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other proclamations throughout his kingdom. Underneath is the tenor of the one which he sent to the bailiff of Amiens.

“ Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, sends health. It has lately come to our knowledge, by informations laid before our council, that John our uncle of Berry, Charles our nephew, duke of Orleans, and his brothers, with John de Bourbon, John d'Alençon, Charles d'Albreth, our cousin Bernard d'Armagnac, in conjunction with others, their aiders and abettors, moved by the wicked and damnable instigations of their own minds, have for a long time plotted to depose and deprive us of our royal authority, and with their utmost power to destroy our whole family, which God forbid ! and to place another king on the throne of France, which is most abominable to the hearing of every heart in the breasts of our loyal subjects. We, therefore, by the mature deliberation of our council, do most solemnly, in this public manner, divulge these abominable and traitorous intentions of the aforesaid persons, and earnestly do call for the assistance of all our loyal subjects, as well those bound to serve us by the tenure of their fiefs as the inhabitants of all our towns, who have been accustomed to bear arms, to guard and defend our rights and lives against the traitors, aforesaid, who have now too nearly approached our person, inasmuch as they have entered by force our town of St. Denis, which contains not only many holy relics of the saints but the sacred bodies of saints, our crown and royal standard, known by the name of the Oriflamme, with several other precious and rare jewels. They have also gained forcible possession of the bridge of St. Cloud, and have invaded our rights, (not to say anything of our very dear and well-beloved cousin, the duke of Burgundy, to whom they have sent letters of defiance,, by setting fire to and despoiling our towns and villages, robbing churches, ransoming or killing our people, forcing married women, and ravishing maidens, and committing every mischief which the bitterest enemy could do. We therefore do enjoin and command thee, under pain of incurring our heaviest displeasure, that thou instantly cause this present ordinance to be proclaimed in the usual places in the town of Amiens, and in different parts within thy said bailiwick, so that no one may plead ignorance; and that thou do punish corporally, and by confiscation of property, the aforesaid persons, their allies and confederates, whom thou mayest lay hands on, as guilty of the highest treason against our person and crown, that by so doing an example may be held forth to all others. We also command, under the penalty aforesaid, all our vassals, and all those in general who are accustomed to carry arms, to repair to us as soon as possible. Be careful to have the within ordinances strictly executed, so that we may not have cause to be displeased with thee.

“Given at Paris, the 14th day of October, 1411, and in the 32nd year of our reign.”

This ordinance was signed by the king, on the report of his council, and thus dispatched to Amiens and other good towns, where it was proclaimed in the usual places, and with such effect on the vassals and loyal subjects of the king that they hastened in prodigious numbers to serve him. On the other hand, very many of those who were of the Orleans party were arrested in divers parts of the realm,—some of whom were executed, and others confined in prison, or ransomed, as if they had been public enemies. It was pitiful to hear the many and grievous complaints which were made by the people of their sufferings, more especially by those in the neighbourhood of Paris and in the isle of France.

I must not forget, among other circumstances, to relate, that the Parisians, to the amount of three thousand, as well those of the garrison as others, sallied out of Paris, and went to the palace of Winchester (Bicêtre), a very handsome mansion of the duke of Berry, where, from hatred to the duke, they destroyed and plundered the whole, leaving the walls only standing. When they had done this, they went and destroyed another house, where the duke kept his horses, situated on the river Seine, not far from the hôtel de Nesle. The duke was much enraged when he was told of the insult and mischief that had been done to him, and said aloud, that a time would come when these Parisians should pay dearly for it.

Affairs daily grew worse ; and at length, the duke of Berry, the duke of Orleans, and his brothers, the duke of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon and d’Armagnac, the lord d'Albreth, were personally banished the realm by the king, with all their adherents, of whatever rank they might be, by sound of trumpet in all the squares of Paris, and forbidden to remain or set foot within it until they should be recalled. They were not only banished the kingdom of France, but, by virtue of a bull of pope Urban V. of happy memory, (preserved in the Trésor des Chartres of the king's privileges in the holy chapel at Paris), they were publicly excommunicated and anathematised in all the churches of the city of Paris, by bell, book,

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EXCOMMUNICATION BY “ Bell, Book, and Candle.”—From an original design.

and candle. Many of their party were much troubled at these sentences, but, nevertheless, continued the same conduct, and made a more bitter war than before.

