out of the president, and could not with decency have been war, in which we are imhappily engaged, appear to omitted, was repelled. demand the immediate attention of the legislature; In a letter from the war department the subject was and although aware of the expense and inconveni- also placed in a linint of view, which appeared to reence attending a meeting of the general assembly, quire a new consideration--and a second meeting of at this season of the year, and at å tine so near the the council wes accordingly deemed necessaryThe fall session, yet, I trust, on a full examination, ofa!l gentlemen comprising that body, were again fully the circumstances, it will appear that the measure consulted, and every view of the subject has been has become highly expedient. To render our public taken of which it appeared susceptible, and we have concerns, however, intelligible, it will be necessary been confirmed in the opinion, which re first formed, to urfold the events which have attended us. ard the council have again advised that nothing has
It is known to the assembly, that on the 10th of taken place to justify me in executing the requ.sition April last, congress passed an aci, to detach one of general Dearborn. hundred thousand militia, for the service of the All the papers to which I have referred, together Unted States, and that three thousand men, the quo- with a general procl, mation, concisely explaining the ta of this state agreeably to the orders of the Presi- ficts which have taken place, and the view's which dent, were promptly detached, and held in readiness, have been entertained, at this important period, will for the exigencies pointed out by the constitution be now communicaid for your inspection. and the law.
The impuitines of this messuire both as it regards The act of congress, and the measures regarding the security of the state, and :s it may also form a it, were communicated at the last session, and will be precedent on future occasions, rendered it highly me again laid before you. After your adjournment a porisnt io consult the gerralassembly. letter was received from the war department, dated But the inconvenience of convenirgso large a body June 12th, transferring the duty of calling for the and the early period of the fall session, induced me men, to general Dearborn; and requesting the re- to submit to the temporary disadvantage of a delay, quisition might be complied with.
rather then subject the immediate representatives of As nothing appeared in this communication but the people to so much inconvenience. Several new a wish of the president to confide this duty to an offi- circumstances, however, l'aving arisen, which it:pcer of runk, who, it was understood woull be charg- pessed to me could not with propriety admito delay, ed with the general command of the troops in the I have thought it my duty, at this time, to converle northern states, and as it could not be expected that the legislative body, and urail ryoelf of the occasithe president of the United States would authorise on tool.cit your immediate attention to the proceed. an order, which would be repugnant to the constitu-lings of the council, and your deliberate op rion on tion, I did not hesitate to inform the secret: ry of the measure which has been takin. This becomics war, that any requisition which the president might vuore immediately in portent from the consideration, make through general Dearborn, should be con.plied that if any errors have been committed, they nay with.
at this time be corrected, without much inconvenia Soon after these transactions, at a time when I was ence. pursuing a journey for my health, a letter was re The necessity of obtaining supplies of military ceived froni gener: Dearborn, requiring four com- store;-on this emergency, in ditina to those elpinies of draftedi militia, to march, and to be plac-rexcly on halid, will be univers.dly felt-and finding ed under the command of the officer, at Fort Ti um- the price and scirciis rapidly increasing, I thought bull, at Ver-London, and one company to march for no consideration could justify a e'clay, in calling the the battery near Now-Haven. An attention to the attention of the legislature immediately to that subterms of general Dearborn's letter, fully satisfied me ject. It can scarcely be necessary to inform you, that the requisition was unconstitutional, and could hat military stores ile not to be expected from thie not be complied with. I had noticed that important aineral governmulind ibat ve have reason to exprovision in the constitution of the United States, pct. that the regular troops will be principally calwhich uthorises the President to call into service and from the sea cost, and of course the statc will the militia "to repel invasion, suppress insurrections be left to defend itseif, if exposud to foreign invaand to aid in the execution of the laws;" and it was sion. with tsfaction that I had noticed that the act of It may also le observed that it is unwisc to de. comes towd strictly followed the principle of the pend altogether upon the gencral government for thie constitution.
