Prussia. He sent secret messengers to the king of Lithuania, his cousin-german and ally, to press him to invade Prussia on the quarter nearest the sea, when he would march his Polanders to form a junction and destroy the whole of it. His intentions were discovered by the messenger being arrested by orders of the king of Hungary, and information sent of them to Prussia, whenceforward the king of Hungary and grand master took such wise precautions that his future attempts were fruitless.



[a. d. 1410.) This year, the duke of Berry was, by the king's orders, remanded to Paris, and on his arrival, was sent, with the king of Navarre, to Giens sur Loire, to put an end to the quarrels between the duke of Brittany and the count and countess of Penthievre. Although both parties had promised to meet them, they did not personally attend, but sent commissioners. The king of Navarre and the duke of Berry took great pains, and proposed various means, to bring about a reconciliation. Finding all their attempts fruitless, they referred the whole matter, with the consent of the commissioners, to the king's decision on All-saints-day next coming, and then they returned to Paris. In this year was concluded the marriage between the eldest son of Louis king of Sicily, and Catherine, daughter to the duke of Burgundy. The lady was conducted by sir John de Châlons, lord de Darlay, the lord de St. George, sir William de Champdivers, and sir James de Courtjambe, to Angers, and there delivered to the queen of Sicily, who received her most affectionately and honourably,--and she magnificently entertained the knights who had brought her. After a short stay at Angers, they returned to their lord, the duke of Burgundy, at Paris.

At this time, the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, the counts de Clermont, d'Alençon, d'Armagnac, the lord Charles d'Albreth, constable, and many other lords of great power and authority, held a meeting in the town of Meun le Châtel,—where they had several long consultations with each other on the state of public affairs, and particularly as to the murder of the late duke of Orleans, principally to consider how they should proceed to take vengeance on the person who had committed it. Many different opinions were urged: one was, that the duke of Orleans should declare a deadly war against him, and carry it on by every possible means, with the assistance of his relations, friends, and the well-wishers to his cause. Others said, it would be better to follow another course, and remonstrate strongly to the king, their sovereign lord, on the necessity he was under to do strict justice on the duke of Burgundy, to which he was the more particularly bound, as the murder was committed on his own brother. But, as they could not all agree in the same opinion, they broke up the meeting, and appointed another day to assemble again. Before they separated, a treaty of marriage was entered upon between Charles duke of Orleans and the daughter of the count ļ’Armagnac. She was niece to the duke of Berry, by her mother's side, and sister * to the count de Savoye. This done, the lords departed for their own domains.

The duke of Burgundy resided in Paris, and ruled there more despotically than any other of the princes : affairs were solely carried on by him and his partisans, which, no doubt, made very many jealous of him.

* Of the half blood. See pp. 149, 150.



POPE JOHN. About this period, Louis king of Sicily set out from Paris with a numerous body of menat-arms, and went for Provence, and thence to Bologna, to meet king Ladislaus, his opponent, and to defend his kingdom of Naples, where his rival was committing great devastation. King Louis had for this raised so considerable a force, that he might be enabled to offer him combat; and he had also the hope that pope Alexander would assist him, to the utmost of his ability, in money and in men. An end was soon put to his expectations in this respect; for, on the morrow of the feast of the discovery of the holy cross, pope Alexander was poisoned in the town of Bologna, as was currently reported, and died most pitifully *. His bowels were interred, and his obsequies were performed in the church of the Cordeliers. Mass was celebrated by the cardinal de Vimers : the deacon and under deacon were the cardinals d'Espaigne and de Thurey. The whole court was dressed in deep mourning.

The 6th of May, the corpse of the pope, having been embalmed with fine spices, was placed in the hall of audience, dressed in his papal robes, his face uncovered, gloves on his hands, but his feet naked, so that whoever pleased might kiss them,—and nine funeral services were there performed. There were present twenty cardinals, two patriarchs, four archbishops, twenty-four bishops, with many prelates, abbots, and other churchmen. His cscutcheon of arms were placed at the four corners of his coffin ; and for nine days, masses were celebrated in the same manner as on the morrow of his death. The masses were said by the cardinals in rotation ; and the ninth day, the body was carried to the Cordeliers for interment. The two first bearers were the cardinals de Vimers and de Challant, and the two last the cardinals d'Espaigne and de Thurey. The cardinal Milles preceded the body bearing a cross. The chorists were the cardinals de Bar, (not the son of the duke of Bar, but the cardinal of Bar + in Calabria), and d’Orsini. The cardinal de Vimers performed the service, as he had done at the interment of the bowels.

