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advised to the contrary. The month of August being passed without hearing satisfactorily from you, I shall replace the greave on my leg, and shall disperse my challenge throughout your kingdom, or wherever else I may please, until I shall have found a person to deliver me from my penance. That you may place greater confidence in what I have written, I have put to these letters the seal of my arms, and to the parts marked A, B, C, my sign manual, which parts were done and written at Paris the 4th day of September, 1401.”

THE CHALLENGE OF THE ARRAGONIAN ESQUIRE. “ In the name of the holy Trinity, the blessed Virgin Mary, of my lord St. Michael the archangel, and of my lord St. George,—I, Michel d'Orris, esquire, a native of the kingdom of Arragon, make known to all the knights of England, that, to exalt my name and honour, I am seeking deeds of arms. I know full well, that a noble chivalry exists in England, and I am desirous of making acquaintance with the members of it, and learning from them feats of arms. I therefore require from you, in the name of knighthood, and by the thing you love most, that you will deliver me from my vow by such deeds of arms as I shall propose.

« First, to enter the lists on foot, and perform the deeds specified in my first letter; and I offer, in order to shorten the matter, to show my willingness and diligence to present myself before your governor of Calais within two months after I shall have received your answer sealed with the seal of your arms, if God should grant me life and health. And I will likewise send, within these two months, the two helmets, two saddles, and the measure of the staves to the battle-axes and spears. I beg of that knight, who, from good will, may incline to deliver me, to send me a speedy, honourable, and agreeable answer, such as I shall expect from such noble personages. Have forwarded to me a good and sufficient passport for myself and my companious, to the number of thirty-five horses, at the same time with your answer, by Longueville, the bearer of this letter; and that it may have the greater weight, I have signed it with my sign manual, and sealed it with my arms, dated Paris, the 1st day of January, 1402.”

THE FOURTH LETTER OF THE ARRAGONIAN ESQUIRE. “ To the honour of God, Father of all things, and the blessed Virgin Mary, his mother, whose aid I implore, that she would, through her grace, comfort and assist me to the fulfilment of the enterprise I have formed against all English knights,-1, Michel d'Orris, a native of the kingdom of Arragon, proclaim, as I have before done in the year 1400, like as one abstracted from all cares, having only the remembrance before me of the great glories our predecessors in former times acquired from the excellent prowess they displayed in numberless deeds of arms; and longing in my heart to gain some portion of their praise, I made dispositions to perform some deeds of arms with such English knight who by his prowess might deliver me from my vow. My challenge was accepted by a noble and honourable personage called sir John Prendergast, an English knight, as may be seen by the letters I have received from him. And that the conclusion I draw may be clearly seen, I have incorporated my letters with the last letters the said sir John Prendergast has lately sent me, as they include every circumstance relative to the fact. These letters, with my third letter, I sent back by Berry, king-at-arms, to Calais, to be delivered to sir John Pren dergast.

“The herald, on his return, brought me for answer, that he had been told by the most potent prince the earl of Somerset, governor of Calais, that he had, within the month of August, sent answers to my former letters to Boulogne, although the enterprise had not been completed. In honour, therefore, to this excellent prince, the governor of Calais, who through humility had taken charge to send the letters to Boulogne (as reported to me by the king-at-arms), by Faulcon king-at-arms in England, and in honour of chivalry, and that on no future occasion it may be said I was importunately pressing in my pursuit, I have waited for the space of one month after the expiration of the above term, for the delivery of this answer; and that my willingness and patience may be notorious, and approved by every one, I have hereafter inserted copies of all my letters. If, therefore, you do not now deliver me, I shall no more write to England on this subject,---for I hold your conduct as very discourteous and ungentlemanly, when you have so often received my request, as well by the pursuivant Aly, at present called Heugueville, in the letters delivered by him in England in the year 1401, as by other similar ones presented you by the pursuivant Graville, reciting my first general challenge, drawn up at the hotel of my lord de Gaucourt at Plessis, the 12th day of May, 1402, and by other letters sent by me to you by Berry, king-at-arms, and which were received by that most potent prince the earl of Somerset, governor of Calais, written at Paris the 22d day of July, 1402, which is apparent by these presents, and by my other letters written from Paris the 12th day of June, 1403, which are here copied, presented by the herald Heugueville, to the most potent prince the earl of Somerset, governor of Calais. To all which letters I have not found any one knight to send me his sealed answer and acceptance of my propositions.

