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SUMMARY.

BOOK X I.

CHAPTER I.

Introduction to the subject of the eighth beatitude-How far the just were exempt from perse. cution in Ages of faith—The old experience of the world however still verified— The true spirit of martyrdom prevailed in the middle ages—The earnestness, resolution and courage of men-Their fortitude; their chivalrous constancy—Their rejection of the spirit of false peace and of selfish'enjoyment_Their detachment from earthly treasures ; they were indefatigable to act and to suffer like the primitive martyrs-Many desired martyrdom-Distinctions laid down - They were to be actuated by the desire of pleasing God — Their sacrifice was to be voluntary - There was to be no needless defiance of danger-They were to be pacific and obedient as far as was compatible with duty to God-Contrast between the Catholic and Protestant spirit in this respect—The obligation of patience enforced-Charity was the root of their fortitude, men sought to imitate the passion of Christ-Hence it was a supernatural heroism— The spirit of martyrdom in the women of the middle ages-And in youth and childhood.

p. 543

CHAPTER II.

Doctrine of the Ages of Faith respecting qualifications and distinctions required to consti. tute martyrdom-Security then against the modern errors as evinced in new martyrologies, and in the Eoglish regicides – The cause was to be just, and not dependent on the judgment of man : but any cause of natural justice was deemed sufficient: bence men were deemed martyrs for justice in government; for wisdom and fortitude in the administration of states ; for loyalty to the legitimate sovereign ; for fidelity to the duty of protecting religion ; for rejecting the temptations of ambition -For justice, as ministers of kings, and as magistrates, as public men, as scientific discoverers, as simple Catholics in the common walks of life, as children and youths from the harshness of parents and masters, as the poor from the cruelty of the rich, as artisans from the tyranny of their employers, as servants from the barshness of masters, as subjects from unjust laws

p. 582

CHAPTER III.

Doctrine of the Ages of Faith respecting the necessity of enduring persecution–Testimong of the ancients – Reflections of the schoolmen-History of the Christian persecation from the

birth of Christ—That of the primitive Church familiar to the memory of men in the middle ages-Conflicts with paganism, with heresy in the second period of the Church ; whese were their familiar themes

P. 606

CHAPTER IV.

Persecutions continued in the middle ages from pagans—In two modes protracted—By lingering opposition, by invasion, by wlavery, and by resisting missions-Persecution from Mahometans-Caused the Crusades—Persecution of the slaves in Africa and Asia, iod of the re. ligious men who labored to redeem them-Persecution of the Christian population hy the descent of pirates, and of the missionaries who preached to the Moors-Persecutions of the Christians by the Jews–By the Manichæans—Traditions of iheir cruelty

p. 618

CHAPTER V.

Persecution incurred by admonishing wicked Christians-All were bound by this dutyDanger of correcting them-Doctrine of the middle ages on this point-Friends were to give each other free counsel-Character of the great-Vigilance of the popes and of the bishops in regard to them-Examples of the sufferings of Loly men in consequence of endeavors to correct wicked princes-Persecution incurred by preaching, and by the ordinary offices of the pastoral care

p. 639

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Persecutions suffered by all Christians generally, when evincing eminent sanctity-Writers of the middle ages show that this was a necessary consequence—Testimony of the ancients concurs_In the Church the cbaff must seek to oppress the wheat-Examples of holy persons suffering for being holy, for observing the commands of the Church, for doing what was right; for being just ; for showing an example of Catholic manners, even in retirement, in consequence of which they are shuoned and disliked – Examples of such treatment-On what grounds it amounts to persecution-Persecution on account of sanctity followed men even within the cloister-Tepid and unworthy monks persecute their holy brethren for being more holy, and for seeking to reform their own monasteries or orders—Examples -Persecutions in. curred generally in consequence of great spiritual wisdom—Those who possessed it were de. spised as visionary and insane-Experience and testimony of the ancient world-Examples from Christian history-Persecution of the holy by the just—Examples – Its origin and effects explained

P. 659

CEAPTER VII.

Persecution of the Church collectively by the world-Sufferings of holy men incurred by defending its liberty-The chief epoch distinguished-Justice of this cause considered, in early times, in the case of St. Thomas of Canterbury in the case of holy men defending the Church property-Testimony of the contemporaries of St. Thomas-Judgment of persons not involved in the contest-Judgment of the people

p. 691

CHAPTER VIII.

The general character of the persecutors—The kings ; their instruments, Legists, unworthy

priests, men of blood-Examples—Their policy the same in all ages— Their hatred of Rome

Their arts to impede its action

p. 717

CHAPTER IX,

The heroic patience of those who defended the Church—The moderation of the Holy SeeIts iudulgence appears excessive-Complaints in consequence during the struggle with Hen. II. in England - Its pacific exercise of authority-Examples- Courage of episcopacy-Bishops encourage each other—The meekness and humility of their deportment

p. 747

CHAPTER X.

The sufferings of the clergy for maintaining ecclesiastical liberty-Persecution of the Holy See in consequence, and of the Church generally-SS. Lanfranc, Anselm, Thomas, and his companions-Spirit of these sufferers—Their consolations, Martyrdom of St. Thomas, and its results

p. 779

CHAPTER XI.

The combined action of all elements of persecution for justice, in the rise and progress of the heresy of the sixteenth century--At all times heresies united in attacking the Catholic Church— The persecution by the followers of Luther and Calvin—Various causes of the bos. tility of beresy pointed out-Its destructive action-Its persecution of the intelligence—The calamitous results of its progress-Horrors of the persecution—The spirit of mockery—Its sanguinary form-Its legal form-Heresy introduces discord and disturbs the pacific order of states

- The confusion consequent or its propagation-Heresy causes wars, religious, civil, and pational wars-Contrasts

p 796

CHAPTER XII.

The sufferings of the monks especially for justice-The religious orders sprung from persecution—The hatred of them evinced by the payans, Arians, and Iconoclasts, by the profane society of the middle ages, by the violent and unjust, by the Protestants-Destruction of the monasteries—The work pursued in our age-Persecution still assails the Church, as it must continue to do till the end of time-In heaven the consummation

p.829

CHAPTER XIII.

The epilogue

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p.866

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