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blished in the kingdom before the incursion of which are destined to satisfy your curiosity the Madiars. The slavery in which the poor upon those objects, which you must assist me Paraguays have existed ever since their last to investigate for your peculiar gratification. conquerors, in the times of feudal power, who took every advantage of that destructive system, and which wonld bave yet rewained

LETTER II. in their hands, is shocking (but the Madiars I am charmed, my dear friend, that you aphave all in their own possession at present). || prove of my renouncing all political subjects These people have preserved all the warlike in my letters on Hungary. The constitution disposition of their ancestors, and the different of a country, which imagines itself free, yet is customs which yet exist among them are so far removed from every priuciple of liberty, owing to their affinity to the eastern inbabi- || that I see no way of justifying that species of tants of Caucasus, who are the same people, l insurrection which took place in Hungary and whose language bas some resemblance to against Joseph II. The views of this prince all the Madiars; and this resemblance is so are but too well known to find a place in this close, that tbe knowledge of one of these sketch, which is intended only to pourtray, as languages is sutficient to the understanding truly as possible, a complete picture of the of the other.

manners and customs of the Hungarians. The most prevailing custom amongst the We may venture to assert that the Hun. Madiars, whom we call the original Hunga- ll garians are an unsettled and warlike people. rians, is never to shut up their cattle in a The history of the wars, in which these valiant stable : this proves them to be a wandering | people distinguished themselves often by people ; and the observance of this custom, in their bravery and perseverance, leaves no a country much nearer to civilized nations doubt of their military prowess; and their than Russia, Poland, and other European customs, observed in all their originality, at countries, inhabited by a barbarous people, this present time amongst the lower classes, and amongst whom even the custom of guelt prove to us, sufficiently, that the Hungarians exists no longer, proves that the Hungarians

were a waudering people, even after other are the last wavdering nation which submitted | nations, the most barbarons in Europe, bad itself to the labours of agriculture ; if we

ceased to be so. Let us see in their positive may call that species of labour agriculture, and negative manners, if we have not strong which is just sufficient for the Hungarian to

reasons to persist in our opinion? procure the vecessaries of life, in a climate,

The distinct character of a wandering nation where the earth produces spontaneously, every in the second degree of society is idleness, seed confided to its natural fruitfulness; such

and the love of liberty; yet they cannot be as wheat, corn, barley, oats, spelt, millet, said to love it; for they know not that sacred and rice; which are all produced with rapidity, | liberty, which proceeds from wise laws and the in this fertile soil; tbe vegetables are of a

balance of power. The constitution of Engflavour and consistency the most exquisite ; || laud, that master-piece of the human under. the vine, by the strength of its vegetation and standing, that Egis of national and individual its productive force, is of such a nature, that independence, is as much too elevated for their the vines of Italy itself cannot stand in com

views, as it can be for the object of their depetition with its fertility.

sires. They know no other liberty than that What you have just perused is the actual || of wandering about with their docks, in those situation of Hungary. I renounce all political vast countries, wbich their valour heretofore information; for there are causes as well as conquered, and to revenge their injuries, witheffects amongst mankind; we see them born, 1 out the intervention of men, unknown to we see them grow up and die, without search them; and their ferocity and vebement passions ing out the cause of their birth, their deve- will not permit them to resort to the slow lopement in life, or their death: what remains means of justice; although the modes of rewill alone be the purport of these my letters, t. prisal employed by the mobility and gentry of

