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VOYAGES AND TRAVELS IN SARDINIA, SICILY, MALTA, &c. IN 1811.

BY JOHN GALT.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

|| arises from its interior wretchedness. The Tae extent and grandeur of this famous streets are filthy, narrow, and darkened by the metropolis bare been greatly exaggerated. In overla nging houses. Few of the houses are stead of being, according to some travellers, 'con-tructed of stone or brick. The whole twenty English miles in circunference, 1 babitable town, ind-ed, may be described as doubt if it be near twelve. Were the port, composed either of lath and plaster or of timwith the channel of the Bosphorus, reduced ber. The appearance of the bouses is mean ; to the breadth of the Thames, perhaps, with ll and many of them are much decayed. The all Galata, Pera, and Sculari, Constantinople state of the capital accords with the condition would not be equal to two-thirds of London ; land decline of the empire. and it is not, like London, surrounded with a ll Constantinople, seen from the barbour, radiance of villages.

greatly resembles Lordon, seen from the Population.-Tlie population of Constanti. Thames. If it has no single feature comnople has been as much over raied as the parable to St. Paul's Cathedral, the great dimensious. Thise also visit only the bazars i moschs are splendid edifices; and the effect must fall into a great error ; for the appear.

of the whole view is greatly superior to any ance in them fully answers the ideas that are

that can be taken of London. commonly entertained of the population. To Seraglios –The grand seraglio of ihe Sultan the upper part of the town, and in the streets presents a confused assemblage of objects, not leading inmediately to the markets for houses, domes, trees, and pavilions. Many merchandize and provisions, there is nofthe donies are surmounted with gilded ornabustle, but, in many places, an air of de- || ments, and the view is very elegant; but there solation.

is no central point of grandeur to rest on. In southern climates, as the bandicrafts. The spectacle, howerer, tends to fill the mind meo work in open shops, a greater propor. with the fictitious images of Oriental pomp. tion of the inhabitants are visible ihan with

I had not an opportunity of seeing the as. In Constantinople, ile workshops are ge- 1 state apartnients; and the ladies having come nerally open to the streets. Considering the infom the summer-palace, permission to see stir in Palermo, the height of the buildings, I tiše ocher chambers of the inner court could and the huddling manuer in which the major not be procured. But a gentleman, who once part of the inhabitants live there, and com- l obtained access into the interior of the separing them with the appearance, generally, l raglio, has described the harem to me as conof Constantinople, the structure of the houses, sisting of very crdinary aparimcuts. The fivor and the domestic economy of the Turki, I am of the principal room was covered with fur inclined to think that the capital of Sicily | Englisin Brusels carpets, of different patcontains ten times the number, to the square terps ; and, in another, he saw a number of mile, ibat Constantinople does. If there be a English engravings. But nothing either rich million in London and its suburbs, there cer. or strange seemed to have struck his fancy. tainly is not balf that number in the whole of The pavilion in which the Sultan receiver the Ottoman metropolis, including Scutari, as the public visiis of the Captain Pashaw, is not well as Galata and Pera, with all the other difficult of access. It is a neat little square little dependencies connected with them, but i edifice, surrounded with a colonnade of unknown to the inhabitants by otber names. polished marble, and crowned with a dome. It

Appearance of the City-The superb distant stands ou the outside of the ancient emprospect of Constantinople only serves to ren-battled wall of the gardens, looking towards der more acute the disappointment which "Pera. The ceiling, belveen the pillars and the inner building, is divided into quadratures, i lo point of workmaoship it is immensely in. painted dark blue. The divisions are gilded, ferior to Westminster Abbey. Ten thousand and the walls are encrusted with porcelain men are said to liave been employed in the and marble. Here the Sulian reposes on a construclion of the St. Sophia, and nearly six throne of silver, lulled by the murmur of the years were consumed in completing it. The sea, the huin of the cities, and sound of a | most remarkable of its ornaments are eight fountain that plays at his feet. Noi withstand. columns of red porphyry, which Aurelian placed ing all the glitter, and the costly splendour of originally in the Temple of ihe Sun, and eight the throne, few persons would prefer this others of green porphyry, a gift from the mapaviliou to the temp'es in the gardens of gistrates of Ephesus. It is two hundred and Siowe. Nevertheless, it is a work of taste, for sixty-nine feet long, and two hundred and fortyit is consistent in all its parts, and the subur- three broad. dination of paris is well preserved; but there Schools.--As in Christendom during the dark is no vbject presented to the imaginalion. l ages, a: y learning that exists among the Turks