CHAPTER LXXX.—THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY MARCHES A LARGE ARMY FROM PONTOISE TO

PARIS, THROUGH MELUN.—THE SITUATION AND CONDUCT OF THE DUKE OF ORLEANS.

I have mentioned, that during the stay of the duke of Burgundy at Pontoise, he received great reinforcements of men-at-arms from all parts : among others, the count de Penthievre, his son-in-law, joined him with a noble company. Having remained there for about fifteen days, and made diligent inquiry into the state of his adversaries, on the 22d day of October, he marched his whole army thence about two o'clock in the afternoon. As the royal road from that place to Paris was occupied by the enemy, he quitted it for that through Melun sur Seine, where he crossed the river with full fifteen thousand horse, and, marching all night, arrived, on the morrow morning, at the gate of St. Jacques at Paris. Great multitudes went out of the town to meet him ; among whom were the butchers of Paris, well armed and arrayed, conducted by the provosts of the Châtelet and of the merchants, under the command of the count de Nevers, brother to the duke of Burgundy, who was attended by several princes, noble lords, and captains : even the great council of state went out upwards of a league to meet him, and to do him honour. Indeed, they all showed him as much deference and respect as they could have done to the king of France, on his return from a long journey. With regard to the people of Paris, they made great rejoicings on his arrival, and sang carols in all the streets through which he passed ; and because his entry was made late in the day, and it was dusk, the streets were illuminated with great quantities of torches, bonfires, and lanthorns.

On his approach to the Louvre, the duke of Aquitaine, who had married his daughter, advanced to meet him, and received him with joy and respect. He led him into the Louvre, and presented him to the king and queen, who received him most graciously. Having paid his due respects, he withdrew, and went to lodge at the hôtel de Bourbon. The earl of Arundel was quartered, with his attendants, at the priory of St. Martin des Champs, and his Englishmen near to him in the adjoining houses. The rest quartered themselves as well as they could in the city.

On the morrow, which was a Sunday, Enguerrand de Bournouville, with many valiant men-at-arms and archers, as well Picards as English, made a sally as far as La Chapelle, which the Armagnacs had fortified, and quartered themselves within it. On seeing their adversaries advancing, they mounted their horses, and a sharp skirmish ensued, in which many were unhorsed. Among those who behaved well, sir Enguerrand was pre-eminent. Near his side was John of Luxembourg, nephew to the count de St. Pol, but very young. Many were wounded, but few killed. The English, with their bows and arrows, were very active in this affair. While this action was fought, the Armagnacs quartered at St. Denis, Montmartre, and other villages, hearing the bustle, mounted their horses, and hastened to cut off the retreat of Enguerrand. He was informed of this in time, and, collecting his men, retreated towards Paris; but as the enemy were superior in numbers, they pressed hard on his rear, and killed and made prisoners several of his men.

The duke of Orleans and the princes of his party, on hearing of the arrival of the duke of Burgundy with so large an army in Paris, ordered their men-at-arms, and others that were lodged in the villages round, to unite and quarter themselves at St. Denis. To provide forage, sir Clugnet de Brabant was sent with a body of men-at-arms into the Valois and Soissonois, where there was abundance. Sir Clugnet acquitted himself well of his command, and brought a sufficient quantity to St. Denis; for at this time there was great plenty of corn and other provision in France. The Armagnacs were, therefore, well supplied; and as they were the strongest on that side of Paris, they daily made excursions of different parties as far as the rivers Marne and Oise, and throughout the isle of France. In like manner, the army of the king and the duke of Burgundy scoured the country on the other side of the Seine, as far as Montlehery, Meulan, and Corbeil ; and thus was the noble kingdom of France torn to pieces There were frequent and severe rencounters between the men-at-arms of each side; and a continued skirmish was going forward between those in Paris and in St. Denis, when the honour of the day was alternately won.

Among other places where these skirmishes took place was a mill, situated on an eminence, and of some strength. In this mill, two or three hundred of the Orleans party sometimes posted themselves, when the Parisians and Burgundians made an attack on them, which lasted even until night forced them to retreat.-At other times, the Burgundians posted themselves in the mill, to wait for the assault of their adversaries. The duke of Orleans had with him an English knight, called the lord de Clifford, who had, some time before, joined him with one hundred men-at-arms and two hundred archers, from the country of the Bourdelois. Having heard that the king of England had sent the earl of Arundel, with several other lords, to the duke of Burgundy, he waited on the duke of Orleans to request that he would permit him to depart, for that he was afraid his sovereign would be displeased with him should he remain any longer. The duke of Orleans having for a while considered his request, granted it, but on condition that neither he himself nor his men should bear arms against him during the war. The knight made him this promise, and then returned to England.

