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there reigns perpetually a soft spring continual ascent and descent, and temperature, which never varies more every instant the traveller arrives than 7° or go of Fahrenheit; the from a cold climate, to regions excesmean heat of the whole year is from sively hot. On the contrary, of the 65° to 70°.

250 miles from Mexico to the port The third division of the climate of Vera Cruz, the greater part becomprehends the plains which are longs to the great central plain, which elevated 7000 feet above the level of extends, with little interruption, from the sea. This is the height of the the 18th to the 40th degree of N. lat. a city of Mexico, and in summer the distance nearly equal to that of the town thermometer seldom rises above 75°, of Lyons from the tropic of Cancer. while in winter it ranges between 55° The rest of the road is a continued and 70°. The mean temperature of and laborious descent. To such of our the whole Table Land is 62', which is readers as consider this singular conabout equal to the temperature of Rome. figuration of the ground, it must be The plains, which rise above the obvious, that a country so elevated, height of 8000 feet, possess, though and to be reached only by a contiwithin the tropics, a rude and disa- nued ascent through difficult roads, geeable climate, even to an inhabi- must abound in defensive military tant of the north.

positions, and that, with the least deTowards the west, the descent from gree of skill on the part of its defenthe Table Land is much more steep ders, it could not be conquered but at than towards the east. Setting out such an expence of blood, as no state from the eity of Mexico, which is could afford to lavish away in its pursituated at nearly an equal distance chase. from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Mexico, from its position between towards the east, on the road to Vera Europe and Asia, appears admirably Cruz, the traveller advances 180 miles adapted for carrying on an extensive before a single valley occurs, of which commerce with both continents, five the bottom does not rise 3280 feet a. or six weeks being sufficient for combove the level of the sea. In the op- municating with either, while the posite direction from Mexico to Aca- country, from its diversified climate, pulco, the road descends the same would yield the various produce both depth in the space of 50 miles. The of the warm and temperate regions, eastern declivity of the Andes is so and would thus supply in abundance regular and uniform, that when once the materials of an extensive exchange the traveller begins to descend from with other countries. The mountains the great central plain, he continues contain ores of every kind of metal, his descent until he arrives at the and there are abundant mines, not eastern coast. The western coast is only of the precious metals, but also furrowed by four very remarkable of copper, lead, tin, alum, vitriol, and longitudinal valleys, of which the re- different sorts of precious stones. spective heights above the level of the Among the forest trees are the cedar, sea are 3217, 1685, 557, 518 feet. Brazil wood, mahogany, and every The road towards Asia from Mexico sort of timber either for use or ornathus differs from the road towards ment. Europe. For the space of about 220 The following is an account of the miles, the distance in a straight line most remarkable towns in diexico or from Mexico to Acapulco, there is a New Spain :

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INTENDENCY of MEXICO.
Population 1,511,800.
Extent of surface in square

137,000 7470 feet.

Mexico, the Capital
Tescuco
Acapulco
Queretaro, celebrated

leagues 5,927

5000
4000

for the beauty of its
edifices, its aque-
duct, and cloth ma-
nufactures

35,000 | 6489

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MERIDA. Population 465,000

Merida Extent of surface in square Campeche

leagues 5977.

10,000

6000

16,000

VERA CRUZ.
Population 156,000.
Extent in square leagues 4,141

Vera Cruz
Xalapa, situated on

the eastern ridge of
the Andes, between
Vera Cruz and
Mexico, in a fine

climate
Perote

13,000 4264

7719

9

SAN LUIS POTOSI.
Population 334,900.
Extent of surface in

square leagues 27,821

San Luis Potosi

12,000

DURANGO.
Population 159,700.
Extent of surface in square

leagues 16,873.

Durango
Chihuahua
San Juan del Rio
Nombre de Dios
Pasquiaro
Saltillo
Santa Rosa de Cosigui-

riachi

12,000
11,600
10,200

6800
5600
C000

10,000

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PROVINCE OF NEw MEXICO. Santa Fe, to the east Population 40,200.

of the great river del Extent of surface in square

Norte

3600 leagues 5709.

Taos

8900 The New Californias contain a po- Caraccas are included five other subpulation of about 25,000, who live in ordinate provinces or governments, scattered settlements and villages. namely, the province of Venezuela in