When this ceremony was over, the cardinals returned home dressed in black; and after dinner, they assembled at the palace, and entered into conclave, where they remained shut up from the Wednesday to the Saturday following. Some of the cardinals, having consulted together, proposed Balthazar, cardinal of Bologna, as sovereign pontiff of the universal church; and the others, who were not of this opinion, seeing their numbers were very small, consented to it; and the new pope was conducted by them to the church of St. Peter, where they placed the tiara on his head, and took the oaths of fidelity to him. They then led him to the palace of his predecessor, where every piece of furniture had been carried off, and there did not remain even a door or window-frame. On the morrow, he took the name of pope John XXIII. and great were the rejoicings and feasts that ensued. In the procession were twenty-three cardinals, two patriarchs, three archbishops, twenty-seven abbots, mitred and non-mitred, without reckoning other churchmen, who were almost numberless. The pope wore on that day a silver-gilt tiara bound with white. The following Saturday, the 23d of May, the pope received, in the chapel of his predecessors, the holy order of priesthood, when the cardinal de Vimers said the mass, and the cardinal de Challant was deacon: at this service, all the before-named prelates attended.

On the following day, Sunday, the pope celebrated mass in the church of St. Peter. having the cardinal de Vimers near him to show him the service. The marquis of Ferrara and the lord of Malatesta were present, and held the bason wherein the pope washed his hands. The marquis of Ferrara had brought with him fifty-four knights, all clothed in scarlet and blue, having five trumpets and four companies of minstrels, each playing on a different instrument. When mass was finislied, pope John was carried out of the church to * His successor, Balthazar Cozza, was accused of having

fi.e. Bari. administered poison to him, but the fact was never estab- I We have attempted in vain to ascertain the meaning lished ; and, in those days, it was but too common to raise and origin of this very peculiar ceremony, if i: may be so such suspicions without foundation. The following account termed.-ED. of the funeral of the pope, and the installation of his successor, is very curious.--Ed.

a very handsome platform erected without the porch, and there solemnly crowned in the presence of all those whom I have mentioned, and a great multitude of doctors and clergy.

When seated on his throne, which was covered all over with cloth of gold, he was surrounded by the cardinals de Vimers, de Challant, de Milles, d’Espaigne, de Thurey, and de Bar, having tufts of tow in their hands. The cardinals lighted their tufts; and as the flame was suddenly extinguished, they addressed the pope, saying, “ Thus, holy father, passes the glory of this world !" This was done three times. The cardinal de Vimers having said some prayers over him and on the crown, placed it upon his head. This crown was a triple one: the first of gold, which encircled the forehead within the mitre; the second of gold and silver, about the middle of the mitre; and the third, of very fine gold, surmounted it. IIe

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Tiara and OFFICIAL BADGES OF THE POPEDON.--Selected from old Italian pictures.

was then led down from the platform, and placed on a horse covered over with scarlet furniture. The horses of the cardinals and bishops, &c. were caparisoned in white; and in this state he was conducted from street to street, making everywhere the sign of the cross, until he came to where the Jews resided, who presented him a manuscript of the Old 'Testament. He took it with his own hand, and having examined it a little, threw it behind him, saying, “ Your religion is good, but this of ours is better.” As he departed, the Jews followed him, intending to touch him,-in the attempt of which, the caparison of his horse was all torn.—Wherever he passed, the pope distributed money,—that is to say, quadrini and mailles of Florence, with other coins. There were before and behind him two hundred men-at-arms, each having in his hand a leathern mallet, with which they struck the Jews in such wise as it was a pleasure to see.

On the morrow, he returned to his palace, accompanied by the cardinals dressed in crimson,—the patriarchs in like manner,—the archbishops and bishops in similar dresses, having white mitres on their heads, and numbers of mitred and non-mitred abbots. In this procession were, the marquis of Ferrara *, the lord Malatestat, the lord of Gaucourt I, and

* Probably Nicholas d'Este, connected by marriage with posts of chamberlain, governor of Dauphine, and grandthe house of Malatesta.

master of the household, became a distinguished actor in + Probably Pandulph Malatesta, lord of Rimini, a cap the wars with the English, from 1427 to 1437 particularly. tain of great reputation and adherent of king Ladislaus. There was also a sir Eustace de Gaucourt, lord of Vicy

Sir Raoul de Gaucourt, successively promoted to the who was grand falconer in 1406 and 1412.

others, to the amount of forty-four, as well dukes as counts and knights of Italy, all dressed out in their liveries. In each street, two and two by turns led the pope's horse by the bridle,—the one on the right hand, and another on the left. There were thirty-six bagpipes and trumpets, and ten bands of minstrels playing on musical instruments, each band consisting of three performers. There were also singers, especially those of the chapel of his predecessor, as well as those belonging to the cardinals and from different parts of Italy, who rode before the pope loudly chaunting various airs, sacred and profane.