On the 6th day of November, Troullart de Moncaurel, governor and bailiff of Senlis, having marched about six score combatants of his garrison to the country of Valois, was met by seven score of the Armagnacs, who vigorously attacked him; but, after many gallant deeds were done, Troullart remained victorious. From sixty to eighty of the Armagnacs were taken or slain ; and among the prisoners was sir William de Saveuse, who had followed the Orleans party, when his two brothers, Hector and Philip, were in arms with the duke of Burgundy. Thus, in this abominable warfare, were brothers engaged against brothers, and sons against fathers. After this defeat, Troullart de Moncaurel and Peter Quieriet, who had accompanied him, returned with their booty to Senlis, when, shortly after, by the exertions of the old lord de Saveuse and the two brothers, Hector and Philip, sir William obtained his liberty.

CIIAPTER LXXXI. - THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY LEADS A GREAT FORCE, WITH THE PARISIANS,

TO ST. CLOUD, AGAINST THE ARMAGNACS. The duke of Burgundy having remained some time at Paris with his army, and having held many councils with the princes and captains who were there, marched out of the town about midnight, on the 9th of November, by the gate of St. Jacques. He was magnificently accompanied by men-at-arms and Parisians, among whom were the counts de Nevers, de la Marche, de Vaudemont, de Penthievre, de St. Pol, the earl of Arundel, Boucicaut marshal of France, the lord de Vergy marshal of Burgundy, the lord de Heilly, lately appointed marshal of Aquitaine, the lord de St. George, sir Jolin de Croy, Enguerrand de Bournouville, the lord de Fosseux, sir Regnier Pot governor of Dauphiny, the seneschal of Hainault sir John de Guistelle, the lord de Brimeu, the earl of Kent, an Englishman, with many other nobles, as well from Burgundy as from Picardy and different countries. They were estimated by good judges at six thousand combatants, all accustomed to war, and four thousand infantry from the town of Paris. When they had passed the suburbs, they advanced in good array, under the direction of trusty guides, to within half a league of St. Cloud, where the Armagpacs were quartered. It might be about eight o'clock in the morning when they came thither, and the weather was very cold and frosty. Being thus arrived without the enemy knowing of it, the duke of Burgundy sent the marshal of Burgundy, sir Gaultier des Ruppes, sir Guy de la Tremouille, and le veau de Bar, with eight hundred men-at-arms, and four hundred archers, across the Seine, towards St. Denis, to prevent the enemy from there crossing the river by a new bridge which they had erected over it. These lords so well executed the above orders that they broke down part of the bridge, and defended the passage.

The duke, in the mean time, ascended the hill of St. Cloud in order of battle, and at the spot where four roads met posted the seneschal of Hainault, sir John de Guistelle, the lord de Brimeu, John Phillips and John Potter *, English captains, at one of them, with about four hundred knights and esquires, and as many archers. At another road, he stationed the lords de Heilly and de Ront, Enguerrand de Bournouville, and Aymé de Vitry, with as many men as the knights above-mentioned. The third road was guarded by Neville earl of Kentt, with some Picard captains; and the Parisians and others, to a great amount, were ordered to Sevres, to defend that road. When these four divisions had arrived at their posts, they made together a general assault on the town of St. Cloud, which the Armagnacs had fortified with ditches and barriers to the utmost of their power. At these barriers, a notable defence was made by those who had heard of the arrival of the enemy, under the command of their captains, namely, sir James de Plachiel, governor of Angoulême, the lord de Cambour, William Batillier, sir Mansart du Bos, the bastard Jacob, knight, and three other knights from Gascony, who fought bravely for some time; but the superiority of numbers, who attacked them vigorously on all sides, forced them to retreat from their outworks, when they were pursued, fighting, however, as they retreated, to the tower of the bridge and the church, which had been fortified. The whole of the Burgundian force which had been ordered on this duty, excepting the Called William Porter by Stowe.