In no part of Spanish America has the centre; the government of Mathe flame of civil commotion raged racaibo on the west ; Guiana on the more fiercely than in Mexico. The south ; the government of Cumana insurgents who took up arms against on the east ; and the island of Margathe dominion of the mother-country, retta on the north-east. It is boundamounted at one period to about ed on the north from the Cape de 40,000. Advancing upon the ca- Vela, to the point of Paria by the pital with a commanding force, they Carribean Sea; on the east by the were foiled by the prudence and acs Atlantic; on the south by Dutch tivity of Venegas the governor, who, Guiana ; and on the west by the kingpursuing them in their retreat, at last dom of Santa Fé. From its position, succeeded in dispersing them, and in which is between the 12th degree of N. seizing the ringleaders, who, with lat. and the equinoctial line, this counvast numbers of other unfortunate try might be expected to be subject to persons embarked in the same cause, a scorching sun, and to be scarcely haperished miserably on the scaffold. bitable on account of its excessive The insurgents thus failing in the heat. In many parts, however, more efforts of regular war, dispersed in especially towards the interior, the small guerilla parties, occupying all heat is tempered by the elevation the avenues and roads, and ha- of the ground, so that the inhabirassing their enemies by every mode tants enjoy a pleasant medium beof irregular annoyance. The accounts tween the opposite extremes of heat received of the state of this country and cold. They are indebted for this are exceedingly imperfect; but if they singularity of temperature to a chain can at all be relied on, the royalist are of the Andes of moderate height, and mies seem, for the present, to have in breadth generally from about 20 triumphed over their enemies. to 10 leagues, which traverses the

In the southern provinces the insur- whole extent of their country, windrection against the dominion of the mo- ing in a direction generally from ther-country, was carried on with vari- E. to W.,

and finally loses itself in the ous fortune; but, ultimately, the advan- island of Trinidad. The elevation of tage appears to have been on the side of this chain varies in different parts, theinsurgents. Their forces, according and those inequalities of surface to the accounts received, have been give rise to such varieties of temoften beaten and dispersed. But the perature, that numerous diversities of spirit of resistance never appears to the vegetable tribes, which in other have been crushed. The insurgent countries grow to maturity under very armies have always rallied, and at pre- different degrees of latitude, are sent they have taken the field with brought together and flourish in this recruited strength, and have, in dif- more favoured spot. To the north of ferent points, gained the most signal these mountains, in the great valley victories over their opponents. In of the Orinoco, by which river they the Caraccas, of which we shall now are bounded to the south, immense give a brief account, they have been plains stretch out on a dead level for successful in repeated battles against several hundreds of miles ; and here the royal troops ; and, as a proof that the heat is intense, sometimes risthis is no vain boast, they are in possesc ing to 115 degrees of Fahrenheit. sion of some of the most important On these plains grows a tall and rank places of the country.

herbage, on which numerous herds of In the extensive province of the cattle are fed, and these constitute the principal wealth of the landed pro- Orinoco by a variety of channels, and prietors of these desert tracts. The which, with its numerous tributary aspect of the country is agreeably di- streams, inundates, during the rainy versified by lakes and rivers. Of the season, a great proportion of the lakes, those of Maracaibo and Valencia country through which it flows. This are the largest. The breadth of the inundation covers a larger space as the former is 50 leagues, and its length rivers approach the ocean ; and, at the 30 ; the latter is 14 leagues in breadth, mouth of the Orinoco, the flat counand 6 in length. Every part of the try presents a vast sea of fresh water country abounds in rivers, which, if to the extent of nearly 600 miles. they have not a sufficient quantity of The rise of the rivers commences in water for navigation, would, however, April, and about October they begin afford a far greater quantity for irri- to retire from the flat country, and gation than is at present required for continue falling till the end of Fethis purpose by the indolent inhabi- bruary, when they generally are at tants of this fertile country. We the lowest. have already mentioned, that a ridge The population of the Caraccas is of the Andes, of moderate elevation, chiefly concentrated on the northern runs through the whole of the Carac- declivity of the mountains which tracas, in a winding course, from east to verse the country. The principal west. This range is the highest towns are also established in this ground in the country, and, conse- quarter ;-these are, Caraccas, the caquently, forms the dividing ridge bew' pital, containing 31,000 inhabitants, tween the streains which run south and situated in 10° 31' N. lat., at an and those which run north. The lat- elevation of 400 toises, which secures ter rise on the northern declivity of it against the scorching heats usual in these mountains, and fall into the Car- the tropical regions ; Cumana, conribean Sea, The principal of these taining 24,000 inhabitants, and siare the Guiges, Tocuyo, Aroa, Yara- tuated on the coast of the Carribean cuy, Tuy, Unara, Neveri, Manza- Sea, in lat. 10° 37' N.; Porto Cabello, nares. Their course is generally down or Cavello, containing 7500 inhabia channel of considerable declivity, tants, situated in 10° 20' N. lat., 90 and is therefore rapid; and their miles west from Caraccas, on the shore banks are so high, that they form a of the Carribean Sea ; Valencia, connatural barrier against the irruption taining 6500 inhabitants, situated on of the stream, so that it seldom over- the beautiful lake of the same name, flows. All the rivers which have in lat. 10° 9' N.; Maracay, populatheir rise on the southern declivity tion S100; Guira, population 6000, of these mountains run southward, situated on the coast of the Carribean and descend into the common chan- Sea, and liable to putrid fevers-in nel of the great Orinoco, into which this place Reaumur's thermometer flow all the waters of that vast val- rises to from 25° to 28° degrees—it is ley which is bounded on the north 15 miles west from Caraccas ; Tulby the ridge of mountains already mero, containing 8000 inhabitants, mentioned, and on the south by the and situated on the Lake of Valencia; ridge which divides the streams that Victoria, 18 miles east of Tulmero, fall into the Orinoco from those that and containing 7800 inhabitants; fall into the Amazons or Maranon. Coro, containing 10,000 inhabitants, As these rivers have their course and situated in N. lat. 10'8', 72 miles through level plains, their beds are west from Caraccas ; Carora, containshallower than those which run down ing 6200 inhabitants, situated in N. the declivity of the mountains; and, lat. 10°, 45 miles east of Lake Marain the rainy season, accordingly, they caibo, and 270 west of Caraccas; Barmingle their waters during a great quisimeto, population 11,300, situated part of the year, and resemble rather in go 45' N. lat. The heat in this one vast sea than rivers which have place is frequently 299 and 29° of overflowed their banks. The inost Reaumnur-it is 120 miles WSW. of considerable of those rivers which fall Caraccas; Tocuyo, population 10,000, into the Orinoco are the Mamo, the situated in N. lat. 9° 35', 270 miles Pariagon and Pao, the Chivata and SW.of Caraccas ; Guanara, population Zoa, the Cachimamo, the Aracay, the 12,300, situated in 8° 14' N. lat., 279 Manapira and Espino, and, lastly, the miles SW. from Caraccas. great river Apure, which enters this