Hungary might inculcate the love of the Hun- | to the eye of industry would be an exhaustless garians for individual independance, there treasure: but now it becomes to these natives get remains too profound a trait of the national only an element of sickness and destruction. character to be easily eradicated, and which I Therefore it is not ignorance which is the fatal have witnessed in various events. Excepting cause of the Hungarian's indolence, and that statute labour, to which the Hungarians are makes him wish to escape from his native air ; subject, as well as the Sclavonians, the he well knows that the lakes and marshes Saxóns, the Swabians and other northern sub formed by the inundations of the rivers, and jects established in Hungary, the Madiar or those torrents which descend from the moun. Hungarian fullows no occupation; he lan- tains, are dried up and stagnate every year, and guishes after ease, it is the wish that he feeds that not only the fish, but the reptiles and upon, as he wanders amidst the vallies of plants all die together, from the ardent effects Caucasus, and througla extensive plains, where of the sun's great effervescence; so that this not a tree defends the idle inhabitant from an mass of corruption imparts to mankind a poi. ardent and scorching sun, during the summer, sonous death. But nothing can draw the aud straw, dry mud or turf, are the only com Hungarian out of his apathy; he hopes, from bustible matters which shields him from the his robust constitution, a return to health, the rigorous cold wbich the Levant winds bring loss of which he appears to regard as a means from the frozen plains of Russia ; and sleeping is of dispensing him from that labour which he under low cottages of mud he is defended owes to bis Lord; and if he rejoices in the peg. from these rigours only by a wall of packing | tilential influence of the autumnal season, he cloths. So situated, and seemingly deprived | finds in the recovery or in the continuation of of all means of existing in a climate, where his health, a new motive for persisting in idleextremes both of cold and heat are so exces ness. The Danube, that eventful source of sive, the Hungarians, although the seasons su much wealth, would be almost useless to succeed each other, never think of sheltering | the Hungarians if its shores were inhabited themselves against them: when the sun exer only by them; the advantages which Germany cises its productive and genial warmth over and Hungary might draw from the vavigation plants and animals, and by it's vivifying rays of this river, and the state of that navigation, covers the country with barvest and vintage, || shall be the subjects of my next letter. the Hungarian views with indifference, what

(To be continued.)

THE NEW SYSTEM OF BOTANY, WITA PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF FLORA, &c. &c. &c.

It is a curious fact, that the most eller But if this may be observed in animal, it is getic and the most persevering efforts of man even more strongly marked in vegetable life, are often directed to measures whose object as every climate has its specific plants, which seems to be to counteract the regulations of are constitutionally unfitted for transplantaProvidence. Mankind, in its various races, if | tion; and which, indeed, nothing but the ut. not originally formed for the different climates most ingenuity, industry, and expence, could in which they are found, have at length become ever have preserved in a state even of simple so naturalized to each, that a transplantation || vegetation in climates of very different temperis always attended with a constitutional change; atures. and so fatal are often the effects of this trays So far, however, from considering this as plantation, that several well meaning people any proof that the benevolent deity intendbave argued from thence that this change and led to confine specific plants to specific disintercourse were contrary to the almighty tricts, we onght rather to consider it merely plan.

as a confirmation of that position, that instead

of the ingenuity of man being applied to the There are now found to be seven distinct purpose of triumphing over the intentions of species of it; the laurel-leaved magnolia, or nature, it is more rational to suppose it to magnolia grandiflora; Plumier's magnolia, have been tbe design of the great Being that for the aspiring Frenchman, wbilst conferring man should in all possible ways exert bis own immortality on his friend, did not forget him. invention, sagacity, and industry, not only for self; swamp magnolia, or magnolia glauca; personal security and support, but even for magnolia obovata; magnolia tomontosa; magbis amusement; bay, that the ingenuity dis- nolia acuminata, whose flowers are of a blue played for the latter purposes sheuld in many colour; and the umbrella tree, or magnolia instances be attended with the happiest results tripetala, for society.

The whole of these are classed as POLYAN. Of the various attempts of that nature to

DRIA POLYGYNIA, and are placed in the na. which we allude, noue perhaps have been at

tural order of Coadunate. In generic charac. tended with more success than the naturaliza

ter they all agree; the calyx has a three leaved tion of the

perianth, the leaflets are deciduous, are petal

shaped, ovate, and concave ; there are nine MAGNOLIA.

petals in the corolla, these are obloug, concave, of whiclı, only fifty years ago, it was said, and narrowest at their insertion ; tbe filaments that “if it can be so far baturalized as to en

are numerous in the stamers; these are short dure the cold of our severe winters in the and acuminate, compressed, and inserted beopen air, it will be one of the greatest orna. low the germs into the common receptacle of ments to our plantations.” Now this has not the pistils; on the margin of the filaments, only been proved practicable so far as regards

on each side, the anthers are fastened, and the bardier species, but even with respect to

