thither the lord de l'Isle-Adam ; and, by means of those in the tower, he gained admittance to the town and put the greater part of the Dauphinois to the sword, when, having placed therein a strong garrison, he returned to Paris. On the morrow, the duke of Burgundy, attended by a large body of men-at-arms, went from Paris to the bridge of Charenton to meet the duke of Brittany, who was coming to negotiate a peace between him and the dauphin ; but as nothing could be agreed on, the duke of Burgundy returned to Paris, and the duke of Brittany to his own country.

The reason why they met at Charenton was the epidemical disorder that then raged in Paris. By accounts from the rectors of the parishes, it was known that upward of fourscore thousand had died within that town. Many of the dependants of the duke of Burgundy were carried off by this pestilence, as were the prince of Orange*, the lord de Fosseux, sir Jenet de Poix, the lord d'Auxois, and numbers of other gentlemen. Shortly after, the cardinals d'Orsini and di San Marco returned to Saint Maur des Fossés, to treat of a peace between the dauphin and the duke of Burgundy ; and many notable ambassadors were sent to them from the king, queen, and duke, who at length concluded a treaty by means of these cardinals with the commissioners sent from the dauphin. It seemed good, and to the mutual advantage of both parties ; but when it was carried to the dauphin and his advisers, they were dissatisfied with it, so that the war continued with greater bitterness than before.



COMPANIONS. To add to the tribulations of these times, the Parisians again assembled in great numbers, as they had before done, and went to all the prisons in Paris, broke into them, and put to death full three hundred prisoners, many of whom had been confined there since the last butchery. In the number of those murdered were sir James de Mommort, and sir Louis de Corail, chamberlain to the king, with many nobles and churchmen. They then went to the lower court of the bastille of St. Anthony, and demanded that six prisoners, whom they named, should be given up to them, or they would attack the place. In fact, they began to pull down the wall of the gate, - when the duke of Burgundy, who lodged near the bastille, vexed to the heart at such proceedings, to avoid worse, ordered the prisoners to be delivered to them, if any of their leaders would promise that they should be conducted to the Châtelet prison, and suffered to be punished according to their deserts by the king's court of justice. Upon this, they all departed; and, by way of glossing over their promise, they led their prisoners near to the Châtelet, when they put them to death, and stripped them naked. They then divided into several large companies, and paraded the streets of Paris, entering the houses of many who had been Armagnacs, plundering and murdering all without mercy. In like manner as before, when they met any person they disliked, he was slain instantly ; and their principal leader was Cappeluche, the hangman of the city of Paris.

The duke of Burgundy, alarmed at these insurrections, sent for some of the chief citizens, with whom he remonstrated on the consequences these disturbances might have. The citizens excused themselves from being any way concerned, and said they were much grieved to witness them : they added, they were all of the lowest rank, and had thus risen to pillage the more wealthy; and they required the duke to provide a remedy, by employing these men in his wars. It was then proclaimed, in the names of the king and the duke of Burgundy, under pain of death, that no persons should tumultuously assemble, nor any more murders or pillage take place ; but that such as had of late risen in insurrection should prepare themselves to march to the sieges of Montlehery and Marcoussi, now held by the king's enemies. The commonalty made reply, that they would cheerfully do so, if they had proper captains appointed to lead them.

* John de Châlons, lord of Arlay, and prince of Orange in his office of grand-chambrier de France, by William, in right of his wife, Mary des Baux. He was succeeded lord of Chasteauvilain. in his estates by his son Louis, surnamed The Good, and † Q. Montmaur ?

Within a few days, to avoid similar tumults in Paris, six thousand of the populace were sent to Montlehery, under the command of the lord de Cohen *, sir Walter de Ruppes, and sir Walter Raillart, with a certain number of men-at-arms, and store of cannon and ammunition sufficient for a siege. These knights led them to Montlehery, where they made a sharp attack on the Dauphinois within the castle. The duke of Burgundy, after their departure, arrested several of their accomplices, and the principal movers of the late insurrection; some of whom he caused to be beheaded, others to be hanged or drowned in the Seine : even their leader, Cappeluche, the hangman, was beheaded in the market-place. When news of this was carried to the Parisians who had been sent to Montlehery, they marched back to Paris to raise another rebellion; but the gates were closed against them, so that they were forced to return to the siege. Within a short time, however, they were recalled thence,---for negotiators from the two parties were busily employed to establish peace.

