ページの画像
PDF
ePub

drawn from divine, canon, and civil law, all that had been advanced by the bishop; and his reasoning was so just and clear that the council were much satisfied and comforted. The ensuing Sunday, mass was said before the cardinals, and the sermon was preached by the general of the order of Augustins. He was a great doctor in divinity, and a native of Italy. He chose for his text, Cum venerit ille arguet mundum de peccato, et de justitia, et de judicio.' He discussed this subject very well, and with a good intent. The sittings were prolonged from this 2d of May to the 10th.—The patriarch of Alexandria celebrated mass before the cardinals on the feast of the revelation of St. Michael, the 8th of May; and he likewise preached a sermon, taking for his text. Congregata est ecclesia ex filiis Israel et omnes qui fugiebant a malis additi sunt, et facti sunt illis ad firmamentum.' These words are written in the 2d and 5th chapters of the first book of Maccabees. In the course of this sermon, he pressed six arguments against the two rival popes.

“On Friday, the 10th of May, the council, after the usual solemnities, resumed its sittings, when the advocate-fiscal made the following requisitions : that the holy council would be pleased to confirm and approve the demands he had before made, namely, that it should declare that the union of the two colleges of cardinals has been and is legal; and that the council should pronounce definitively on the other demands he had made. The procuratorfiscal made a request to the council, that eight days should be allowed for the production of witnesses; and the council was adjourned to the 16th of May. On the Sunday preceding that day, mass was said before the cardinals by the bishop of Faenza; and the sermon preached by a native of Arragon, a learned doctor in divinity, who had always been of the party of Pietro della Luna. He chose his text from one of St. Paul's epistles, ' Expurgate vetus fermentum ut sitis nova conspersio.' He expatiated on this with such ability that all the doctors wondered. Drawing from it certain conclusions, he said that the two rivals were as much popes as his old shoes, calling them worse than Annas and Caiaphas, and comparing them to the devils in hell.

“ Such things passed in the council to the 230 day of this present month, as I have briefly related, on which day the ambassadors from the king of Spain were to come to Pisa. The number of prelates that were present cannot be estimated, for they were daily increased by new ones, who came from all parts of Christendom. I should suppose that at the last sitting of the council there were present of cardinals, bishops, archbishops, and abbots, wearing mitres, one hundred and forty, without counting the non-mitred members. There were also ambassadors from the kings of France, England, Jerusalem, Sicily, Cyprus, and Poland; from the dukes of Brabant, Austria, Stephen of Bavaria, William of Bavaria ; from the counts of Cleves and of Brandac* ; from the marquis of Brandenbourg and de Morainet; from the archbishops of Cologne, Mentz, and Saltzbourg, and from the bishop of Maestricht; from the grand master of the Teutonic order ; from the patriarch of Aquileia, and from many princes in Italy. Numbers of doctors in divinity, and in the canon and civil law, were present, as well from France as from other countries, and very many procurators from divers parts of the world, who, by the grace of God, have held instructive and charitable conversations together from the commencement of the council until this moment.

“ In the city of Pisa are abundance of all sorts of provisions, which are sold at reasonable prices; but they would be much cheaper, were it not for the gabelles and taxes that are levied in these countries. In my mind, Pisa is one of the handsomest cities existing ; it has a navigable river, within a league distant, running into the sea,—and which river brings large vessels, laden with different merchandise, to the town. Around the city are vineyards of white grapes and many fine meadows. We are very well lodged, considering the great number of men-at-arms quartered in it for its guard. The town has been conquered by the Florentines, who have banished many of the Pisans to prevent any treasons, and sent them to Florence, to the amount of two thousand ; and they are obliged to show themselves twice every day to the governor at an appointed place, under pain of death. Four or five thousand of the Pisans went to ask succour from king Lancelot I, who, in compliance with * Brandac. Q. Brunswic?

Ladislaus, or Lancelot, son of Charles of Důrazzo, + Marquis of Brandenbourg and Moravia. See ante, and brother to Joan II. who succeeded to the crown of p. 18,

Naples on his death in 1412. He took up arms on behaif

their request, advanced within five leagues of Pisa, with a force of twenty-three thousand combatants, as well horse as foot; but the Florentines, through the grace of God, are well able to resist all his power, and guard us. True it is, that this king Lancelot ran a risk of losing his kingdom by the union of the holy church, for he had tyrannically seized on a large part of the patrimony of St. Peter.

" It was said that there were certain ambassadors from Pietro della Luna at the council, not with the intent of forwarding the union, but of throwing every obstacle in its way. There were nineteen cardinals of both colleges, at this council at Pisa, including the cardinal de Challan, whose attendants were arrived, -and the cardinal was to follow with the ambassadors from Savoy. My lords the cardinals are much displeased with those bishops, abbots, and chapters of cathedral churches, who have neglected to send procurators to this general council. I have nothing more to send to you at present.— Written at Pisa the 15th day of May, by your humble monk and servant, the abbot of St. Maxence."