these are linear; the pistil contains many some of the more tender ones; of which there ovate oblong germs, which are two celled, and are many specimens in various parts of the cover a club-shaped receptacle. The styles, kingdom, but particularly at the Earl of Cool which are extremely short, are contorted and ventry's, at Croom Park, in Worcestershire, recurved. The stigmas are villose, and longiwhere they are trained to south walls, and tudinal of the style. The pericarp has an regularly produce their elegant flowers in the ovate strobile, covered with compressed capgreatest perfection. These are indeed attended sules which are roundish in form, slightly imwith careful assiduity, particularly in the early bricate, clustered and acute; they are also perfrosts in autumn, when the tree is liable to manent, and are one celled and two valved, suffer most from the weather, as the extremi. sessile, and opening outward. The seeds are ties of the shoots are then in a very tender irregular, either two or one; in shape they state.

are roundish, and bang by a thread from the All the varieties of this tree which we know, seams of each side of the strobile. are originally American; but the finest, both It is a general observation throughout the with respect to the beauty of the tree itself | whole genus, that the germs are two celled and the elegance of its flower, is the laurel- | and two seeded; whilst the ripe capsules are leaved magnolia, or tulip tree; the first name one celled and two valved. is derived from the modern botanical affecta. In essential character also, they all agree tion of conferring immortality on a man's in having the calyx three Icaved, petals vine friends by Latinizing their names into the Lin. || leaved, capsule one celled and two valved, aud nean nomenclature, this having by its god. || the seeds berried and pendulous. The whole father, Plumier, been adopted from that of genus may be said to claim the appellation of Pierre Magnol, Professor of medicine, and trees ; their leaves are large and succulent; Prefect of the botanical garden at Montpelier; | and the fowers are axillary, very large, and and the second naturally arising from its great highly odorous. But the largest species of similarity to that power whose name it bears. all is the laurel leaved magnolia, or great

tulip tree, which is found in the southern vers, as to form the best bait for the traps fo 6łates of America, particularly Florida and tbat ir dustrious animal. Carolina, growing to a height of seventy or Nothing can be more delightfullhan to wan. eighty feet, with a straight trunk sometimes der amidst these western wilds in a fine Ameri. more thau two feet in diameter, at which can evening; for there eveving displays charms beight it begins to send off large spreading of a peculiariy pleasing nature, though perbranches that form a bead of the deepest green haps from our babits of combination, not quite foliage. The leaves too, are of an extraordi. equal to an evening in England; but still it nary size, being often more than ten ioches in is delightful during the still, the dewy hour, length aud three in breadth in the centre. In when nothing disturbs the car but the shrill consistence they resemble the laurel, but are notes of the mocking bird, or perhaps the more rather more waved in the edges, and their plaintive strain of the blue bird and Virginia upper surface is always of a lucid green, whilst nightingale, to inhale ils agreeable odour underneath they are more of a russet. Though borne on the faintly whispering breeze that this tree is absolutely an evergreen, yet the scarcely stirs a leaf of the forest. leaves are so far deciduous as to fall off regu. Even when the flowers have withered, its larly as tbe branches extend themselves, and herries are objects of great beauty, bei:g of a produce new leaves at their extremities. The rich red colour, hanging on slender filaments flowers are always found at the ends of the in numerous bunches. These berries are branches; their colour is a pure white, and often steeped in brandy, and are then cousi. their odour extremely agreeable. As for the dered as highly efficacious in slight pectoral fruit, it needs no other description than the complaints; and a decoction of the bark has botanical definition; for though the tree has

in many consumptive cases been known to be now been made to stand our winters, yet our

attended with beneficial results. summers are not sufficiently warm to bring it

One species of the magnolia is called in the to any perfection, nor indeed even to bring back settlements the cucumber tree, fwwm its out the flowers so early as in its native habitat, fruit, which is three inches long, bearing a where it is in a state of Apresence in May, great resemblance to a small cucumber. continuing so for some months, and filling i he

The last variety is the umbrella tree, which forests and swamps of Columbia with the most

is generally about twenty feet in height at its potent fragrance; while here it never flowers

full growth, with a very slender trunk. Its before the middle of June.

leaves are of a remarkable length, and being Some of the other species are found in the placed in a circular manner at the end of each West Indies. The swamp magnolia, which | branch, they form sometning so like an um