this conjecture somewhat confirmed by the original, which t: Q. If this is not Umfreville earl of Angus and Kyme is, “Ousieville comte de Kam.' It is true, that Holin(as Stowe calls him)? There was at this period no Neville shed mentions the earls of Pembroke and of Kent as being carl of Kent. The only carl of Kont of that family was of the expedition : but he cites Monstrelet as his authority, William Nevil lord Falconbridge, created 1461. Í find and is therefore likely to be mistaken.

party who guarded the passage of the bridge, now bent all their efforts against the church. The attack was there renewed with greater vigour than before, and, notwithstanding the gallant defence that was made, the church was stormed, and many were slain in the church as well as at the barriers. Numbers also were drowned of the crowd that was pressing to re-enter the tower of the bridge, by the draw-bridge breaking under their weight. It was judged by those well acquainted with the loss of the Armagnacs, that including the drowned, there were nine hundred killed and five hundred prisoners. Among these last were sir Mansart du Bos, the lord de Cambour, and William Batillier. In the town of St. Cloud were found from twelve to sixteen hundred horses that had been gained by plunder, and a variety of other things.

While this was passing, the duke of Burgundy was with the main army drawn up in battle-array, on a plain above the town : he had with him the greater part of the princes, and his scouts were everywhere on the look-out that the enemy might not surprise him by any unexpected attack. The engagement at the tower of the bridge was still continued by the Burgundians, in the hope of taking it; but it was labour in vain, for those within defended it manfully. Some of the garrison sallied out on the opposite side, and hastened to St. Denis, to inform the duke of Orleans of the disaster that had befallen them. He was sorely displeased thereat, and instantly mounted his horse, accompanied by the duke of Bourbon, the counts d'Alençon and d’Armagnac, the constable, the master of the cross-bows, the young Boucicaut, and about two thousand combatants, advanced toward St. Cloud, and drow up in battle-array on the side of the river Seine, opposite to where the duke of Burgundy was posted, and made every preparation as if for an immediate combat. The duke of Burgundy and his men likewise dismounted, drew up in order of battle, and displayed his banner, which was most rich and splendid. But notwithstanding the eager desire which these princes showed for the combat, it was to no purpose.—for the river was between them, so that no damage could accrue to either party, excepting by some chance bolts from the cross-bows, who shot at random.

When the Armagnacs had remained there for some time, seeing that nothing effectual could be done, they remounted their horses and returned to St. Denis, leaving, however, a reinforcement to defend the tower of St. Cloud. On their departure, the duke of Burgundy held a council, and it was determined to march the whole army back to Paris. The duke lost this day, in slain, not more than from sixteen to twenty ; but there were many wounded, among whom were Enguerrand de Bournouville and Aymé de Vitry, who had fought well, as did the lord of Heilly. In like manner, the earl of Arundel and his men behaved gallantly; and it was one of them who had made sir Mansart du Bos prisoner, but for a sum of money he resigned him to one of the king's officers. The duke of Burgundy, on his return, was received by the Parisians with great acclamations ; for they had heard of his brilliant success, and they imagined that through his means they should shortly be delivered from their enemies, who oppressed them sorely. With regard to the king, the duke of Aquitaine, and the members of the grand council, prelates as well as seculars, the reception which they gave him, the princes and the captains of his army, is not to be described.

The duke of Orleans, learning that the duke of Burgundy had returned to Paris with his army, held a council with the heads of his party, when, having considered the severe loss they had suffered of the most expert of their captains, and the great power and numbers of their opponents, whom they could not at this moment withstand with hopes of success, they resolved to retire to their own countries, and collect a sufficient army to oppose any force the king and the duke of Burgundy should bring against them. This was no sooner determined than executed ; for they instantly packed up their baggage, and, crossing the newlyerected bridge over the Seine, which they had repaired, and the bridge of St. Cloud, hastily marched all night toward Estampes, and then continued their route to Orleans, and to other towns and castles under their obedience. Thus, therefore, the duke of Orleans, in seeking vengeance for the death of his father, gained only disgrace and great loss of men. Such of them as were slain in the field, at the battle of St. Cloud, were there inhumanly left without sepulture, as being excommunicated, a prey to dogs, birds, and wild beasts. Some lords of his party, such as sir Clugnet de Brabant, sir Aymé de Sarrebruche, the lord de Hufalize,

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