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against Tamerlane, and found him encamped on a high mountain to the westward, called Appady, having already destroyed or burnt very many good towns, and the greater part of the country. When the two chiefs were in sight of each other, they drew up their armies in battle array*. The combat soon began, and lasted full six hours; but at last Bajazet and his army were defeated, and he himself made prisoner. Forty thousand Turks were slain, and ten thousand of their enemies. After this success, Tamerlane sent larger detachments of his army to the principal towns in Turkey,—all of which, or the greater part, surrendered to him,—so that Tamerlane, in one campaign, conquered nearly the whole of Turkey.

CHAPTER XVII.--CHARLES KING OF NAVARRE NEGOTIATES WITH THE KING OF FRANCE,

AND OBTAINS THE DUCHY OF NEMOURS.—DUKE PHILIP OF BURGUNDY MAKES A

JOURNEY TO BAR-LE-DUC AND TO BRUSSELS. At this same season, Charlest king of Navarre came to Paris to wait on the king. He negotiated so successfully with the king and his privy council, that he obtained a gift of the castle of Nemours, with some of its dependent castlewicks, which territory was made a duchy. He instantly did homage for it, and at the same time surrendered to the king the castle of Cherbourg, the county of Evreux I, and all other lordships he possessed within the kingdom of France, renouncing all claim or profit in them to the king and his successors, on consideration, that with this duchy of Nemours the king of France engaged to pay him two hundred thousand gold crowns of the coin of the king our lord. When this was done, duke Philip of Burgundy left Paris to go to Bar-le-Duc, to attend the funeral of his sister the duchess of Barg, who had died there. After this ceremony, he went to his town of Arras, where the duchess was, and there celebrated the feast of Easter. He then went to Brussels in Brabant, to the duchess's, grandinother || to his wife, who had sent for him, to resign into his hands the government of the country; but he was there seized with an alarming illness, and caused himself to be carried to Halle, as will be more fully shown hereafter.

CHAPTER XVIII. -THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY DIES IN THE TOWN OF HALLE, IN HAINAULT. HIS BODY IS CARRIED TO THE CARTHUSIAN CONVENT AT DIJON, IN BURGUNDY.

[A. D. 1404.] At the beginning of this year, the good duke of Burgundy, Philip, son to king John, and brother to Charles the Rich, caused himself to be carried in a litter from the town of Brussels, in Brabant, to Halle, in Hainault. That the horses which carried him might travel more safely, and he be less shaken, labourers advanced before the litter, with spades and pick-axes, to repair and smooth the roads.

When at Halle, he fixed his lodgings near to the church of our Lady, at an hôtel bearing the sign of the Stag; and, finding his disorder increase, he sent for his three sons, namely, John count de Nevers, Anthony and Philip. On their arrival, he entreated and commanded them to be loyal and obedient, during their lives, to king Charles of France and to his successors, and made them promise obedience on their love to him. This engagement the three

* This famous battle was fouglit at Angora, in Galatia. || Rather aunt. John III, duke of Brabant, dying in

+ Charles III. succeeded his father, Charles the Bad, in the year 1335, without male issue, left his dominions to 1386.

his eldest daughter Joan, who married Wenceslaus duke of # This county descended to him from his great-grand- Luxembourg, and survived her husband many years, dying, father Louis, count of Evreux, son to Philip the Bold, at a very advanced age, in the year 1406. She is the prinking of France. Philip, son of Louis, became king of cess here mentioned. Margaret, youngest daughter of John Navarre, in right of his wife Janc, daughter of Louis Hutin. III., married Louis de Male, earl of Flanders; and her only He was father of Charles the Bad.

daughter Margaret (consequently niece of Joan, duchess of Mary of France, daughter of king John, married Ro- Brabant) brought the inheritance of Flanders to Philip, bert duke of Bar, by whom she had issue, Edward duke of duke of Burgundy, Bar, and Louis cardinal, hereafter mentioned, besides other children.

princes readily granted to their lord and father, who then assigned to each such lordships and estates as they were to hold after his decease, and specified the manner in which he intended they should enjoy them. All these, and various other arrangements, were wisely ordered by the duke in a manner becoming such a prince, who had a good memory in his

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last moments. When he had finished these matters, he died in this hôtel. His body was then opened, and his bowels interred in the church of our Lady at Halle; but his body being well embalmed, was placed in a leaden coffin, and carried to the towns of Douay and Arras, magnificently attended, and in a manner suitable to his rank. At Arras the corpse was placed in his chapel, where a solemn service was performed. The duchess Margaret * there renounced her claim to his moveables, from fear of the debts being too great, by placing her girdle with her purse and keys on the coffin, as is the usual custom in such cases, -and demanded that this act should be put into writing by a public notary there present. The body was afterward conveyed to Burgundy, and interred in the church of the Carthusians near Dijon, which church he had founded and ornamented at his own expense. His heart was carried to the church of Saint Denis, and placed near to his royal ancestors, from whom he was descended.