The lord de Château-vilain *, at this period, came to wait on the duke of Burgundy in Paris : he was preceded by a fool, who, riding some paces before him as he entered the gate of St. Anthony, shouted aloud, “ Armagnac for ever!” and was instantly put to death by the guards at the gate, to the great anger of his lord, but he could not amend it. The Dauphinois, to the amount of three hundred combatants, under the command of the lord de Bocquiaux, won by storm at break of day the city of Soissons from the lord de Longueval, governor of it for the king and the duke of Burgundy. The lord de Longueval escaped with much difficulty on foot, in company with Robert de Saveuses and others, by leaping down from the walls. The city was in great part plundered of everything.



With the consent of the king and queen of France and the duke of Burgundy, the dauphiness was honourably sent to the dauphin in Anjou : she had remained in Paris at the time when it was taken ; and with her were sent all her jewels and wardrobe, that the dauphin might be the more inclined to peace and to return to the king. It was in vain; for those who governed him would not suffer it, as they knew that in that case they should be deprived of all their offices and employments. The young count d’Armagnac now joined the dauphin, magnificently accompanied by men-at-arms, and made bitter complaints concerning the murders of his father, the constable of France, and of the other great lords. The dauphin and his council replied, that speedy and substantial justice should be done, in proper time and place, on those who had committed these murders. The dauphin then marched a powerful army to lay siege to Tours in Touraine, of which place sir William de Romenil, knight, and Charles l’Abbe, were governors. They in a short time surrendered both town and castle to the dauphin ; and Charles l'Abbe even turned to his party, and took the oaths of allegiance to him. The men-at-arms that were under his command, being unwilling to follow his example, received passports to go whither they pleased. The dauphin kept his court at Tours for a considerable space of time.

The duke of Burgundy, on the other hand, who held the king and queen under his subjection, ordered the government of the kingdom according to his pleasure ; and notwithstanding he had formerly abolished all subsidies and taxes, he caused the king's ministers to issue a royal edict to raise certain sums for the relief of the city of Rouen, which was hard pressed by the English. In addition to this, the Parisians were required to furnish a loan for the same purpose ; and the municipality lent one hundred thousand francs, on condition that every tun of wine should pay twelve farthings when brought to Paris, until the above sum were repaid ; and the municipality were to receive this duty by their own officers. Large subsidies were likewise raised throughout those parts of the realm that were under

* John de Berghes, lord of Cohen, grand-huntsman of t William, lord of Chasteauvilain, grand-chambrier France.

de France.

the king's obedience,-namely, in the bishopric of Beauvais, in the bailiwicks of Amiens, of the Vermandois, and elsewhere. Master Robert le Jeune, advocate in the parliament, was nominated to collect these taxes ; and one of the judges, with some of the king's officers, were sent to enforce payment from such as refused.



MATTERS. At this period, a priest, of a tolerable age and of clear understanding, was deputed, by those besieged in Rouen, to the king of France and his council. On his arrival at Paris, he caused to be explained by an Augustin doctor, named Eustace de la Paville, in presence of the king and his ministers, the miserable situation of the besieged. He took for his text, “Domine quid faciemus ?” and harangued upon it very ably and eloquently. When he had finished, the priest addressed the king, saying, “ Most excellent prince and lord, I am enjoined by the inhabitants of Rouen to make loud complaints against you, and against you luke of Burgundy, who govern the king, for the oppressions they suffer from the English. They make known to you by me, that if, from want of being succoured by yon, they are forced to become subjects to the king of England, you will not have in all the world more bitter enemies ; and if they can, they will destroy you and your whole generation."