All never exceeds sixteen feet in height, and is

brella as to have given rise to the name. principally found in the middle and southern

these latter varieties are deciduvus; and it is states of the northeru contineat, yields a most

curious tbat in cultivation here the deciduous delightful odour from its numerous flowers

ones have been found to be the hardiest. The which hang on its branches during May and

Ombrella species liave been hearty fifty years June, and ofien longer. Its wood is of some

in cultivation in this country, and it has alvalue in medicine, under the various names of ways been fouud that as soon as they advance white laurel, swamp sassafras, and beaver tree. a little towards maturity they become very The latter name is very appropriate, for its capable of bearing any cold they meet with insoots are considered such a dainty by the bea- tiis climate.

FINE ARTS.

Jllustrations of the Graphic art; EXEMPLIFIED BY SKETCHES FROM THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AT PARIS.

A DEAD CHRIST.

adhered to, the effect of the engraving is even The first observation which strikes an ama more vigorous than that of the painting teur in examining the historical works of Van itself. Dyk is, that they are done from a different pal

CARDINAL BENTIVOGLIO let with bis portraits; in colouring, in particu

was both a churchman and statesman; and lar, tbey are much inferior. As a portrait the character of the head, its attitude, pbypainter, Van Dyk is original; but in history, he is siognomy, and expression, are all in concert. merely a copyist; he wished first to resemble There were two Cardinals of the naine of Rubens, his master; then Titian; then Paul Bentivoglio, Louis and Francis. This man is Veronese; but in portrait, he has only at- quite the minister; his head is political; there tempted to be himself.

is diplomacy in his very look; the light strikes The sentiment, the arrangement, the com

on the full front, and descends by gradation position of this picture are good; but we can

over the whole figure; his hands are those of not say so of its expression: the body of the prelacy; the Roman purple is beautiful Christ, indeed, cannot be said to have any and brilliant, avd Hesh must be strongly codefect in the drawing; but then the head is loured to preserve the proper contrast with it. not divine, nor even noble; the Virgin is ac The folds of the drapery are perhaps rather curate, but her grief is common, too studied; I studied; towards the bottom they seem as if it is merely the grief of a mother; it is prose,

suddenly thrust in by the band, the picwhere we expect poetry; it is a Stabat, but turesque intention of which, no doubt, bas not a Pergolese.

been to throw back and withdraw from the The air of the Magdalen too, is too young, light, the retiring front; but when these too worldly; she kisses the band as if the tricks are adopted, they ought to be of a naband was still alive. As for the St. John, ture not to be easily found oul. the only expression is that of attention ;

However, after all, this portrait is one of he is even

more prosaic than the others; the finest in the collectiov; it possesses all the there is nothing apostolic, but he is merely | firmness, all the assurance of a master; the a handsome young man present at

an af- linen, and the laces of tbe ecclesiastical

rocket, are fecting scene, in which he bimself is con

inky and sacrificed ; they have cerned. The angel has tou much import- great freedom of colouring, and the flesh is

not less beautiful. ance in the composition; he is dressed too in the Dutch, and not in the Italian style. One

There have beeu two engravings done from may find many of his brothers in Rubens'

this portrait; one by Pichianti, a Florentine pictures.

artist, of which the style of engraving is agreeVan Dyk was more correct in his drawings

able, but without vigour and without effect, than Rubens ; but then he was anxious to

although correct in its designing; a circuinobtain tbe mode of colouring of bis master,

stance which often happens where artists do sought for it, and lost his own.

not engrave after the picture itself, and con. The legs of the Christ are inky; and

tent themselves with copying from a mere dethat through his never-ceasing principle of sign which never can inspire the spirit of the sacrificing all the inferior ligbt; having no

original. The other engraving is better; and black draperies, he seems thus to have sought bears a greater resemblance. The flesh is done a substitute for them.

in the mezzotinto style, the hair, the beard,

and the dress are performed by the graver. This picture was brought to Paris, from the principal altar of the Beguin's church at Ant. plate of Moncade was su'stituted for that

N. B. Owing to a mistake of the Press, the werp; it has been engraved by Paul Pontius, of CHARLES I. which will be corrected in the and the design and sentiment being strictly I ensuing Number.

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