The duke, in addition to the three before-mentioned sons, had three daughters, namely, the archduchess of Austria t, the countess of Holland t, wife to William count of Hainault, and the duchess of Savoy S. There were great lamentations at his death, not only by his children, but generally by the greater part of the lords of France and of his own countries ; for he had prudently and ably governed the affairs of France, in conjunction with his elder brother the duke of Berry, by whom he was much regretted.

After his decease, John count of Nevers, his eldest son, took possession of the county and duchy of Burgundy : his second son, Anthony, was declared heir to the duchy of Brabant, after the death of his great aunt the duchess, who immediately resigned to him the duchy of

• The heiress of Flanders, mentioned in the preceding Margaret, married to William of Bavaria, (VI. of the page.

name), count of Holland and Hainault. + Catherine, married to Leopold the Proud, duke of Mary, married to Amadeus VIII. first duke of Savov, Austria.

afterwards pope by the name of Felix V.

Limbourg*. Philip, his third son, inherited the county of Nevers and barony of Draxi, but not to enjoy them during the life of his mother. The three brothers began to govern their territories with a high hand, and held many councils together, and with their most confidential advisers, on the manner in which they should conduct themselves towards the king their sovereign lord.

CHAPTER XIX.-WALERAN COUNT DE ST. POLLANDS A LARGE FORCE ON THE ISLE OF

WIGHT, TO MAKE WAR AGAINST ENGLAND, BUT RETURNS WITHOUT HAVING PERFORMED

ANY GREAT DEEDS. In this year, Waleran count de St. Pol assembled at Abbeville, in Ponthieu, about sixteen hundred fighting men,-among whom were numbers of the nobility, who had made great provision of salted meats, biscuit, wines, brandy, butter, flour, and other things necessary on board of ships. From Abbeville the count led them to the port of Harfleur, where they found vessels of all descriptions to receive them. When they had remained there some few days to arrange their matters, and to recommend themselves to the protection of St. Nicholas, they embarked on board these vessels, and sailed for the Isle of Wight, which lies opposite to the harbour of Southampton. They landed on the island, making a bold countenance to face their enemies, of whom indeed they had seen but little on their landing,—for all, or at least the greater part of the islanders, had retreated to the woods and fortresses.

Several new knights were created by the count, namely, Philippe de Ilarcourt, Jean de Fosseux, the lord de Guiency, and others, who went to burn some miserable villages, and set fire to a few other places. During this a sensible priest of the island came to the count to treat for the ransom and security of the island, for which he gave the count to understand a very large sum of money would be paid to him and his captains. He too readily listened to this proposal; for it was a deception on the part of the priest to delay their operations, and amuse them with words, until the English should arrive to fight with them. Count Waleran was at length informed of this plan, and, in consequence, re-embarked with his men on board the vessels ; and they returned to the place whence they had come, without doing anything more. Many of the nobles were much displeased at this conduct, because they had expended large sums in laying in their purveyances. The countries through which his men at arms returned were greatly harassed by them,--and this caused much murmuring against the count, but no redress could be obtained.

CHAPTER XX.-LOUIS DUKE OF ORLEANS IS SENT BY THE KING TO THE POPE AT MAR

seilles.—THE DUKE OF BOURBON IS ORDERED INTO LANGUEDOC, AND THE CONSTABLE

INTO AQUITAINE. The king of France, with the advice of his great council, sent Louis duke of Orleans, accompanied by about six hundred knights, to pope Gregory, to remonstrate with him on the necessity of establishing a union in the church. He travelled through Champagne and Burgundy to Lyon, and thence to Marseilles, where the pope and his court then were. He received the duke most honourably and magnificently, and, after he had heard the object of his mission, gave him his apostolical letters, containing certain conditions, preparatory to the attempt of a union. The duke, on receiving them, took leave of the pope, and returned to Paris to the king, who had near his person the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Brittany, and Bourbon, and many other great lords, secular and ecclesiastical. In their presence, he delivered the apostolical letters, which contained, among other things, an offer from the pope to procure the union of the whole church ; and, should it be necessary, to obtain so desirable an object, his holiness was willing to resign the papacy, and to act in whatever way touching this matter his council should judge expedient, and conformable to reason and justice. The king,

