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kingdom of France from ruin. By this alone, my lord the king will recover his power, and be obeyed and honoured, which is the utmost extent of our wishes in this world, and which it seems to us you should be most desirous of also. Thus the kingdom will be at peace, the churches supported, the wicked punished, and the injuries done to the people will cease. Surely these are objects more worthy and fit to occupy your attention than seeking the favour of these false and infamous traitors, in contempt of the grace of God.

“ Doubt not of our intention to revenge the insults that have been shown us ; for we promise, on the faith and loyalty we owe to God, to our aforesaid lord, and to the public welfare of his realm, that our sole bent and will is to prevent, to the utmost of our power, my aforesaid lord and his kingdom from being completely destroyed, which these disloyal traitors are compassing to accomplish,—and that satisfactory justice be done on them, according to the advice and opinions of those who shall assist us in these our intentions. For this end, we offer peace to all who shall be inclined to accept of it from us, excepting Louis, king of Sicily, for the better prosecution of our intentions to support the king and his realm, -being resolved to persist in these loyal measures until death, without offering any conciliatory terms to these profligate traitors and poisoners. This business has been too long delayed; for it may be clearly seen that the aforesaid traitors are determined on the total ruin of the royal house of France and the whole of the nobility, and that they are resolved to deliver up the kingdom to foreigners ; but we have firm reliance and hope in God, who knows the secrets of every heart! that we shall obtain a happy issue to our enterprise by means of the good and faithful subjects of the realm, whom in this case we will support to the utmost of our power, and maintain for ever in the fullest enjoyment of their liberties and franchises. We will also exert ourselves that in future no taxes, impositions and gabelles, may be ever again paid in France; and we will proceed against all who shall say or act to the contrary by fire and sword, whether they be universities, corporations, chapters, colleges, nobles, or any others, of whatever condition they may be.

“In testimony whereof, we have signed these presents with our own hand and our privy seal, in the absence of the great seal, in our castle of Hesdin, the 24th day of April, 1417, after Easter.”

These letters were sent to the towns of Montreuil, St. Riquier, Abbeville, Dourlens, Amiens, Corbie, St. Quentin, Roye, Mondidier, Beauvais, and to many other places; and by their means several principal towns and corporations were strongly excited against those who then governed the king.

CHAPTER CLXVI.-SIR LOUIS BOURDON, KNIGHT, IS ARRESTED AND EXECUTED.—THE QUEEN

OF FRANCE IS BANISHED TO BLOIS, AND THENCE TO TOURS.

ABOUT this time, while the queen of France resided with her court at the castle of Vincennes, she was visited by the king her lord. On his return to Paris in the evening, he met sir Louis Bourdon, knight, coming thence, and going to Vincennes, who, on passing very near the king, made a slight inclination of his head as he rode by, and gaily pursued his road. The king instantly ordered the provost of Paris to follow and arrest him, and to take especial care to give a good account of him. The provost performed his duty in obeying this command, and confined sir Louis in the Châtelet of Paris, where he was, by command of the king, very severely tortured, and then drowned in the Seine.*

Some few days after, by orders from the king, the dauphin, and those who governed in Paris, the queen, accompanied by her sister-in-law the duchess of Bavaria, was banished to Blois, and thence to reside at Tours in Touraine, with a very private establishment. She was placed under the guard of master William Torel, master John Picard, and master Laurence Ju Puys, without whose consent she could not do anything, not even write a letter, however pressing the occasion. She thus lived a considerable time very unpleasantly, expecting, however, daily to receive worse treatment. The dauphin, by the advice of his ministers, took possession of the immense sums of money the queen had placed in different hands in Paris. The three above-mentioned warders of the queen had been appointed by those who governed the king and the dauphin, to prevent her from intriguing or plotting anything to their prejudice.

* The count of Armagnac had persuaded the king to tainly laid her open to suspicion. From this moment she believe that Sir Louis de Bourdon had been guilty of did not hesitate to intrigue with the duke of Burgundy, certain gallantrics with the queen. It is uncertain whether even against the dauphin, being willing to sacrifice her there was any foundation for the report, but the former own son, to revenge herself upon her enemies. behaviour of Isabella towards the duke of Orleans cer.