With these, or with similar words, did this priest address the king and his council. After he had been well received and entertained, and the duke of Burgundy had promised to provide succours for the town of Rouen as speedily as possible, he returned the best way he could to carry this news to the besieged. Shortly after, the king of France and the duke of Burgundy sent ambassadors to Pont de l'Arche, to treat of a peace with the king of England. This embassy consisted of the bishop of Beauvais, master Philip de Morvilliers, first president of the parliament, master Regnault de Folleville, knight, sir William de Champdivers, master Thierry le Roy, and others : they were likewise accompanied by the cardinal d'Orsini as a mediator. The king of England appointed the earl of Warwick, the lord chancellor, and the archbishop of Canterbury, to meet them at Pont de l'Arche, with others of his council. The negotiations lasted fifteen days,-during which the cardinal paid a visit to the king of England at his siege of Rouen, and was handsomely received by him and the other lords.

The ambassadors from the king of France had brought with them a portrait of the princess Catherine, daughter to the king, which was presented to the king of England, who liked it well; but he made too great demands for her marriage-portion, namely, that with the princess should be given him a million of crowns of gold, the duchy of Normandy, of which he had conquered a part, the duchy of Aquitaine, the county of Ponthieu, with other lordships, the whole to be held independent of the crown of France. Nothing therefore was concluded ; and the English ambassadors replied to those from France, that their king was not in a situation to form any treaty with,—for the dauphin was not made a party, and it was unbecoming the duke of Burgundy to dispose by treaty of the inheritances of France. On receiving this answer, the cardinal and ambassadors returned to the king and queen of France and the duke of Burgundy, who had lately quitted Paris, and were at Pontoise. They reported to the council all that had passed at Pont de l'Arche ; and soon after the cardinal went to Pope Martin at Avignon, for he saw clearly that no peace was likely to take effect between the three parties.

The inhabitants of Rouen knowing well that the negotiation between the kings of France and England was broken off, and fearing that succour would be too long delayed, resolved to make a sally, and fight their way through one of the quarters of king Henry's army, to seek for succour themselves. On mustering their forces, they found they were full ten -housand combatants, leaving a sufficiency for the defence of the town. Orders were given for each man to provide himself with two days' provision. When all were ready, and two thousand of them had made an attack on the king's quarters, where they had done much damage, they began their march out of the town; but it happened that the props which bore the drawbridge had been wickedly and secretly sawed nearly through, so that when their first ranks advanced thereon it broke, and very many fell into the ditch and were killed or wounded. They hastened to another gate to support their men that were engaged with the English, and ordered them to retreat; but they could not regain their town without great loss, although they had made their enemies suffer also. There were now many murmurings against the honour of sir Guy le Bouteiller, who was believed to have caused the supporters of the drawbridge to be sawed. Not long after this sally, Langnon bastard d'Arly died of sickness, to the great sorrow of the commonalty, who, as I have befure said, had greater confidence in him than in any of the other captains.

At this time sir John de Luxembourg took to wife Joan of Bethune, daughter and heiress to the viscount de Meaux, who had before espoused Robert de Bar, count de Marle and de Soissons. She had a young daughter, two years old or thereabout, the heiress of these counties. This marriage was concluded through favour of the duke of Burgundy and the count de Charolois ; and by it sir John de Luxembourg had the management of extensive territories. Within a year, the lady brought him a son, who died young. The duke of Burgundy gave up to him many lordships, such as Dunkirk, Varmeston and others, which he had holden as being confiscated, for the late sir Robert de Bar, during his lifetime, had been of the opposite party.


BESIEGED SEND ANOTHER EMBASSY.—THE EXCURSION OF SIR JAMES DE HARCOURT. We must now return to the situation of the king of France, and of the duke of Burgundy's government. It is true that large bodies of men-at-arms had been summoned in the king's name for the relief of the town of Rouen, from different parts of the kingdom, and ordered to rendezvous at and near Beauvais. A great many of the lords from Picardy, with a numerous body of their men accustomed to bear arms, came thither; and the country suffered much from them wherever they passed. The king, queen and duke of Burgundy, with their households, came from Pontoise to Beauvais, to bave provisions in greater plenty, and held there many private councils on the best means to relieve the town of Rouen. They could not devise any mode that would be successful, on account of the quarrel between the dauphin and the duke of Burgundy, and because the king of England had too powerful an army. Notwithstanding this, they daily summoned more men-at-arms and cross-bows from the towns under their obedience.