The direction was, “ To the reverend father in JESUS CHRIST, and by the grace of God, lord bishop of Poitiers, and chancellor to my lord the duke of Berry."

CHAPTER LIII.—THE AMBASSADORS TO THE COUNCIL FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS WRITB

LETTERS, TO INFORM THOSE WHO HAD SENT THEM OF WHAT HAD PASSED AT THIS
COUNCIL.-PIETRO DELLA LUNA AND GREGORY ARE DEPRIVED OF THE PAPACY, AND
ALL PERSONS FORBIDDEN BY THE HOLY COUNCIL FROM OBEYING EITHER IN ANY
MANNER. — PETER OF CANDIA, A CORDELIER, IS ELECTED BISHOP OF ROME BY THE

CARDINALS.-— REGULATIONS FOR THE APPROBATION OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL. I SHALL now transcribe the letters written by the ambassadors from the university of Paris to the council at Pisa, the contents of which are as follows :

“ Reverend fathers, lords, and masters, after offering you our humble recommendation, may it please you to know, that we write to inform you of the conclusions entered into by the council-general, which has held thirteen sittings. The two rival popes, having for some time been waited for in vain, notwithstanding the summons sent them, have been declared contumacious in respect to schism and the faith. Many decrees were passed against them for their contumacy, and commissioners were appointed to examine witnesses against them.

“Item, the council-general approved of the union of the colleges of cardinals, the citations served on the contending popes, and the place of meeting of the council, as being perfectly convenient and secure. The council declared, that it was supreme on earth to take cognizance and judge of the charges brought against the contenders for the papacy. It was also declared by the council, that it had been lawful for any one to quit his obedience to either of the popes, from the moment they had promised to abdicate the papacy; and that all suits and processes, carried on against such as had quitted their obedience to either, were annulled and of no weight. Public charges were then made against them, and an interlocutory sentence passed on the notorious sins of the two competitors. This day, doctor Peter Paoul declared, in full council, your opinions, and took for his text, “Congregabuntur filii Judæ et filii Israel et facient sibimet caput unum.' That is to say, Those who are come to this council, and such as shall hereafter come, will choose from among themselves a head to the church. A little before this, doctor Dominic le Petit had made a solemn harangue before all the cardinals, taking for his text, Principes populorum congregati sunt cum Deo Abraham.' The cardinals and prelates of the holy church are styled princes of the people. On this day also, the theologians, to the number of six score and three, delivered their opinions, and eighty of them are your friends and supporters.

"Item, this day it has been ordered that the two rival popes be summoned to appear at the doors of the church on Wednesday the 5th of July, to hear their definitive sentence. of Gregory, and invaded the Florentine territories in the vested in his competitor, the duke of Anjou. He had year 1409, at the head of a large body of forces. The also seized many towns in the patrimony of St. Peter, and proceedings of the council were in fact detrimental to him, among the rest on Rome itself._See Poggio Hist. as by its decree he was deposcd, and the Neapolitan crown Florent. p. 178, et seq.

Gregory has sent a bull to the English to entreat they would be of his party, with Robert king of the Romans, to change the place of holding the council, and that they would please to be of his council; but he labours in vain, for the English, Germans, Bohemians, Polanders, French, those from Cyprus, Rhodes, and Italy, are all unanimous, excepting Robert, whose ambassadors have gone away. Few prelates have come to this council from the kingdom of Hungary. King Ladislaus wrote that he intended being here in person, but he is fully occupied in his war against the infidels.

“Pietro Mastin, called della Luna, has issued a most thundering bull, in which he admonishes the cardinals to return to their duty towards him; and should they refuse, he prohibits them from attempting to make another election, menacing them, in case of disobedience, with excommunication and other penalties against them and their supporters. Reverend fathers, and redoubted masters, we have nothing more for the present to write to you, except that all nations seem inclined to a reformation in the church, which the new pope, whom it shall please God to elect, will be forced to comply with. Should you have any orders to send us, we are ready to obey them to the utmost of our power. Beseeching you humbly to keep all our concerns in your consideration, may the Sovereign Lord have you under his guard !

“Written at Pisa the 29th day of May." Underneath were signed the names of Dominic le Petit, Pierre Paoul de Quesnoy, Jean Pere Ponce, Vincent, Eustace de Faquemberge, Arnoul Vibrant, Jean Bourlet, dit François.—Master Pierre de Poingny and master Guillaume le Charpentier did not sign the above, because they were absent.

Here follows the sentence on the two contending popes.