* Limbourg, on the death of its last duke, Henry, about succession; and his pretensions gave rise to the bloody 1300, was purchased, by John duke of Brabant, of Adolphe war detailed by Froissart, which ended with the battle of count of Mons. Reginald, duke of Gueldres, claimed the Wareng.

his council, the lords present, and the university, were well satisfied, when they had heard the contents of the pope's letter.

About this time, John* count of Clermont, son and heir to the duke of Bourbon, was ordered by the king and council into Languedoc, and thence to carry on a war against the English in Gascony, who were very active in harassing the frontiers. He appointed Saint Flour in Auvergne as the place of rendezvous for his troops, which consisted of five hundred men at arms, and the same number of cross-bows and archers. The next in command to the count de Clermont was the viscount de Châteaubon, son to the count de Foixt. They carried on a severe warfare, and put several forts under the king's obedience, such as the castles of St. Pierre, St. Mary, Châteauneuf, and many more. After he had left these forts well garrisoned, he concluded the campaign, and returned to the king at Paris, by whom he was most graciously received. Shortly afterward, the lord Charles d'Albret #, constable of France, was sent into the duchy of Acquitaine, accompanied by Harpedane, a knight of great renown in arms. They laid siege to the castle of Carlefins, the garrison of which had done much mischief to the king's subjects, and laid the whole adjoining country under contribution. The siege lasted for six weeks, when a treaty was concluded with the garrison by the constable, which allowed them to march out in safety with all their wealth ; and he also agreed to pay them a certain sum of money, which was raised on the inhabitants of the country adjoining the castle. When the constable had garrisoned the castle with his . own men, he returned to king Charles at Paris.

CHAPTER XXI.-THE DEATH OF DUKE ALBERT, COUNT OP HAINAULT,—AND OF MARGARET

DUCHESS OF BURGUNDY, DAUGHTER TO LOUIS EARL OF FLANDERS. This year died duke Albert, count of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand. He was son to Louis of Bavaria, formerly emperor of Germany, and left issue two sons and a daughter, namely, William, the eldest, and John, surnamed “ sans pitié," who was promoted to the bishopric of Liege, notwithstanding he was not then consecrated. The daughter was married to John duke of Burgundy ||. Duke Albert was interred in the collegiate church of the Hague, in Holland. In this year also died Margaret duchess of Burgundy, widow of the late duke Philip, at her dower-house, in Arras. Her illness was very short, and she departed this life on the Friday before Midlent Sunday. Her three sons, John duke of Burgundy, Anthony duke of Limbourg, and her youngest son Philip, were in the utmost grief at this event in the town of Lille, where she was buried in the collegiate church of St. Peter, near to her father the earl Louis of Flanders.

After her decease, John duke of Burgundy succeeded to the counties of Flanders and Artois, and Philip to the county of Nevers, according to the arrangements before mentioned. Shortly after, through the management of the duke of Burgundy, the two following marriages took place : Louis duke of Aquitaine, dauphin, and son to the king of France, with Margaret, eldest daughter to the duke of Burgundy,—and Philip count de Charolois, only son and heir to the above duke, with Michelle daughter to the king of France. These matches had been talked of during the life of the late duke Philip, and were very agreeable