There are several summer palaces on the is possøssed by the priesthood. The schools banks of the Busphorus. Taken altogether, I attached to the muschs founded by the sultans, the residences of the Sultan form a truly irat, may be regarded as institutions similar to the perial establishnient : but the art of the laud. li colleges which were formerly conuected with scape-gardener is unknown at Constantinople; li the Roman Catholic cathedrals. Several are and the finest scenery in the world is neither supported by revenues arising from certain valued nor admired.

villages or territorial endowmerts; but they Buildings. The chief moschs are the great chiefly d pend on allowances from the public ornainents of this capilal; but, though stately income of the state. structures, it is impossible to louk at them Hospitals - There are two hospitals in Pera long without being disposed to think of old for the plague; and in Constantinople several fashioned capboards, where punch-buwis, turu- ! for ordinary invalids. Except one for the ined upside-down, are surrounded with inverted i sane, I believe that all the others are supported tea-cups, pepper-buxes, and candlesticks. l by the Christians. I visited the Turkish bed

Mr. Canoiug having procured a firman, to lam. The building, on the outside, is plain allow the British travellers to visit the moschs, and simple; but the court, around which the we assembled early io Ibe inorning, and, fol- rells are constructed, is built of marble, and lowed by a crowd of viher curious strangers the arcades resemble those of the Royal Exwho availed themselves of the opportunity, change of London. Never having seen the proceeded to the celebrated St. Sophia. . interior of a mad-house, I was gratly shocked.

The present exterior of this building has no Several of the patients, almost entirely naked, architectural symmetry; it consisis of clumsy were fastened by chaios fixed to iron collars butiresses, raiscd to preserve it from the effects round their necks, and sat at the grating of of the earthquakes that have so often threat their windows, like savage animals in cages. eved it with total ruin; and they couceal the The rooms were cleauly enough; and I could whole of its original forma. The interior, how-| not avoid poticing, that all the patients had ever, is very grand; be dome being shallower learned to ask money, except one, who appear. than that of St. Paul's, has the appearance of led to be depraved beyond the power of de. being larger. The supporters of the dome are scription to delineate. In one of the cells a so arranged, as to make the general effect re. young man, who was in a state of stupid me. semble, in some degree, a vast pavilion; but, lancholy, held out his hand instinctively. His as a work of scientific art, St. Sophia must be face was pale, and his features assumed a slight considered as a very clumsy structure. The cast of curiosity when we entered; but there ornaments of the capitals of the columns seem | was no speculation in bis eyes. One of bis designed rather to imitate feathers than the friends, wbo had come to see him, was using a acanthus, and the oative beauty of the marbles | number of artifices to attract his attention; but is not euriched by any shew of taste or skill. he continued regardlessly to glare. In another cell, we met several ladies, with their slaves, but it is a mistake to suppose that the patient and cbildren, diverting themselves at the ex- afier recovery, is not agaia liable to the disa pence of a merry madman. A young Turk, / ease. The great preventive of the contagion, who was with them, collected paras för tbe is the interruption of the intercourse; but entertainment. A more facetious lunatic, as there is a species of vinegar, which, when we passed the door of his room, invited us to drawn up in the nostrils, is supposed to afford enter. His countenance was cheerful, and he no small degree of security. It is called the professed to be contended. The physician of vinegar of the four thieves, having been inthis hospital was an old, and, as far as beard vented by four wretches of Marseilles, who, served, a venerable personage. He told us, during the great plague there, entered and that there were four great classes of insanity, plundered the infected bouses with impunity. distinguished by their causes: First, madness, This fact seems to be universally admitted, which came from fevers. Second, melancholy, that strong odours are of great utility in the which came from the fires in the city, or other prevention of the disease; the obvious infergreat misfortunes, Third, plantasy, which ence from which is, that proper fumigations cage from wrong conceptions of the imagina. would reduce its violence. Fruits and humid tion. Fourth, fils of delirium, which were substances, do not retain or communicate the produced by the magical devices of enemies. infection, but all dry substances, and living The first kind of insanity, he assured us, was animals, convey it; and the latter are liable, rarely cured; but the second and third, often themselves, to the disease, the symptoms and and easily. The fourth, however, was incur- ' progress of which are similar to those which able, uuless the enchanter could he discovered, take place on the buman subject. In the and obliged to break up his spell !