When he arrived at the palace, he gave his peace to all the cardinals, who, according to their rank in the college, kissed his foot, hand, or mouth. The cardinal de Vimers first performed the ceremony, and was followed by the other cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, abbots and clergy. He then gave his benediction to the four elements, and to all persons in a state of grace, as well to those absent as present, and bestowed his dispensations for four months to come, provided that, during this time, three Pater-nosters should be said by each in praying for his predecessor, pope Alexander. Pope John then went to dinner, as it was now about twelve o'clock, and this ceremony had commenced between five and six in the morning. In honour of him, feasts were continued at Bologna for the space of eight days; and on each of them very handsome processions were made round St. Peter's church, when the prelates were all dressed in vermilion robes, with copes of the same. In like manner did the Carthusians of St. Michael's Mount, without the walls of Bologna.

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Public INAUGURATION OF THE Pope. The Pope is crowned with the Tiara, and scated on a richly-caparisoned

Mule led by two Cardinals.—Original design.

The next day, the 25th of May, pope John held a consistory, in the presence of the cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops, bishops, and presented to the marquis of Ferrara and the Italian heralds many and various rich gifts. This was followed by a great feast, with dancing and music. The ensuing day, the pope revoked all that his predecessor had done, excepting what he had confirmed, or what had been taken corporal or spiritual possession of. King Louis of Sicily arrived at Bologna the Friday after the coronation of the pope, and twenty-two cardinals, two patriarchs, six archbishops, twenty bishops, and eighteen abbots, handsomely equipped, went out of the city to meet him: on his entrance, he went directly

to the pope. He was clothed in scarlet, and his horse's furniture was ornamented with small gilt bells: he was attended by about fifty knights dressed in his uniform. It was the last day of May that the king arrived,—and he was most graciously received by the pope. The ensuing day, the Florentines came to pay their duty and reverence to the holy father. They were about three hundred horse, among whom were eighteen knights dressed in scarlet, with feathers bespangled with gold. They were attended by six trumpets, two heralds, and ten musicians playing on different instruments. When they had made their reverence to the pope, they returned to their hotels, and the next day went to court. By reason of their alliance with king Louis, they supplicated the pope to give him assistance against his adversary king Ladislaus, adding, that they intended affording him every aid in their power of men and money. These Florentines were very indignant at the late conduct of the Genoese in regard to the king of Sicily ; for when the king of Sicily was sailing with five galleys from Marseilles, near to the port of Genoa, the Genoese, being in the interest of king Ladislaus, hastily armed fifteen galleys with cross-bows and men-at-arms, and sent them to attack the remainder of king Louis's fleet that was following him, which they conquered, all but one, that escaped back to Marseilles by superior sailing, and carried the crews and all their baggage prisoners to Genoa.

The pope, having heard their request, asked some time to consider of it before he gave an answer. He could not well consent to it, because the Genoese had been long connected with him, and he had also entered into some engagements with king Ladislaus. The matter was, therefore, deferred. King Louis was, notwithstanding this, magnificently feasted by the pope and cardinals ; after which, he left his court well pleased, and returned to Provence. On the first day of June, the pope held an open court, and signed many graces and benefices, and all such things as with honour and justice he could sign. He continued from that time to hold public audiences, and to do whatever business appertained to the papacy.


CHRISTIANS INTO LITHUANIA. This year, 1410, the grand master of the Teutonic order, accompanied by his brother knights and a numerous army of three hundred thousand Christians, invaded the kingdom of Lithuania, to destroy the whole of it. The king of Lithuania was soon ready to meet him; and, aided by the king of Sarmatia, he assembled an army of four hundred thousand infidels, and offered battle. The Christians gained a complete victory,-for there remained dead on the field full thirty-six thousand infidels, the principals of whom were the grand general of Lithuania and the constable of Sarmatia. The remnant, with the other officers, escaped by flight. Of the Christians, only two hundred were slain, but a great many were wounded. Shortly after, the king of Poland, who was a determined enemy to the grand master of Prussia, (and who had but faintly accepted of Christianity in order to obtain his kingdom) marched his Polanders to the assistance of the infidels, whom he strongly pressed to renew the war against Prussia, insomuch that, eight days after this defeat, the king of Poland, in conjunction with the aforesaid two kings, assembled an army of six hundred thousand men, and marched against the grand master of Prussia, and other Christian lords. A battle ensued, which was lost by the Christians, wbo had more than sixty thousand killed and wounded. In the number of dead were the grand master of Prussia, with a noble knight from Normandy, called sir John de Ferriere, son to the lord de Ferriere, and another from Picardy, son to the lord du Bos d'Ancquin.

It was currently reported that the day had been lost through the fault of the constable of Hungary, who commanded the second squadron of the Christians, by running away with all his Hungarians. The infidels, however, did not gain the glory without loss,—for without counting the Polanders, who had ten thousand men slain, they lost upward of six-score thousand men, according to the reports of the heralds, and the bastard of Scotland, called the count de Hembe*. The lord de Kyeuraing and John de Grez, Hainaulters,

• Count de lIembe. Q.

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