“ I may therefore freely say, that I have not met with any fellowship or friendship where so much chivalry abounds as in the kingdom of England, although I have come from so distant a country, and prosecuted my request for nearly two years; and that I must necessarily return to my own country without making any acquaintance with you, for which I have a great desire, as is clear from the tenor of all my letters. Should I thus depart from you without effecting my object, I shall have few thanks to give you, considering the pain I am suffering, and have suffered for so long a time. If I do not receive an answer from you within fifteen days after the date of this present letter, my intention is, under the good pleasure of God, of our Lady, of my lords St. Michael and St. George, to return to my muchredoubted and sovereign lord the king of Arragon. Should you, within fifteen days, have anything to write to me, I shall be found at the hotel of my lord the provost of Paris.

“ I have nothing more to add, but to entreat you will have me in your remembrance, and recollect the pain I am suffering. To add confidence to this letter, I have signed it with my sign manual, and sealed it with the seal of my arms. I have also caused copies to be made of our correspondence, marked A, B, C, one of which I have retained. Written at Paris, the 10th day of May, 1403.”

In consequence of this letter, Perrin de Loharent, sergeant-at-arms to the king of England, calling himself a proxy in this business for the English knight, sent an answer to the esquire of Arragon, conceived in such terms as these :

“ To the most noble esquire, Michel d'Orris. I signify to you, on the part of my lord John Prendergast, that if you will promptly pay him all the costs and charges he has been at to deliver you by deeds of arms, according to the proposals in your letter, which deeds have not been acccomplished from your own fault, he will cheerfully comply with your request; otherwise know, that he will not take any further steps towards it, nor suffer any knight or esquire, on this side of the sea, to deliver you, or send you any answer to your letter. If, however, you send him five hundred marcs sterling for his expenses, which he declares they have amounted to, I certify that you shall not wait any length of time before you be delivered by the deeds of arms offered in your challenge. I therefore advise you as a gentleman, that should you not think proper to remit the amount of the expenses, you be careful not to speak slightingly of the English chivalry, nor repeat that you could not find an English knight to accept of your offer of combat, as you have said in your last letter; for should that expression be again used, I inform you, on the part of sir John Prendergast, that he will be always ready to maintain the contrary in the defence of his own honour, which you have handled somewhat too roughly, according to the opinion of our lords acquainted with the truth, who think sir John has acted like a prudent and honourable man. You will send your answer to this letter, and what may be your future intentions, by Châlons the herald, the bearer of these presents; and that you may have full confidence in their contents, I have signed and sealed them myself at Paris in the year 1404.”

This affair, notwithstanding the letters that have been reported, never came to any other conclusion.

CHAPTER III.—GREAT PARDONS * GRANTED AT ROME. During this year, the court of Rome granted many pardons, whither an infinity of persons went from all parts of Christendom to receive them. A universal mortality took place about the time, which caused the deaths of multitudes; and in the number, very many of the pilgrims suffered from it at Rome.

CHAPTER IV.-JOHN OF MONTFORT, DUKE OF BRITTANY, DIES.—THE EMPEROR DEPARTS FROM PARIS.— ISABELLA, QUEEN OF ENGLAND, RETURNS TO FRANCE

[A. D. 1401.) Ar the beginning of this year, John of Montfort, duke of Brittany, died, and was succeeded by his eldest son John, married to a daughter of the king of France, and who had several brothers and sisterst. About the same time, the emperor of Constantinople, who had made a long stay at Paris, at the charges of the king of France, set out, with all his attendants, for England, where he was very honourably received by king Henry and his princes; thence he returned to his own country g.

Many able ambassadors had, at various times, been sent from France to England, and from England to France, chiefly to negotiate with the king of England for the return of queen Isabella, daughter to the king of France, and widow of king Richard II., with liberty to enjoy the dower that had been settled upon her by the articles of marriage. The ambassadors at length brought the matter to a conclusion, and the queen was conducted to France by the lord Thomas Percy, constable of England, having with him many knights, esquires, ladies and damsels, to accompany her. She was escorted to the town of Leulinghem, between Boulogne and Calais, and there delivered to Waleran count of Saint Polli, governor of Picardy, with whom were the bishop of Chartres and the lord de Heugueville, to receive her. The damsel of Montpensier, sister to the count de la Marche, and the damsel of Luxembourg, sister to the count de St. Pol, with other ladies and damsels sent by the queen of France, were likewise present. When both parties had taken leave of each other, the count de St. Pol conducted the queen and her attendants to the dukes of Burgundy and Bourbon, who with a large company were waiting for them on an eminence hard by. She was received by them with every honour, and thence escorted to Boulogne, and to Abbeville, where the duke of Burgundy, to celebrate her return to France, made a grand banquet, and then, taking his leave of her, he went back to Artois. The duke of Bourbon and the rest who had been at this feast conducted her to the king and queen, her parents, at Paris. She was most kindly received by them; but although it was said that she was honourably sent back, yet there was not any dower or revenue assigned her from England, which caused many of the French princes to be dissatisfied with the king of England, and pressing with the king of France to declare war against him.