Terence of our own coast. But although I entert:ined no doubts regarding The extensive territory, which it has been the namy duty, you as I vowed the step which it became tional policy to grip within our jurisdiction, and
the great number of points requiring detence, toge., to our forun of government and of the constitution of ther with an unhappy disposition to enlarge our es- the crited States-wollcompose the basis of the ad. tended frontier by new conquests, will probably de- ministration of government in the state. inand all the military force in the power of grem Trugling, suntem(1), that the God sf our failers ment for similar objects. This appears to be the de- will not desert us on this cccasion, and hat our safe ter nination at this time, and the important lus.nes tv is in hin--I have only to implere his guidance in of garrisoning the coast must be left to the militis, all our proceedings, and his smiles on all our deliveor neglect d.
rations. But if these essential interests are disregardeil,
ROGER GRISTVOLD. we must not neglect ourselves; and I trust, thut the present occasion, will turnish the best reasons for
EXTRA SESSION, improving the militia, both in organization and disci 4TH TUESDAY, August, 1812.-In the course of the pline, and for obtaining ample supplies of arms and afternoon, three committees weic apponied on the military stores, and placing ourscives on a res- three prominent subjects of his exceilency's nese pectable footing for detence, It is also proper sage. The honorable Mr. Goddard of the council, to avail ourselves of erery principle in the constitu- and one member from each county from the horse tion for rendering our means effectual, and the least on that part of the message wiich respeciva ile carinconvenient.
respondence between the general and state govern, Among other provisions in the constitution, it will ments; the honorable Messi's. Austin and Champion, be found, that in time of war, the states may organize of the cow.cil, and two members from each county and support a military force of their own, and which con the house on the purchase of alms and ampus cannot under any circumstances de controlled by (nition; and the honorable Mr. Dagget froin the the general government, and which may undoubtedly council, and one member from each county from be applied in all cases to the defence of the state. The house, on an address to the president of the C. Whether such force will become immediately ne- States. cessary, the general assembly will judge; bui us the The legislature journed on Saturday the 29:k subject can be examined, and a plan partially digesi- ult
. after passing a lw appropriating $50,000 for ed without expence, and measures for a speedy ex- he purchase of arms and other mun tions of war, cution of the principle at an early but future session, und authorising the governor to accept of the serI feel it my duty to recommend that subject to your vices of any volunteer corps which might ofler, for consideration.
de defince of the state only, to be under the comIn recommending this measure, it is far from my mond and control of none but their own officers. intention to propose that the state troops should at The committee appointed to take into considera. any time during the war, be witlibeld from aiding the tion that part of the governor's message which relates national and neighboring states' forces, in the com- to his correspondence with the secretary of war and mon defence ; but to increase the strength of those mujor-general Dcaibom, nule a report decidedly corps, and particularly to apply that body of men to supporting the stand the governor had taken--which Otoen defence-Should our frontier at any future report, with a resolve approbatory of his conduct, time be unhappily abandoned
passed the legislature. They have also published a Nor will it be understood, that whilst I feel it my declaration disapproving of the war, but manifesting duty to recommend the necessary preparation, for ar- their disposition " to perform all the obligations raying every description of constitutional and milits- resulting trom this act” (of war.] These papers with ry force, which may be proper for our defence, that the documents that accompanied the governor's mese wish to urge a step which may interfere with any sage, shall be duly registered. liberal measure, which the general government may tike for the same object. To the general görerument, we must and ought
Upper Canada. to look for security, and trust that a time will come York, July 23.-Yesterday at an early hour, his ho. when a full knowledge of our resources, will place nor lsaac BROCK, esquire, president, administering the safety of our sea-coast on that naval defence, the goverment of Upper Canada, and major-general which, alone, is capable of giving complete secu- commanding his majesty's forces there :), arrived at rity,
this place from Fort George, and accompanied by a Although it has been thought correct in this state numerous suite, proceeded to the governin:ent buildon ordinary occasions for the state government to ings at 4 P. M. when he opened the present extra ses. leave the national councils to pursue their own mei-sion of the legislature, and delivered the following sures without interference, yet I submit to your con- speech to both houses :sideration, whether this is not an occasion on which Hon. gentlemen of the legislative council, that principle should be dispensed with; and whe und gentlemen of the house of Assembly, ther it is not proper that the general assembly should, The Urgency of the present crisis is the only consi. by a plain and slecisive adiress to the president, cu-deration which could have induced me to call you topress their own opinion, and that of their constitu- sether at a time when public as well as private du. ents, on the important questions which have recently ties cisewhere, demand your care and attention. occurred.