( To be continued.)

EXTRACTS FROM THE CORRESPON- however, I do not feel knocked up at

DENCE OF A TRAVELLER VISITING all, and hope to stand out to the end. ITALY.

I shall not at present enter into partie (These letters were not written with the culars about my journey from Paris intention of being published, which is one to Morez, fourteen and a half leagues of their recommendations. They contain from Geneva, but shall endeavour to the natural expression of the feelings and give you some faint idea of what I observations of a well informed traveller saw yesterday; a day on which I reon a most interesting route, and appeared ceived impressions never to be effato the friend to whom they were addressed ced. We left Morez at four o'clock to contain both information and enter. in the morning, and passed through it tainment, which would be acceptable to on foot, the moon shining brightly upon others)

the dark wooded rocks and hills that

surround this town. We continued Geneva, 29th September 1817.

to walk on about two miles to save the I write to you from Les Balances, horses during a steep ascent ; the the best inn of this deservedly cele- moon disappearing gradually behind brated place. I arrived here yester- the hills, while from the east stepday at half past five in the afternoon, ped forth the morning,” truly the on the ninth day of my journey, hry- podod éxtures scos. The equal difing lett Paris on the 20th, at eight A. fusion of a fine crimson colour on the M. I had to wait two hours in the clear sky of the mountainous horizon, street that morning in consequence of foretold a delightful day, and it was the stupidity of a Sicilian, who had so,-warm, pure, and bright. We not got his passport, and the laziness passed the custom-house at Les Rousof Pasta and his wife, (who sang at ses, without being searched, our passthe Opera House in London lately,) ports only were demanded ;-beautiand in consequence of the toilet busi- ful scenery all the way ;-our road ness of some of the ladies, my fellow wound along the sides of the mouna travellers. We were to have started tain, and overhung beautiful valleys, at six. My journey hither has been, from the sides of which shot up tali upon the whole, pleasant enough. fir-trees, their tops level with our Domenico Cervelli (the voiturier) is mountain path ;-the road in many very complaisant and attentive; a big, places narrow, and bordering on the very robust, and formidable looking, most giddy precipices;—the bottoms good natured Roman, between forty of the valleys seen at a most profound and fifty. I have been extremely for- depth, with a few small houses scattunate in procuring the services of an tered here and there. About ten o'clock Italian domestic of a mature age, Vincenzo(my servant) came to the door (about fifty,) who has been in service of the vetturino, and desired me to with a number of very respectable alight, and come with him. I did so, people, and who has a most excellent and he led me to the summit of a character for sobriety, honesty, good- little hill which rose by the side of nature, attention, and economy. He the road, between the barrier hills, has been in England, Spain, Portugal, through which we were passing ; we and the West Indies, and has travel- were in the department of Lain. led through France, Italy, Germany, Pointing towards what I conceived and Switzerland, several times, with (without a glass) to be an immense his different masters. The Vetturino assemblage of dark clouds, with white is hard enough work for me, although edges, on the distant horizon, he ute certainly preferable, in most respects, tered the electrical words, Voili to the Diligence. I rise every morning Mont Blanc !" On looking through at four, at the latest, because we go on my glass, I beheld a scene that probut slowly, and it is necessary io set duced a thrilling impression which off very early every day, in order to I cannot describe. The sudden view accomplish the set distance before of this stupendous mountain, and his night-fall, as the vetturino does not gigantic Alpine brethren, with the travel during the night. I have been beautiful dark blue lake of Geneva thrice roused at three in the morning, reposing at their feet, amidst a richly the other times at four. We general- cultivated valley, produced a strange ly reached our Auberge for the night and overpowering emotion of mingled about seven or eight in the evening; awe, wonder, and pleasure. The etera

VOL. II.

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