* This was the year of the jubilee. The plague raged to require ayde against the Turkes, whome the king, with at Rome, where, as Buoninsegni informs us, seven or eight sumptuous preparation, met at Blacke-heath, upon St. Thohundred persons died daily. Few of the pilgrims returned. mas day the apostle, and brought him to London, and, Many were murdered by the pope's soldiers,-a universal paying for the charges of his lodging, presented him with confusion prevailing at that time throughout Italy. giftes worthy of one of so high degree."-STOWE, 326.

f John V. duke of Brittany, had issue, by his several || Waleran de Luxembourg III. count of St. Pol, Ligny wives, John VI. his successor, Arthur count of Richemont and Roussy, castellan of Lille, &c. &c. &c. a nobleman of and duke of Brittany in 1457, Giles de Chambon and very extensive and rich possessions, attached to the duke Richard count of Estampes. His daughters were married of Burgundy, through whose interest he obtained the posts to the duke of Alençon, count of Armagnac, viscount of of grand butler 1410, of governor of Paris and constable Rohan, &c. John V1. married Joan of France, daughter of France 1411. He died, 1415, leaving only one legitiof Charles VI.

mate daughter, who, by marriage with Antony duke of Manuel Paleologus.

Brabant, brought most of the family-possessions into the Ś “ The emperor of Constantinople came into Englande house of Burgundy.

CHAPTER V.THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY, BY ORDERS FROM THE KING OF FRANCE, GOES

INTO BRITTANY, AND THE DUKE OF ORLEANS TO LUXEMBOURG.-A QUARREL ENSUES

BETWEEN THEM. This same year, the duke of Burgundy went to Brittany to take possession of it in the king's name for the young duke. The country soon submitted to him, and he continued his journey to Nantes to visit the duchess-dowager, sister to the king of Navarre *, who had entered into engagements speedily to marry Henry IV. of England. The duke was her uncle, and treated with her successfully for the surrender of her dower lands to her children, on condition that she received annually a certain sum of money in compensation. When this had been concluded, and the duke had placed garrisons in the king's name in some of the strong places of the country, he returned to Paris, carrying with him the young duke and his two brothers, who were graciously received by the king and queen.

The duke of Orleans had at this time gone to take possession of the duchy of Luxembourgt, with the consent of the king of Bohemia, to whom it belonged, and with whom he had concluded some private agreement. Having placed his own garrisons in many of the towns and castles of this duchy, he returned to France,--when shortly after a great quarrel took place between the duke of Orleans and his uncle, the duke of Burgundy ; and it rose to such a height that each collected a numerous body of men-at-arms round Paris. At length, by the mediation of the queen and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, peace was restored, and the men-at-arms were sent back to the places whence they had come.

CHAPTER VI.—CLEMENT DUKE OF BAVARIA IS ELECTED EMPEROR OF GERMANY, AND

AFTERWARD CONDUCTED WITH A NUMEROUS RETINUE TO FRANKFORT. This year, Clement duke of Bavaria † was elected emperor of Germany, after the electors had censured and deposed the king of Bohemia. Clement was conducted by them to Frankfort, with an escort of forty thousand armed men, and laid siege to the town, because it had been contrary to his interests. He remained before it forty days, during which time an epidemical disorder raged in his army, and carried off fifteen thousand of his men. A treaty was begun at the expiration of the forty days, when the town submitted to the emperor. The towns of Cologne, Aix, and several more, followed this example, and gave him letters of assurance, that his election had been legally and properly made. He was after this crowned by the bishop of Mentz; and at his coronation many princes and lords of the country made splendid feasts, with tournaments and other amusements.

When these were over, the emperor sent his cousin-german, the duke of Bavaria, father to the queen of France, to Paris, to renew and confirm the peace between him and the king of France. Duke Stephen was joyfully received on his arrival at Paris by the queen and princes of the blood, but the king was at that time confined by illness. When he had made his proposals, a day was fixed on to give him an answer; and the princes told him, that in good truth they could not conclude a peace to the prejudice of their fair cousin the king of Bohemia, who had been duly elected and crowned emperor of Germany. When the duke of Bavaria had received this answer, he returned through Hainault to the new emperor. He related to him all that had passed in France, and the answer he had received, with which he was not well pleased, but he could not amend it.