course of the malady, tbe patient most care. The Plague.- When the great population of fully abstain from gross food of every kind, this town is considered, the narrowness of the and also from crude fruits, living sparingly, on streets, the quantity of putrid matter con

the most meagre diet. stantly lying in them, and the covered bazars

Barracks - The barracks of the janizaries, excluding the fresh air, it is not surprizing, in

and of the sailors, are large and bandsome a climale subject, occasionally, to extreme

buildings, equal, both in appearance and neat. heals, that the inhabitants should often be

ness, to any in England. The arsenals are visited by pestilence. The substance of the

| also worth seeing, although they do not furnish information that I collected from a person

any thing for a descriptive pen. The dry dock who had endured the disease, and attended the

was constructed, in the reign of the late Selim, infected for some time, in ove of the hospitals,

by a Swedish engineer, who was, at the time, is as follows:--The symptom first perceived liberally encouraged ; but has since been ne. by the patieut, is a painful sensation, resem glected. bling the pricking of a lancet, or the sting of an Basars -The bazars are of great length insect. The sensation is so sharp, that, if it commonly about twenty feet in width, lighted takes place in sleep, it never fails to awaken from the roof, with recesses on each side, in the person. Soon after, an obtuse pain is feit which the merchandize is displayed. Each iu the head, a fever ensues, and, in the course recess is a shop, and the baudsomest are sur. of four and twenty hours, tumours make their mounted with little domes. The shopkeepers appearance in the groin and armpits. If the sil cross-legged, on platforms, in front of their disease is to prove fatal, the patient never goods. The platforms serve also for counters. agaio falls asleep, but the fever and tumours In many of the bazars the shops have small increase till he dies : oiherwise, the head-acbeware.rooms bebind. The G:cek and Armenian and fever abate at the end of the four-and il merchants retire to their private houses before twenty hours, and he enjoys repose. Death sunset; the Turks generally earlier; and the generally takes place before the suppuration of gates are closed before dark. The bazars, for the tumours: when the suppuration bas ar the most part, are the property of companies, rived at maturity, deaib is not apprehended;" who let out the shops to the merchants.

No. XXXI. Vob. V.-N. S.

CE

Several belong to the government, and are, the Circus, in St. George's Fields, London. farmed by individuals and companies. Stray. || I have seep two of the great cisterns construcla gers, from the appearance in the bazars, areed for supplying the city antieutly with water. apt to be as much deceived with respect to the l| The one, wbich the Turks call by a name deriches of this capital, as with the population. I scriptive of a thousand and one pillars, is dry, A vast quantity of opened mørchandize is at and occupied by silk tuisters. It is a vast once presented to the eye; for a bazar is a subterranean building. The roof is sustained great ware-room, in which the stocks of many by a triple tier of pillars, as I was told; but appear as the property of cne. People accus. | only the tbird, and part of the second tiers, tomed to the detached shops of London, large are above the earth. The other cistern is more and opulent as they are, cannet pass, for the magnificent, but not so easy of access, as it is first time, through the bazars of Constanti. under the house and gardens of a Peshaw. nop'e, without an emotion of surprize; but, ll Although the vaulting, in several places, has when, in subsequent visits, the shops are con- fallen in, it still serves to collect the water sidered individually, and t!e probable value of from the aqueduct. The aqueduct, wbich their contents is estimated, with the number brings the main supply of water to Covstantiof persons apparently interested in them, the nople, is a solid and stately fabric. It passes stock will be found comparatively very small. i through the city like a great artery, frem

Antiquities.-In so great a city as Coustanti- which the pipes of the public fuuntajos pronople, and which has suffered less from its ceud in ramifications like veins. It was ori. couquerors than is generally thouzht, there U sinally planned by Adrian, for the use of By. cannot but be many curious remains, that tra- zantium, and bore bis name till repaired by veliers neither hear of nor have an opportuni- 1 Valens. Justinian tou k a way part of the lead ty of sering. Of the hippodrome, only three i for other buildings; and in the reigu of Heraof the ornaments that decorated the middle of clius, it suffered still greater injuries. Soli. the area remain. The most ensiment is the man the Magnificent rebuilt it almost entirely obelisk of granite, which still rests on four and, since his time, it has not been neglected. blocks of brorze, on a pedestal of white mar- || The fortifications of Constantinople are in ble, adorned wiih bas reliefs. The hierogly. i ruins. The walls may be described as regged; phics on the obelisk, who shall explain? The li for, in several places, towards the sea, large bas reliefs seem to represent, or rather, as it | bules are worn or washed in them. The walls, might be expressed, to reflect the appearance against which the attack of Mahumet the of the theatre when filled with spectators. Ou! Second was directed, still shew traces of Baby. the basement of the pediment, there is the re-lonish grandeur. They consist of a ditcli, and presentation of a spectacle of the circus. Near Three successive platforms. The iuper wall is the obelisk stands the column of the brazen ll a lofty curtain, with tall towers at regular disserpents, which ancientiy supported the golden i tances. In walking along the outside, when tripod consecrated to the Oracle of Delphos making the circuit of the city, ils appearance after the defeat of Xerxes. When Mahomet suggested to me some idea of the wall of China, the Second made his triumphal entry intoll as it is described running over mountajus and Constantinople, it is said that as he passed across valleys. As efforts of labour, or of skill, along under this well-aui benticated fragment the works round Constantinople are but Liliof antiquity, he shattered, with bis batlle-axe, putian undertakings compared to those of the jaw of one of the serpots. All their heads Malta; but, in point of picturesque effect, few bave since been broken off. About as far from l will hesitate to prefer them. The fortifica. the serpents as they are distant from the tions of Constantinople, towards the land, Egyptian obelisk, stands another obelisk, may, without much stretch of fancy, be comwhich was formerly covered with bas-reliefs in pared to an army of old giants drawn up in bronze. The apex overhangs the base; and it I order of battle; terrible in their aspect, but is evidently doomed to full soon. In height || inefficient and frail. anid appearauce it resembles the obelisk, nearl Arts and Manufactures. I have not been