CHAPTER CLXVII.-THE COMMONALTY OF ROUEN PUT TO DEATH THEIR BAILIFF, BIR

RAOUL DE GAUCOURT.-THEY SEIZE THE GOVERNMENT OF THE TOWN.—THE ARRIVAL
OF THE DAUPHIN AT ROUEN.

In these days, by the instigation of the partisans of the duke of Burgundy, some wicked persons of the lower ranks in the town of Rouen rose in rebellion. The leader was one Alain Blanchart, who was afterward governor of the town. They first went armed, and with staves, to the house of the king's bailiff, sir Raoul de Gaucourt *, knight, at whose door they knocked loudly, and said to those within (although it was about ten o'clock at night), “ We want to speak to my lord the bailiff, to deliver up to him a traitor whom we have just arrested in the town;" the servants bade them detain their prisoner in safe custody until the morrow: however, in consequence of their importunity and violence, the door was opened to them. The bailiff instantly arose from his bed, and, having wrapped himself up in a large cloak, came to speak to them ; but he had no sooner made his appearance, than some of the party, who had disguised their faces, cruelly murdered him. They then left the house, and went to that of his lieutenant, John Leger, whom they also put to death, and thence to different parts of the town, and killed ten other persons; but many of the municipal officers, such as the viscount and receiver-general, having had information of what was passing, fled to the castle, into which they were admitted by sir James de Bourbon the governor.

On the morrow morning, the commonalty again assembled in great numbers, and marched in arms to the castle, with the intent of forcing an entrance, but were prevented by the governor, who had under his command one hundred of the king's troops to defend it. At length, after many parleys, it was agreed that sixteen of the most notable citizens should be adınitted, to remonstrate with the governor on some matters that much concerned him. Upon their admittance, they offered many excuses for the murder of the bailiff and of the others, declaring that the whole commonalty of the town would be rejoiced if the perpetrators could be discovered and punished. They were greatly alarmed as to the conduct of the king and the dauphin when they should hear of these deaths, and requested the governor would permit them to have the guard of the castle, but it was refused. They then required that the gate which led to the country should be shut up, which was also refused. Upon this they declared, that should the king and the dauphin attempt to enter their town with an army, admittance should be denied, at the same time beseeching the governor to apologise for them to the king and the dauphin. The governor replied, that he would make excuses for them in proper time and place, provided they did not refuse to admit them into the town should they come thither.

After this conversation, the citizens returned home; and, a few days after, what they dreaded came to pass,—for the dauphin marched two thousand men out of Paris to Pont-del'Arche, whence he sent the archbishop of Rouen, brother to the count de Harcourt, to that town, to exhort the inhabitants to a due sense of obedience.

On the archbishop's arrival at Rouen, he found several of the canons of the cathedral church under arms, and intermixed with the citizens, to whom he displayed the proclamation of the dauphin. They, in answer said, that it had been unanimously decreed that he should not enter the town with his army; but that if he would come with few attendants, and engage to pay his expenses, they would agree to it, but not otherwise. The archbishop,

* Raoul V., lord de Gaucourt. His son, Raoul VI., was grand-master of France.

seeing he could not conclude anything satisfactory, returned to the dauphin, and related all he had seen and heard. Upon this the dauphin sent for sir James de Bourbon, and fixed his quarters at St. Catherine's on the hill. On the arrival on sir James he said, “ Cousin, return to your castle, and admit by the gate leading to the country two hundred men-atarins, and as many archers, whom we will send thither.” The townsmen were greatly

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CATAEDRAL OF Notre-Dame, Rouen.-Murder of the Bailiff.— From an original drawing.

enraged on hearing of this reinforcement being admitted into the castle; however, within three days, the dauphin, by negotiation, entered Rouen with his whole army; he rode straight to the cathedral to offer up his prayers, and thence to the castle, where he was lodged.