* Joan, daughter of Charles the bad, third wife of John “Wenceslaus, being seldom in those parts, and greatly preV. Her mother was Joan of France, sister to Charles V. ferring Bohemia, his native country, granted the govern• the duke of Burgundy, &c. Joan, duchess dowager of ment of. Luxembourg to his cousin, the duke of Orleans Bretagne, afterwards married Henry IV. of England. and moreover, for the sum of 56,337 golden crowns lent

† After the death of Wenceslaus duke of Brabant and him by Louis, mortgaged to him the towns of Ivoy, MontLuxembourg (the great friend and patron of Froissart), the medy, Damvilliers, and Orchiemont, with their appurtelatter duchy reverted, of right, to the crown of Bohemia. nances." In a deed of the year 1412, the duke of Orleans But during the inactive and dissolute reign of the emperor expresses himself as still retaining the government at the Wenceslaus, it seems to have been alternately possessed by request of his dear nephew Jodocus; but this appears to be bimself, by governors under him nominally, but in fact a mistake, since Jodocus was elected emperor in 1410, and supreme, or by Jodocus M. of Brandenburg and Moravia, died six months after, before his election could be confirmed. his cousin. In the history of Luxembourg by Bertelius, He was succeeded by his brother Procopius. several deeds and instruments are cited, which tend rather Rupert, or Robert, elector palatine (see the genealogy to perplex tban elucidate. But he gives the following p. 5) was elected emperor upon the deposition of Wences account of the transaction with Louis duke of Orleans : laus, king of Bohemia.

The emperor, soon after this, proposed marching a powerful army, under his own command, to Lombardy, to gain possession of the passes, and sent a detachment before him for this purpose, but his troops were met by an army from the duke of Milan *, who slew many, and took numbers prisoners. Among the latter was sir Girard, lord of Heraucourt, marshal to the duke of Austria, and several other persons of distinction. This check broke up the intended expedition of the emperor.

CHAPTER VII.-HENRY OF LANCASTER, KING OF ENGLAND, COMBATS THE PERCIES AND

WELSHMEN, WHO HAD INVADED HIS KINGDOM, AND DEFEATS THEM. ABOUT the month of March, in this year, great dissensions arose between Henry, king of England, and the family of Percy and the Welsh, in which some of the Scots took part, and entered Northumberland with a considerable force. King Henry had raised a large army to oppose them, and had marched thither to give them battle; but, at the first attack, his vanguard was discomfited. This prevented the second division from advancing, and it being told the king, who commanded the rear, he was animated with more than usual courage, from perceiving his men to hesitate, and charged the enemy with great vigour. His conduct was so gallant and decisive, that many of the nobles of both parties declared he that day slew, with his own hand, thirty-six men at arms. He was thrice unhorsed by the earl of Douglas' spear, and would have been taken or killed by the earl, had he not been defended and rescued by his own men. The lord Thomas Percy was there slain, and his nephew Henry made prisoner, whom the king ordered instantly to be put to death before his face. The earl of Douglas was also taken, and many others. After this victory, king Henry departed from the field of battle, joyful at the successful event of the day. He sent a body of his men-at-arms to Wales, to besiege a town of that country which was favourable to the Perciest.

CHAPTER VIII.-JOHN DE VERCHIN, A KNIGHT OF GREAT RENOWN, AND SENESCHAL OF

HAINAULT, SENDS, BY HIS HERALD, A CHALLENGE INTO DIVERS COUNTRIES, PRO-
POSING A DEED OF ARMS.

[A. D. 1402.] At the beginning of this year, John de Verchin I, a knight of high renown and seneschal of Hainault, sent letters, by his herald, to the knights and esquires of different countries, to invite them to a trial of skill in arms, which he had vowed to hold, the contents of which letters were as follows:

“ To all knights and esquires, gentlemen of name and arms, without reproach, I, Jean de Verchin, seneschal of Hainault, make known, that with the aid of God, of our Lady, of my lord St. George, and of the lady of my affections, I intend being at Coucy the first Sunday of August next ensuing, unless prevented by lawful and urgent business, ready on the morrow to make trial of the arms hereafter mentioned, in the presence of my most redoubted

* John Galeas V aonti, first duke of Milan, father of Monstrelet should have said, “ The lord Thomas Percy Valentina, duchess of Orleans. During the reign of Wen- (earl of Worcester) was beheaded after the battle, and his ceslaus, he had made the most violent aggressions on the free nephew Henry, slain on the field.” The year 1401 was, and imperial states of Lombardy, which it was the first in fact, distinguished only by the war in Wales, against object of the new emperor to chastise. The battle or skir- Owen Glendower; in which Harry Percy commanded for, inish here alluded to, was fought near the walls of Brescia. not against, tho king. The Percies did not rebel till tho

+ This chapter presents a most extraordinary confusion year 1403. of dates and events. The conclusion can refer only to tne ! This John de Werchin, seneschal of Hainault, was battle of Shrewsbury, which took place more than two years connected by marriage with the house of Luxembourg St. afterwards, -and is again mentioned in its proper place, Pol. chap. xv.: besides which, the facts are inisrepresented.

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