“ This present holy council, assembled in the name of JESUS CHRIST, withdraws itself from the obedience to Pietro della Luna, called Pope Benedict XIII., and from Angelo Corrario, called Pope Gregory XII.; and the holy council decrees and declares, that all true Catholics ought to do the same. Item, the same holy synod, as representative and judge of the universal church, after mature consideration and examination of witnesses concerning the horrible sins of the two contending popes, pronounces, in the church of Pisa, this its definitive sentence, that both popes be deprived of every honour and dignity, especially that of the papacy. It also pronounces, that they be separated from the holy church, in conformity to the sacred canons, and by the above sentence, forbidding all persons to have the boldness ever to defend or obey either of them as pope.

“ The council forbids any Christians from obeying or showing favour to either, notwithstanding any oath or promise they may have made or entered into, under pain of excommunication,—and decrees, that whoever shall disobey this sentence shall be delivered into the hands of secular justice, and condemned as one who favours heretics, and that he shall be punished according to the divine commandments, and the decrees of the holy canons. The council also declares and pronounces, that all promotions of cardinals made by the two rival popes, namely, those made by Angelo Corrario since the third day of May, and by Pietro della Luna since the 15th day of June, of the year 1408, have been and are of no effect, and are annulled by this definitive sentence. It also declares, that every judgment given by the aforesaid competitors for the papacy, to the prejudice of the holy church, against any kings, princes, lords, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, prelates of the church, or other private persons, are of no effect; and the holy synod has ordained that proceedings to the contrary, and to the welfare of the holy church, shall commence on the ensuing Monday, the 10th day of June."

The above sentences and declarations were passed in the general council of Pisa, the 5th day of June, in the year 1409.

The 26th day of June, in the year 1409, Peter of Candia, a Cordelier, and native of Greece, doctor of divinity, and usually called the cardinal of Milan, was unanimously chosen pope by the cardinals at Pisa, with the approbation of the general council, and called Alexander V., who, immediately after his election, published the following bull.

“ Alexander, bishop and servant to the servants of God, to the bishop of Paris, health and apostolical benediction. Praise and glory be to the God of heaven for having instilled into the minds of men a desire of peace on earth, and who, through his benign grace and mercy, has brought about an union of his Christian people, hitherto long disturbed by a dangerous schism. Who is there among mankind that will not most heartily rejoice at this happy event, on considering the perils souls must run when such divisions take place in the holy church, and which have for so long a time been encouraged by sacrilegious schismatics > Our blessed God, taking pity on his people, who had long suffered from this division, opened and illuminated the minds of the holy general council, who have justly condemned the two popes, according to the sacred canons, as enemies to God and his holy church, by their enormous, horrible, and notorious sins. When our brethren, the venerable cardinals of tho holy Roman church, of whom we were one, were desirous of finding a proper pastor for the Christian flock, after the usual ceremonies and solemnities, with the consent of the councilgeneral, they entered into conclave, where, after long discussions, they unanimously selected our humble self, then cardinal-priest of the church of the Twelve Apostles, and chose un bishop of Rome. Although we knew our unworthiness of so great a charge, considering our weakness, yet, always confiding in the aid of God, we have accepted of it.

“ Venerable brother, these things we notify to thee, as one loving and desirous of the peace of the church, as we have been well informed; and we exhort thee and thy flock to render thanks to the all-powerful God for this most gracious gift which he has granted to us. We have so great an affection for thy worthy person, that we inform thee, that we are ready to serve thee and thine to the utmost of our power. This present letter we have intrusted to be delivered to thee by our well-beloved son, that notable man Paulin d'Arcé, esquire of honour, chamberlain, and our loyal servant.-Given at Pisa the 8th day of July, in the first year of our papacy."

It is the good pleasure of our very sacred lord Alexander V., by divine Providence, pope, that all promotions, translations, confirmations, and collations whatever, and all consecrations of bishops and others, that have been granted or performed by the two competitors for the papacy, shall be considered as strictly legal, provided they were effected prior to passing of the definitive sentence, and done according to the regulations of the canon law. Item, it is also the pleasure of the general council, that our aforesaid lord shall give his orders concerning the archbishop of Genoa. Item, the benefices in the church, that had been given by ordinary judges, have the approbation of the holy council to continue to them to whom they have been given.-Item, the holy council approves of proceedings being instituted against all who shall obstinately obey or favour either of the late competitors for the papacy, Pietro della Luna or Angelo Corrario,—and the council condemns such, as guilty of schism and notorious heresy, and ordains that they be punished according to the regulations of the sacred canons.

-Item, it is ordered, that should the cardinal de Flisque* be willing to return to his duty, and appear personally within two months, he shall be kindly received, and enjoy all his honours and benefices, which he obtained in the year 1408.—Item, all dispensations given by bishops of dioceses in those parts not obedient to the two competitors, in the cases of persons not being of sufficient age to obtain dignities in the church or benefices,—and all absolutions, and acts of penitence, ordained by the competitors during the schism, shall be reserved to the determination of the holy apostolic see. All of which has been approved of and certified by the holy council.

