AFFAIRS.THE DEATH OF THE DUCHESS OF ORLEANS. On the 5th of August, and the eight succeeding days, duke John of Burgundy held a grand council in his town of Lille, on his own affairs, and on the means of reconciling his brother

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LILLE :- ANCIENT PALACE OF THE DUKES OF BURGUNDY.- From Millin's Antiquities of France.

and brother-in-law, the duke of Brabant, and duke William of Holland, who had quarrelled for a cause before mentioned. With these two dukes, there were also present the duke of Burgundy's sister, the wife of duke William, the bishop of Liege, and the count de Namur. At length the duke of Burgundy made peace between them, on condition that duke William should pay to the duke of Brabant, for all his demand of debt, the sum of seventy thousand golden florins of the coin of France, by different instalments.

When this had been settled, the duke of Burgundy went, about the middle of August, to Paris, by orders from the king and royal council : he was accompanied by many men-atarms, whom he quartered in the villages round Paris. The reason why he was attended by such a force was, because the duke of Brittany had lately brought from England great numbers of English, and, in conjunction with his Bretons, was carrying on a sharp war against the old countess of Penthievre * and her lands. The queen of France and the king's ministers were much displeased at this conduct of the duke of Brittany, because it was to the prejudice of the realm. The duke had increased this displeasure against him by having beaten and ill treated his duchess, daughter to the king of France, for blaming him on account of his undertaking this war. It was therefore intended, that the duke of Burgundy should march the forces he had brought, attended by other princes and captains, against the duke of Brittany, to conquer his country, and oblige him to submit to the king. The duke of Burgundy was very desirous of succouring the countess and her fair son, the count de Penthievre ; but while the preparations were making, the duke of Brittany, informed by some of his friends that he was in the ill graces of his mother-in-law, the queen of France, and of those who governed the king, sent, by advice of his council, certain ambassadors to

* Margaret de Clisson widow of John de Blois and mother of Oliver, counts of Penthievre. VOL. I.

Paris, to offer to submit his differences with the countess de Penthievre to the king and council, which was at length accepted, through the interference of the king of Navarre. The countess de Penthievre and her son were summoned to Paris, whither also came the duke of Brittany; when, after some discussions, peace was made between them.

In this same month, Isabella, the king of France's eldest daughter, and dowager queen of England, but wife to Charles duke of Orleans, died in childbed. The duke bitterly lamented her loss, but received some consolation out of regard to the daughter she had brought him.The patriarch of Alexandria, bishop of Carcassonne, succeeded Guy de Roye (whose murder has been noticed) in the archbishopric of Rheims, and the archbishop of Bourges succeeded to the patriarchate.-Doctor William Bouratier, secretary to the king, was nominated archbishop of Bourges; and nearly about this time died doctor Peter Paoul, and was succeeded in his dignities by doctor Gilles des Champs, almoner to the king. Louis de Harcourt, brother to the count de Harcourt, was appointed archbishop of Rouen.


THE GOVERNOR, WHILE OBEYING A SUMMONS FROM THE DUKE OF MILAN. BOUCICAUT, marshal of France, was at this time governor of Genoa, and resided there. He was called upon by the duke of Milan and his brother, the count of Pavia*, to settle a dispute which had arisen between them, respecting part of their dominions. He accepted the invitation, thinking he should do an agreeable service to the duke of Milan, and not suspecting any trick in the matter. But during his absence, the inhabitants of Genoa rebelled against his government, and sent for some of their allies and accomplices to come to them. They cruelly murdered the marshal's lieutenant, the chevalier de Colletrie, named Chollette, a native of Auvergne, which the other Frenchmen hearing of, fled into the forts, for fear of suffering a similar fate. These were instantly besieged by the Genoese, who sent for the marquis of Montferrat+: he lost no time in hastening to their aid with four thousand combatants, as they had promised to pay him ten thousand florins yearly, and they immediately elected him doge of Genoa. They also chose twelve knights, as a council to manage public affairs.