In the course of eight days, a treaty was made with the townsmen, which confirmed them in their obedience,- for all that had passed was pardoned, with the exception of the actual murderers of the bailiff. The dauphin, having paid his expenses, departed for Paris with his army, where he appointed the lord de Gamaches *, bailiff of Rouen, with orders to inflict exemplary punishment on such of the murderers as should be duly convicted. Some of them were punished; but Alain Blanchart absented himself for some time; and when he returned to the town he enjoyed great authority and power, as shall hereafter be related.

• Jobo de Roualt, lord of Gamache and Boismenard.

CXLVIII.—THE DEATH OF LOUIS KING OF SICILY.—THE CONDUCT OF THE LEADERS OF

COMPANIES. THE OVERTHROW OF RAYMONNET DE LA GUERRE.—THE DESTRUCTION

OF THE TOWN OF AUMALE. In these days. king Louis, father-in-law to the dauphin, died, leaving three sons and two daughters,Louis*, who succeeded to his crown, René, afterward duke of Bart, and Charles I. One of his daughters was married to the dauphin s, and the other, named Yolande ll, was but two years old. By his death the dauphin lost an able counsellor and friend; the more to be lamented, as the greatest confusion now reigned in many parts of France, and justice was trampled under foot.

The foreigners also that were attached to the party of the duke of Burgundy, such as Gastellimas Quigny, and others before-named, robbed and plundered all the countries they marched through, and every person, noble or not, even such as were of the same party as themselves. Infinite mischiefs were done by them to poor countrymen, who were grievously oppressed. These foreign companies bent their march toward the Boulonois, intending to treat it as they had done other districts; but some of the inhabitants assembled during the night, under the command of Butor, bastard of Croy, and made an attack on the quarters of the lieutenant of John de Clau, named Laurens Rose, whom they put to death, with several of his men: the rest were robbed of all they had. In revenge for this insult, the bastard de Thian, one of the captains of these companies, seized a very proper gentleman called Gadifer de Collehaut, whom he hanged on a tree. However, these strangers, seeing they were likely to be strongly opposed, speedily retreated from the Boulonois, and, shortly after took the town and castle of Davencourt belonging to the heirs of the lord de Hangest. When they had rifled it of its furniture, they set it on fire, so that it was totally destroyed, and thence marched to lay siege to Neuf-châtel sur Eusne.

Sir Raymonnet de la Guerre, and sir Thomas de Lersies bailiff of the Vermandois, collected a considerable force in the king's name to raise the siege, and to overpower these foreigners ; but as their intentions were known, the besiegers marched to meet them, and in the end completely put them to the rout, taking and killing full eight-score : the remainder, with Raymonnet and sir Thomas de Lersies, saved themselves by flight, and took refuge in such of the strong towns belonging to the king as they could first gain. After this defeat, those of Neuf-châtel surrendered the town, which the foreigners, having plundered it of its valuables, set on fire, and then departed for the Cambresis, where they did infinite mischiefs.

At this same period, but in another part of the kingdom, John de Fosseux, Daviod de Poix, Ferry de Mailly, sir Lonis de Thiembronne, Louis de Varigines, Guerrard bastard de Brimeu, and some other captains of companies attached to the duke of Burgundy, crossed the Somme near to Blanchetaque, with full twelve hundred combatants, and, passing through Oisemont, went to Aumale, belonging to the count de Harcourt. They quartered themselves in the town, and then made a sharp assault on the castle ; but it was so well defended by the garrison, that very many of the assailants were dreadfully wounded. When they were retreating, and during the night, they, through mischief or otherwise, set fire to the town, which, with the church, was completely burnt. It was a great pity, for it was a town that carried on a very considerable commerce. John de Fosseux and his accomplices then marched away to quarter themselves in the town of Hornoy, and in the adjacent villages in the county of Vimeu, which district they totally plundered; and after three days, they conducted their prisoners, with the cattle, sheep and pigs, across the Somme, at the place where they had before passed.