But, gentlemen, when invaded by an enemy whose It is certainly necessary that the public opinion avored object is the entire conquest of this proshould be known by the president on the question of vince; the voice of loyalty, as weli as of inierest, calls Far; and it is presumed, when expressed by the le- aloul to every person in the sphere in which he is gislature of a state, it will be respected.
placed to defend his country. Many other maiters may occur, requiring your at Our militia have heard that voice and have obeyed ention; you may be assured of the support which it: they have evinced by the promptitude and loval. it may be in my power to give.
ty of their counduct, that they are worthy of the king Waterer events, however, may take place, whom they serve, and of the constitution which they you may be satisfied that the faithful preservation of leajoy; and it affords me particular satisfaction, that the public peace-a rigid and prompt execution of while I address you as legislatiers, I speak to men the laws, under which we happily live, and when who in the day oficer, will be rely to assist not form our secwity-together with a strict adherenceloniy with their counsel, but with their arins.
We look, gentlemen, to our militia as well as to the deism. He declared all those who paid any devo. regular foices, for our protection ; but I should be tion to Mohammed, and dared to give God a compawanting to that important trust committed to my nion, blasphemers and idolators; forbade the ad. care, it'I attempied io conceal (what experience the dressing of prayers to saints or prophets; and en. givrat instructor of mankind, and especially ot' legis- joined all Mussulmen to be put io death, who perlatoes has discovered) that amendment is necessary sisted in their idolatry. These new and intolerant is our militia law: to render them efficient. principles were not very favorably received in the
It is ior you to consider what further improvements towns. Expelled from Mecca, Damascus, Bagdad, they still may require.
and Bussorah, he addressed himself to Ebu Scotida Hon; gentlemen of the legislative council,
prince of Dreveh, in Yemen, and found in him a and gentlemen of the House of Assembly,
partizan capable of rendering his doctrine triumFrom the history and experience of our mother phant. This chief, anıbitious, brave, able, and wary, country, we learn, that in times of actual invasion saw in them the means of accomplishing liis desire or internal commotion, the ordinary course of crimi- of aggrandizement. Ile assumed the title of geveral nal luv, has been found inadequate to secure his ma- of the Wahabites, and Mohammed that of pontiff'; jeviyos government from privuie treuchery as well as
and the sovereignty thus participated, they inces. from open disaffection, and that at such times its le. santly labored to make proselytes, and extend their gislature hus found it expedient to enact laws re. conquests. From Dreyeh, their capital, surrounded straining for a limited period, the liberty of indivi. by sands, Ebn Seoud sent out parties to subjugate the duals in many cases where it would be dangerous to neighboring tribes ; and the rapidity of their marches expose the particulars of the charge, and although and the impracticability of attacking them in the the actual invasion of the province might justify me great desert, ensured their success. in the exercise of the full powers reposed in me on!