A few days after, Fassincault I, a very renowned captain in Italy, and a great friend of the marquis of Montferrat, came to Genoa with the intent of assisting the marquis; but the Genoese refused to admit him, or accept of his offers. On his return, his force, amounting to eight thousand men, took a town called Noefville $ ; but the French retreated within the castle, which was instantly besieged. When Boucicaut heard of the rebellion of the Genoese, he set out accompanied by his men, and the duke of Milan and the count of Pavia, and arrived with speed at the castle of Gaing II, situated between the town of Noefville and Genoa, and fought with Fassincault and his forces. In this battle, eight hundred men were slain, the greater part belonging to Fassincault, and night alone separated the combatants.

Boucicaut, by the advice of Enguerrand de Bournouville and Gaiffier de la Salle, both men-at-arms of acknowledged prowess, advanced that night to the castle of Gaing, which he won, and amply provided it with provision and all necessary stores. Fassincault remained in the town; but seeing he could not gain the castle, he departed with his men to his own fortresses.

The marshal Boucicaut carried on a severe warfare against the Genoese and those who bad assisted them. He also sent messengers to inform the king of France of his situation, and to require that he would immediately send him reinforcements of men-at-arms.—The king and his great council, on receiving this intelligence and considering the fickleness of the Genoese, determined to proceed cautiously against them. The king sent, at his expense, the

• John Maria and Philip Maria, sons of John Galeas, Sophia was married to Philip Maria Visconti, then count and successively dukes of Milan.

of Pavia, afterwards duke of Milan.

Facino Cane, a captain of great reputation, and parti+ Theodore Palæologus, second marquis of Montferrat. gan of John Maria Visconti, duke of Milan. He married, first, a daughter of the duke of Bar, and, Noefville. Q. Novara, or Novi ? secondly, a princess of the house of Savoy. His daughter | Gaing. Q. Gavi?

lords de Torsy, de Rambures, and de Viefville, with a certain number of men-at-arms, to the city of Asti, belonging to the duke of Orleans, and near to the territory of Genoa, with the hope of affording assistance to Boucicaut. On their arrival at Asti, they found that the whole country was in rebellion, excepting some forts, which held out for the French ; but as they were without the town, and could not contain many men, from dread of wanting provision, they were not of consequence, nor could they do much mischief. The above knights, therefore, perceiving they could not perform any essential services, resolved to return to France.

All merchants, and others who came from or had any connexions with Genoa, were now sought after in Paris, arrested and imprisoned, and their goods confiscated to the king's use. Now these Genoese had for a long time been under obedience to the king, and had diligently served him in many of his wars.


MANAGEMENT OF THE ROYAL FINANCES.—THE DEATH OF MONTAGU. At this period, the following princes of the blood,-Louis king of Navarre *, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, and many other great lords, were at Paris; and having learnt that the king's treasury was impoverished by his officers and those who governed him, insomuch that his plate and the greater part of his jewels were in pawn, they one day personally explained to the king, in the presence of the queen, the duke of Aquitaine and others of his council, the miserable state of his finances, and the unworthy government of the officers of his household. They at the same time requested, that he would be pleased to permit that some of them should have power to reform in general the abuses that had commenced with his reign, and to call to an account, dismiss, and punish all who should lave mismanaged the finances, according as the cases might require, without any exception whatever. This request the king granted; and for the better carrying on their object, the greater part of the lords before-mentioned left their own hotels, and resided in the king's palace of St. Pol, where, with the advice of the members of the parliament and the university, they continued their reformations for many days.

They soon discovered that those who had managed the finances for the last sixteen or twenty years had very dishonestly acquitted themselves, and had acquired for themselves and their friends immense fortunes, to the prejudice of the state. Montagu, who had been the principal minister of finance, was particularly the object they aimed at, -- and they ordered him, with several others, to be arrested and confined in the prison of the Châtelet. Sir Peter des Essars, provost of Paris, was directed to put this order into execution, with his sergeants; and by the command of the duke of Burgundy, the lords de Heylly, de Robais, and sir Roland de Vequerque, were appointed to assist the provost in this duty. Having assembled together, they, on a certain day, met Montagu, and with him the doctor, Martin Gouge, bishop of Chartres, both going to hear mass at the monastery of St. Victor.