* Louis III., eldest son of Louis II., king of Sicily, | Yoland, married to Francis, duke of Bretagne, in &c., by Yoland, daughter of John I., king of Arragon 1431. and Yoland de Bar. Louis III. was born in 1403; Although the reader would, from the manner in adopted by Jane II., queen of Naples ; married Margaret which Monstrelet relates the actions of these captains, be of Savoy; and died in 1434, without issue.

led to believe that they were acting solely on their own + René, born in 1408, duke of Lorraine, in right of account, as was too often the custom of the “Free Comhis wife Isabel, daughter of Charles the Bold; and of panies, " yet there can be little doubt that they were acting Bar, in right of his grandmother, Yoland of Arragan. under the orders of the duke of Burgundy, since we find Charles, count of Maine, &c., born in 1414.

that John de Fosseux was very shortly after employed by § Mary, married to Charles, dauphin of France, in him as his ambassador to the French towns.—Ep. 1422.

In like manner similar excursions were made into the countries of the Beauvoisis, Vermandois, Santerre, Amiennois, and other districts under the king's government,-in all of which the inhabitants were grievously oppressed.

CHAPTER CLXIX. -THE KING'S GARRISON IN PEROXNE CARRIES ON A SEVERE WAR AGAINST

THE COUNTRIES ATTACHED TO THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY. During these times, the town of Peronne, situated on the river Somme, was strongly garrisoned by forces sent thither by the constable of France in the king's name, under the command of sir Robert de Loyre. They consisted of one hundred men-at-arms weli appointed, one hundred Genoese cross-bowmen, and the same number of other combatants ; and they made very frequent excursions, day and night, over the countries attached to the duke of Burgundy and his allies, bringing to their garrison considerable plunder of cattle and other effects. In like manner did the garrison of the castle du Main, belonging to sir Collart de Calville, make war in the king's name on all the allies and supporters of the duke of Burgundy.

The towns of Corbie and Amiens suffered much from these continued attacks; and the inhabitants of the latter town, by command of the duke of Burgundy, were forced to banish gir Robert d’Eusne the king's bailiff, Hugh de Puys the king's advocate, and some others, because they had acted with too much vigour, and contrary to his good pleasure, against several of his adherents. He had even declared, that he would make war on them if they pretended to support them against his will. They consequently left the town and went to Paris, where they made heavy complaints against the duke to the king and council, who were very far from being satisfied with the conduct of the duke, who was urging on matters from bad to worse.

CHAPTER CLXX. - THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY SENDS AMBASSADORS TO MANY OF THE KING'S

PRINCIPAL TOWNS TO FORM ALLIANCES WITH THEM.-THE OATHS THAT WERE MADE ON

THE OCCASION. The duke of Burgundy sent the lords de Fosseux, de Humbercourt, and master Philip de Morviller, as ambassadors, to several of the king's principal towns, with letters-patent from the duke, addressed to the magistrates and commonalty. They first went to Montreuil, which instantly assented to his proposals, then to St. Riquier, Abbeville, Amiens and Dourlens; and at each place they had their letters publicly read to the commonalty ; after which master Philip de Morviller notably harangued them on the good intentions of the duke to provide for the public welfare, and with such effect that all the above towns formed alliances with the ambassadors, which they solemnly swore to maintain, and mutually exchanged the acts drawn up for this purpose.

The tenour of that of the town of Dourlens was as follows.

“ To all those to whom these presents shall come; John de Fosseux lord de Fosseux and de Nivelle, David de Brimeu lord of Humbercourt, knights, and Philip de Morviller, counsellors and ambassadors from the very high and puissant prince, our much redoubted lord the duke of Burgundy, on the one part, and the governor, mayor, sheriffs, and resident burghers of the town of Dourlens on the other part, greeting. We make known, that we have entered into and formed a treaty of concord and amity, the terms of which are as follow.

“ First, the said governor, mayor, sheriffs, and resident burghers, will aid and support the said duke of Burgundy in his endeavours to restore the king our lord to the full enjoyment of his power and liberty, so that his realm may have uninterrupted justice, and commerce an unrestrained course.—İtem, they will assist the said duke to the utmost of their power, that the king and his realm may be wisely and well governed, and secured against all enemies. They will admit him and his army into their town, allowing him to have a superiority of force, and they will, for money, supply him and his men with whatever provisions rs

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