CHAPTER LIV.—THE DEATH OF THE BISHOP OF PARIS.—THE MARRIAGES OF THE DUKE OF

BRABANT WITH THE NIECE OF THE KING OF BOHEMIA, -OF THE CONSTABLE OF
FRANCE'S DAUGHTER WITH THE SON OF MONTAGU, GRAND MASTER OF THE HOUSE-

HOLD,—0F THE KING OF CYPRUS WITH CHARLOTTE DE BOURBON. In these days, the lord John d'Orgemont, bishop of Paris, departed this life, in his episcopal palace, about the end of June. He was succeeded in his bishopric by the lord Gerard de Montagu, bishop of Poitiers, chancellor to the duke of Berry, and brother to the grand master of the king's household and to the archbishop of Sens. He was honourably received in the cathedral church of Nôtre Dame, in Paris, the 22d day of September follow

• Flisque. Q. Fiesco ?

ing. The king of France, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, the king of Navarre, and several other princes, with prelates and churchmen without number, were present at his consecration. With the aid of the grand master, his brother, the feast he gave on the occasion was the most magnificent ever seen, in regard to the quantity of gold and silver plate, and the diversity and abundance of meats and liquors. From this grand display, the princes observed that the grand master governed the king as he pleased ; and they began to form suspicions as to the uprightness of his conduct.

On the 16th day of July following, duke Anthony of Brabant married, at Brussels, the niece of the king of Bohemia *, heiress to the duchy of Luxembourg in right of her father. This marriage had been concluded by the mediation of the bishop of Châlons and sir Regnier Pot. Several knights, esquires, ladies, and damsels of high rank, had accompanied the lady to Brussels, according to the orders of the king of Bohemia, her uncle. There were present at these nuptials the two brothers of the duke of Brabant, the duke of Burgundy, and the count de Nevers, with their sister, wife to duke William, count de Hainault; the count de Charolois and the countess of Cleves, children to the duke of Burgundy; the marquis du Pont, his brother Johnt, and their sister, the countess de St. Polt, all three children to the duke de Bar; the counts de Namur and de Conversant, with their ladies ; with many more of the great nobility of both sexes. The count de Clermont, son to the duke de Bourbon, was also there,--and when he tilted, was attended by the duke of Burgundy and count de Nevers. The duke bore his shield, and the count his lance, to the surprise of many present, on account of the great hatred that had so lately subsisted between them for the murder of the duke of Orleans : however, they seemed then to be in perfect concord. This feast was abundantly served with all sorts of provisions and wines; and when it was ended, the different guests retired to their respective countries.

On the last day but one of the same month of July, the marriage of the daughter of the lord d'Albret, constable of France, with the eldest son of Montagu 8, grand master of the king's household, was solemnly celebrated. The queen of France and numbers of the great nobles were present; and the whole of the expense was paid by the king, which created much anger and envy in several of the princes of the blood against Montagu.

At this time, the truces were broken between the kings of France and of England, but only at sea; and a bitter naval war ensued, to the great loss of many merchants in each country.

On the 2d day of August, John de Lusignan, king of Cyprus, espoused by proxy Charlotte de Bourbon, sister-german to the count de la Marche. The ceremony was performed in the castle of Melun, in the presence of the queen of France, the duke of Aquitaine, and her other children, the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, the counts de la Marche and de Clermont, the lord Louis de Baviere, brother to the queen, and many ladies and damsels, who greatly amuscd themselves in tournaments, dances, in feastings, and other pastimes. The lady Charlotte, queen of Cyprus, was very handsome, and well endowed with noble and gracious manners. On the conclusion of these feasts, she departed for Cyprus, most honourably accompanied by the nobles so ordered by her brother, and also by those who had been sent to her from the king of Cyprus. She landed at the port of Chermes, whither the king came to meet her, much rejoiced at her safe arrival, and conducted her, attended by the greater part of the nobility of the island, to Nicosia, where were made many feasts, according to the custom of the country. They reigned for a long time with much honour; and had two children, of whom more shall be spoken hereafter.

* Elizabeth, daughter of John duke of Luxembourg, $ Charles de Montagu, to whom the confiscated honours brother of Wenceslaus king of Bohemia, and ci-devant of the vidame du Laonnois and lord of Marcoussy were emperor. Sce ante, p. 18.

restored after the death of his father. There was no issue t John lord of Puisaye, fifth son to the duke of Bar. of this marriage with Catherine d'Albret.

I Bona, third daughter of the duke of Bar, married to Waleran count of St. Pol.

« 前へ次へ »