The provost, attended by the above lords, on meeting them, laid his hands on both, saying, “ I lay hands on you by virtue of the royal authority vested in me for this purpose.”Montagu, hearing these words, was much astonished, and trembled greatly; but his courage soon returned, and he replied to the provost, “ What! rascal, art thou daring enough to lay hands on me?" But the provost answered, “ Matters will not turn out as you think,—for you must make reparation for the many and great mischiefs you have done." Montagu, unable to resist, was tightly bound by the provost, and carried by him straight to the Little Châtelet. · The bishop of Chartres was arrested with him, as he had been president of one of the financial departments. Montagu was several times put to the torture, insomuch that, suspecting his end was approaching, he asked his confessor what he had best do: the confessor replied, “ I see no other remedy than your appealing from the jurisdiction of the provost of Paris." This he did ; and the provost waited on the lords who had commanded him to arrest Montagu, to inform them, that he had appealed against his jurisdiction. The * Q. Louis king of Sicily? or Charles king of Navarre? Probably the latter,

parliament was consequently convoked to examine into the matter; and the members of it declared the appeal of no effect. The lords, therefore, secing the cause had been judged, said to the provost, “Go, without delay, accompanied by some of the populace well armed, take thy prisoner, and finish the matter by cutting off his head with an axe, and fix it on a lance in the market-place.”

After these words, the populace armed themselves, and, on the 17th of October, assembled in bodies in the Place Maubert, and in other parts of the town. They carried Montagu to a scaffold erected in the market-place, where, having made him strip to his shirt, they cut off his head, and fixed it to the end of a pike, and hung his body by the shoulders to the highest gibbet at Montfaucon. This execution was chiefly owing, as it was said, to the duke of Burgundy's hatred to him, who even sent for a very great number of the nobles of his countries of Burgundy, Flanders, and Artois, to be spectators of it. A little before this execution took place, the duke of Bourbon, and his son the count de Clermont, left Paris, indignant at the arrest of Montagu. The duke of Orleans, his brothers, and all of their party, were also very much displeased that he was put to death,—but they could not help it, for at that time they were not listened to by the king's council.

On the morrow of this event, duke William count of Hainault arrived at Paris, having been sent for by the duke of Burgundy. A large company of the nobles went out of the town to meet him ; and he was most graciously received by the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and the other princes. On his arrival, the hotel that had belonged to Montagu was given to him, with all its furniture, for it had been confiscated to the king's use ; and duke William took instant possession. The castle of Marcoussi, which had been built by Montagu, was geizeil by the king: it is situated seven leagues from Paris, on the road to Chartres. Montagu was born in Paris, and had first been secretary to the king : he was the son of Gerard de Montagu, who had also been secretary to Charles V. IIe was of noble birth by his mother's side, and had three daughters, two of whom were married ; the elder to John * count de Roussy, the second to Peter de Craon, lord of Montbason; and the third was betrotl:ed to John de Melun, son to the lord d'Antoing t, but the match was broken off : his son was married to the daughter of the lord d'Albret, constable of France and cousin to the king, as has been related.

After this, the provost of Paris arrested many of the king's officers, particularly those who had been concerned in the finances and in matters of revenue. All the principals in the department of the generalities, the presidents and others of the chamber of accounts, Perrin Pillot, a merchant, with several others, were imprisoned in the Louvre and in other places of confinement. When the borgne de Foucal, equerry to the king, and keeper of that department of the treasury called the Epargne, heard that the grand master of the household was arrested, he was greatly astonished and troubled, and instantly changing his dress, mounted a fleet horse, and secretly left Paris. This caused him to be much suspected of improper conduct by the princes who were examining into these matters.

At this period, the archbishop of Sens, brother to the grand master, Guichart Daulphin, William de Tignonville, knights, and master Goutier Col, secretary to the king, were sent, by orders from the king, to meet the English ambassadors at Amiens. The archbishop, hearing of the arrest and imprisonment of his brother, took leave of his companions, and set out from Amiens : but as he was journeying towards Paris, he was met by one of the king's ushers, who made him his prisoner; for he had orders so to do from the king, and confine him at Amiens, should he chance to find him there. The archbishop very prudently replied, that he was ready to follow him to prison or to death ; but when they came to the river Oise, near the priory of St. Leu de Cherens, he played the usher a trick. On leaving the ferry-boat with a few of his people, he mounted the fleetest of his horses, and galloped off, leaving the usher on the other side waiting for the return of the ferry-boat; but, thunderstruck at his being so cheated, he returned to Paris without his prisoner. The lord de Tignonville, having been a member of the chamber of accounts, was, by command of the princes, arrested by the bailiff of Amiens, and confined in his prison. But, after a short time, he, the bishop of Chartres, and the other prisoners at Paris, were suspended from their offices, and, having given bail, were permitted to go about Paris, or wherever they pleased.