able to learn that the Turks have any arts or li their feedom; and the uniformity with which manufactures which may be considered as pe they dress, when they go abroad, furnishes the culiarly their own; but, as every separate licentious with abundant opportunities of incivilized community generally excel in the dulgence. No restriction is laid on their in. manipulation of some one particular thing at | tercourse with each otlier; and I question if least, the Turks have, no doubt, also, their Scandal be less eloquentiy worshipped in the masterpiece. In the making of tobacco-pipes harams of Constantinople than ju the boudoirs they certainly as much excel us as they exceed and drawing rooms of Paris and London, Tbe us in the use of them; but this is an excel. Turkish ladies fieely frequent the shops, and lence rather granted than the result of superior chat with the mercers, undervaluing the gaudy skill. The boring of a straight stick never can commodities on which their hearts and eyes be consider d as a difficult process; far less as are set, with as many contemptuous tosses and one that our mechanics would conceive it ne. accents as the best bargain-makers in Christ. cessary to study. The Turks perf rm their eudom. Nor are they without their due sbare handicraft operations sitting. Their machi- l of individual consequence and dignity, not. nery is very rude; but they make up, in knack | withs:anding the polygamy which the bus. and dexterity, for the want of more ingenious bands are allowed. The second person in the aids. At their turning lathes they employ l state, corresponding in rank to the Christian their toes to guide the chissel ; and in these Queens, is the Sultana niother. Her public pedipulations, shew to Europeans a diverting || officers are grandees of the first class; and her degree of address. The tinis of the colours annual revenue is fully eigbty thousand pounds produced by the dyers of Constantinople, have sterling. Turks may marry the sisters of their long been justly adınired, and never yet ex. || wives, but not more than one at a time. celled by ours. Tbry have one colour which Younger brothers may marry the widows of is not yet known, at leait not made, by any of their elder, but the elder are not permitted to our dyers. It resembles, in brightness and marry those of the younger. Elder brothers beauty, the scarlet extracted from the cochi. enjoy a superior rank, approximating to that neal.

of fathers. They are permitted to see the Women. The state of the women in Turkey faces of the wives of the younger. Divorces is one of the greatest curiosities which the in Turkey may take place, at any time, by empire affords. Accustomed to hear and to mutual consent; but whenever the husband read of their secluded apartments, and the repudiates the wife, he is obliged to bestow ding r and difficulty of obtaining access to on her a provision proportioned to bis circumthem, I was rather surprized to find, in fact, stances. Divorces are recorded in the same much less difference in their condition from Chancery in which marriages are registered. that of our own females than I thought re. || Adulicry is a capital offence. The women concilable to tie doctrines of Mahomet. It are not permitted to frequent the public must always be held in mind, that the Turks moschs; but there are priestesves who go from are a singularly grave people; that they have house to house on the purposes of religion, no public amusements which the women fre and who serve, in all respects, the duties of quent, and that even their m als are regarded male ecclesiastics; an arrangement more dein some sort, with religious solemnity. This licate than that of the Roman abd Greek sedate decorum is not favourable to the liberty Il churches. The custom of allotting to women Ĩ religion, by prescribing limits to those wiih culiar only to the professors of the principles whom the worden may usveil their faces, ll of Mahomet, was general over all Europe till imposes a restraint apparently as strong as the middle of the fifteenth century; and the that wbich seems to be the result of the na. ancient domestic arrangement of the Greeks tural taciturnity of the men. Still, however, ll differed in nothing from tbat of their present considering the state of society in the country, 1 masters. the women cannot be regarded as stiutrd in 1 Society -The labits and modes of the Turks

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