But it was reserved for his son Abdelazis to render such an emergency, yet it will be more agreeable to the standard of the Wahabites triumphant, throughmne to receive the sanction of both houses.
out the peninsula. His practice was to send the A rtw traitors have already joined the enemy, have Koran to any tribe he wished to subjugate and conbeen suttered to come into the country with impuni- vert, with a letter to the following purport : “ Abde
health. ty, and have been harbored and concealed in the inte
lazis to the Arabs of the tribe of DOP: yet the general spirit of loyalty which appears
It is your duty to believe the book I send you. Be to pervade the inhabitants of this province, is such as
not like the idolatrous Turks, who give God a comto authorise a just expectation, that their efforts to panion. If you be believers, you are safe : if not, I mislexian:1 diceive, will be unavailing.--The disaf- declare against you a war of extermination.” All fected I am convinced are fer-to protect and defend the tribes of the Bedoweens were subdued in succesthe loyal inhabitants from their machinations is an
sion by the arms of Abdelazis. They who resisted, object worthy of your most serious deliberations.
were plundered and massacred: they who submitted, We are engaged in an awful and eventful contest. were to pay him a tenth of their cattle, of their By imanimity and dispatch in our councils, and by money, and of all their goods; and to send one man yigor in our operations, we may teach the enemy this in ten to serve in his army. Thus in a short time lesson, that a country defended by FREEMEN en
this army numbered a hundred thousand men. These thusiastically devoted to the cause of their king and were mounted every two of them on a dromedary; constitution can never be conquered.
and armed with sabres, lances, darts, and bucklers. Some of them had match-lock muskets. A skin filled
with water, and another with barley meal, sufficed Account of the Wahabites. for the subsistence of two Arabs, and their dromedaThe present is the “age of revolutions”-Asia, as abstemious.
ry, twenty days. Officers and soldiers were equally
Abdelazis went so far as to prohibit well as Europe and America, appears destined to coffee, and the use of the pipe; and the Wahabites endure great and important political changes. The lobeyed. Following the traces of their enemies to crescent of Mohammed, long tottering on the west, take them by surprize, and retire without fighting ern side of the Bosphorus, and assailed by moral when they were pursued, they harrassed and de. and physical enemies that sooner or later mest stroyed them without any loss. When they captured prostrate it, is attacked also from the east, whence a town, they destroyed the mmarets and domes of the its power originally came, by a new sect, with great force and energy. For the following ac- the greatest veneration to thic Mussulmen, and seiz:
mosques, overturned the tombs, that were objects of count of this sect, the most satisfactory we have ed all the treasure, and all the spoil, they could find seen, we have the pleasure to acknowledge our in the temples or private houses. selves indehted to the Belfort Monthly Magazine,
As Abdelazis succeeded his father Ebn Seoud in a work conducted with equal ability and integrity, the post of generalissimo, Sheik Hussein, the eldest From the manner in which the editors received it son of the reformer Mohammeri, succeeded him as we presume it is entitled to the fullest confidence. head of the law; and these two dignities have conti
The foundations of this sect were laid about fifty nued hereditary in their families. The intolerance years ago by Mohammed, son of Abdei Wahab, and of these sectaries towards tho Mussulmen is greater grand son of Solyman, a poor Arab of the tribe of Ne.than tow:rds Christians or Jews : a circumstance for predi, It is said, that Solyman dreamed a fame issued which the author accounts on the principle, that the From his boily, that consumed both the tents of the animosity between sects is greater, in proportion as desert, and the houses of the city: and that the their creeds approach each other. When these reSheiks, to whom he related it, predicted, that his tormers captured the town of Emaun Hessein, fifteen NON, Abuel Wahab, would be the founder of a new miles from B:gdad, they put to death every person ligion, to which all the Arabs woull submit. From they found, man, woman, and child, to the number this so the sect derived its name, though the pre-fof three thousand. Va-t treasures were taken from dictioil was not accomplished by him, but by the the tomb of the Emain, and two hundred camels gracharon of Slyman. Sheik Mohammed adopted were loaded with the spoil. the Goran as the basis of his doctrine, rejecting It was not till 1798, that the Torte paid any serious hower? the tuition and glosses of its coniinenta- attention to the increase of the Wahabites. The *auetucing the Mohammedan religion to pure basbaw of Bagdad was then directed to soud an array