* John VI. count of Roucy and Braine, son of Hugh younger branch of the house of Melun, counts of Tancarcount de Roucy and Blanche of Coucy. He married Isabel ville. John I. viscount of Melun, was grandfather both de Montagu, and was killed at Azincourt.

to the count of Tancarville and the lord d'Antoing, men† The lords of Antoing and princes of Espinoy were a tioned in this volume.

The princes, not being able to attend sufficiently to these matters of reform from their other occupations of greater weight, appointed a commission to examine carefully into them, which commission was composed of the counts de la Marche, de Vendôme and de St. Pol, with some members of the parliament. The men-at-arms that had been called together round Paris by the duke of Burgundy and others, were disbanded ; and each, as they returned to the places whence they had come, devoured the substance of the poor people, according to the custom of that time. Sir Guichart Daulphin *, before mentioned, was, by the princes, appointed grand master of the king's household, in the room of the murdered Montagu ; for the king was then troubled with his usual disorder.

The bishop of Paris now requested of the princes, that they would, in their mercy, permit him to have the body of his brother taken down from the gibbet, and, with many tears and supplications, petitioned for leave to bury him. But neither of these requests was granted liim by the princes; on which the bishop, ashamed of the disgraceful death of one brother and the flight of another, the archbishop of Sens, soon after quitted his see, and taking with him his sister-in-law, the widow of Montagu, and some of their children, for the duke of Berry had already appointed another chancellor, went to the estate of his sister-in-law in Savoy : she was the daughter of sir Stephen de la Grange, forinerly president of the parliament, and brother to the cardinal d'Amiens. The borgne de Foucal, not answering to the proclamations that were made for his appearance, was banished the realm of France, by sound of trumpet in the four quarters of Paris. In like manner were the archbishop of Sens, and many other fugitives, banished the kingdom.

The king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy and Holland, with the counts de Vendôme and de la Marche, and several great lords, waited on the queen of France and the duke of Aquitaine, to make them acquainted with the reasons for the executing of Montagu, and what progress they had made in the reformation of abuses, and the measures they had pursued against such as were criminal. The queen testified her satisfaction, and was contented that they should proceed as they had begun. She was, however, far from being pleased with the duke of Burgundy, whom she dreaded, from the great power he was now possessed of, more than any of the other princes, although he treated her respectfully in his speech. The marriage of the lord Louis of Bavaria, brother to the queen, was again talked of with the daughter of the king of Navarre ; and he was presented with the castle of Marcoussi, with all its furniture and appurtenances, which had lately been confiscated to the king, by the death of Montagu, which was very agreeable to the queen. After these lords bad for some days transacted business at Melun, where the court was, they all returned to Paris, carrying with them master Peter Bosthet, president of the parliament, and some members of the chamber of accounts, and assembled daily to inquire after those persons who had been in the receipt and expenditure of the public revenues.

During this time, the king, who had been very ill, was restored to health, insomuch that on the 2d day of December, he rode from his palace of St. Pol, dressed in a hauberk under his robes, to the cathedral church of Notre Dame, where he made his prayers, a page carrying behind him a very handsome steel helmet and a Moorish lance. Having finished his prayers, he returned to his palace of Saint Pol. On the morrow, he held a royal council in person, at which were present the king of Navarre, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and of Bourbon, which last was lately returned to Paris. It was there resolved, that the king should summon the following lords to attend him personally at the ensuing feast of Christmas, namely, the dukes of Orleans, of Brittany, of Brabant, of Bar, and of Lorrain : the counts of Savoy t, of Alençon, of Penthievre, of Namur, of Harcourt, of Armagnac, and in general all the great

* Guichard Dauphin, descended from the old counts de † Amadeus VIII, the first duke of Savoy, son of Ama. Clermont, dauphins of Auvergne, grand-master from 1409, deus VII, and Bona, daughter to the duke of Berry. to 1413. He was son to Guichard Dauphin I. grand- I Bernard VII. brother of John III., count of Armaster of the cross-bows.

magnac, killed at Alexandria della Paglia, as related by

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