• John, son of Louis the Good, duke of Bourbon, 80 and is well known as father of Henry IV. king of France. celebrated in the Chronicles of Froissart. The family was ť Matthew, count of Foix, the unsuccessful competitor descended from Robert, count of Clermont, son of St. for the crown of Arragon, was succeeded by his sister IsaLouis, who married the heiress of the ancient lords of the bel, the wife of Archambaud de Greilly, son of the famous Bourbonnois. Louis, son of Robert, had two sons, Peter, captal de Buch, who became count of Foix in her right. the eldest (father of duke Louis the Good,) through whom His son John, here called viscount de Châteaubon, was his descended the first line of Bourbon and that of Montpensier, successor. both of which became extinct in the persons of Susannah, Charles d'Albret, count of Dreux and viscount of Tarduchess of Bourbon, and Charles, count of Montpensier, tas, constable, lineal ancestor of John, king of Navarre. her husband, the famous constable of France, killed at the Carlefin. Q. Carlat ? siege of Rome. James, the younger son of Louis I., was || Duke Albert had four other children not mentioned founder of the second line of Bourbon. John, count of•la in this history, viz. Albert, who died young ; Catherine, Marche, his son, became count of Vendôme in right of his married to the duke of Gueldres ; Anne, wife of the emperor wife, the heiress of that county. Anthony, fifth in lineal Wenceslaus; and Jane, married to Albert IV., duke of descent, became king of Navarre, in right also of his wife, Austria, surnamed the Wonder of the World.

VOL. I.

to the king, the queen, and the princes of the blood, excepting the duke of Orleans, whom they displeased. From that time, and indeed somewhat before, there were appearances of jealousy and dislike between these two princes of Orlvans and Burgundy; and whatever seeming affection they may have shown to each other, there was no sincere love. These jealousies were fomented in great measure by the various reports which were carried to each, by their different dependants. The above-mentioned marriages, however, were agreed on, and proper acts drawn up, signed and mutually interchanged, for the security of them, between all the parties.

A very heavy tax was about this time imposed on all the inhabitants througlmut France, by the king and his council at Paris ; but the duke of Burgundy would not consent that it should be levied,—which conduct gained him universal popularity throughout the kingdom.

CHAPTER XXII.-JOHN DUKE OF BURGUNDY, AFTER THE DEATH OF THE DUCHESS MARGARET IS RECEIVED BY THE PRINCIPAL TOWNS IN FLANDERS AS THEIR LORD.

[A. D. 1403.] Ar the commencement of this year, the duke of Burgundy, having paid his duty to the king of France at Paris, set out for Flanders, attended by his brothers and a large company of the nobles of that country. He was most honourably and kindly received everywhere by his subjects, who made him handsome presents, more especially those of Ghent, Bruges, Ypres, and other great towns. They took the usual oaths of fidelity to him, promising to serve him faithfully, as they were bound to do. He then forbade all his subjects to pay the tax last imposed at Paris by the king and his council, as has been mentioned. This conduct greatly increased the hatred the duke of Orleans bore him,—for at that time the public affairs were governed according to his pleasure, insomuch that a stop was put to the marriages before mentioned, between the children of the king and the duke of Burgundy; and the duke of Orleans was desirous to find out some other match for his nephew, the duke of Aquitaine, which highly displeased the duke of Burgundy when it came to his knowledge.

The duke instantly sent his ambassadors to the king, the queen, and the great council, but they had no very agreeable answer to bring back to their master, by reason of which they returned as speedily as they could to Flanders. Having heard their account, he consulted his most confidential ministers as to the manner in which he should act. They advised him to set out immediately for Paris, for that, being on the spot, he could pursue his business with the king and council with more urgency, and greater expectation of success, than by ambassadors. He assented to this advice, and made his preparations to go thither as speedily as he could.

At this period, pope Benedict XIII.*, who resided and kept his court in the county of Provence, imposed a tax of a tenth on his clergy. This tax was intended to hasten the union of our holy mother church, and was to be paid at two terms, namely, at Easter, and on the feast of St. Remy.

CHAPTER XXIII.-DUKE WILLIAM COUNT OF HAINAULT PRESIDES AT A COMBAT FOR LIFE

OR DEATH, IN HIS TOWN OF QUESNOY, IN WHICH ONE OF THE CHAMPIONS IS SLAIN. A MORTAL combat was this year fought in the town of Quesnoy, in the presence of duke William count of Hainault, judge of the field, between a gentleman named Bournecte, of the county of Hainault, appellant, and another gentleman called Sohier Bunaige, of the county of Flanders. The cause of quarrel was, that Bournecte declared and maintained that Sohier had killed and murdered one of his near relations; and in this case, duke William had ordered lists to be prepared at his expense, as was usual in such like instances. The duke had in vain attempted several times to reconcile them, but finding them:unwilling to consent, he ordered them to appear before him at a certain time and place, to decide their difference by combat.

* Peter de Luna, antipope of Avignon, elected after the death of Clement VII.

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