While the court resided at Beauvais, four gentlemen and four citizens of Rouen, were sent to lay before the king and council their miserable state : they told them, that thousands of persons were already dead of hunger within their town; and that, from the beginning of October, they had been forced to live on horses, dogs, cats, mice and rats, and other things unfit for human creatures. They had nevertheless driven full twelve thousand poor people, men, women and children, out of the place, the greater part of whom had perished wretchedly in the ditches of the town. That it had been frequently necessary to draw up in baskets new-born children from mothers who had been brought to bed in these ditches to have them baptised, and they were afterwards returned to their motlrers : many however had perished without christening, --all which things were grievous and pitiful to be related. They then added, “ To you our lord and king, and to you noble duke of Burgundy, the loyal inhabitants of Rouen have before made known their distress : they now again inform you how much they are suffering for you, to which you have not yet provided any remedy according to your promises. We are sent to you for the last time, to announce to you on the part of the besieged, that if within a few days they are not relieved, they shall surrender themselves and their town to the English king, and thenceforward renounce all allegiance, faith and service, which they have sworn to you.” The king, duke and council courteously replied, that the king's forces were not as yet adequate to raise the siege, which they were exceedingly sorry for; but with God's pleasure, they should very soon be relieved. The deputies asked by what time: the duke answered, before the fourth day after Christmas. They then returned

to their town with difficulty, from the great danger of being taken by the besiegers, and related all that had passed.

The besieged now suffered the greatest distress; and it is impossible to recount the iniseries of the common people from famine : it was afterwards known, that upwards of fifty thousand had perished of hunger. Some, when they saw meat carried through the street, in despair, ran to seize it, and so doing, allowed themselves to be severely beaten, and even wounded. During the space of three months no provisions were seen in the markets, but every thing was sold secretly : and what before the siege was worth a farthing was sold for twenty, thirty, or even forty ; but these prices were too high for the common people, and hence the great mortality I have mentioned. December was about half over when these last ambassadors returned to Rouen ; and during this tempestuous season, sir James de Harcourt and the lord de Moreul assembled about two thousand combatants, whom they led to within two leagues of the English quarters, with the hope of plunder. They posted their men in two ambuscades near to each other, to fall on the enemy should he pass that way,—and then ordered about six score of their men-at-arms to attack a village near the town, in which were a party of English. These were either taken or killed, except a few, who, by having good horses, escaped to their main army, crying out that they had seen the French in great force.

The English were instantly in motion, and under arms; and the king of England ordered sir John de Cornwall to mount his horse, and take six hundred men to see what truth was in this report. Sir John de Cornwall, without delay, marched off his men, taking with him some of those who had seen the French, and soon came up with the enemy; but the French, sceing the English were too numerous, hastily returned to their ambuscades, to whom they told that the enemy were coming. Sir John de Cornwall followed them in good array, and so closely that he could plainly distinguish their numbers,—when the French that were in one ambush advanced in order of battle to combat them, but the greater part of the others turned their backs and fled. The English, noticing this, made a vigorous charge, and put the whole to the rout, with a very trifling loss on their side,—and to the great confusion of the French, for on this day were twelve score men-at-arms killed or made prisoners : among the last was the lord de Moreul, Butor bastard de Croy, and many noble gentlemen of high rank. Sir James de Harcourt and others saved themselves by the fleetness of their horses. Sir John de Cornwall returned with his prisoners to the camp, very much rejoiced at his victory.



The king and queen of France, and the duke of Burgundy held very many councils, while at Beauvais, on the most effectual means to relieve Rouen ; but as it was found that at the moment the royal forces were insufficient to combat the army of England, and to raise the siege, the greater part of the men-at-arms that had been assembled were disbanded, excepting some from the principal towns, who were sent to garrison the frontiers, as well against the English as the Dauphinois. When this was done, the king, queen, and duke of Burgundy, escorted by his Burgundians and a considerable body of men-at-arms, departed from Beauvais, and passing through Creil and Laigny sur Marne, went to Provins. Many were astonished at this measure.

News of it was carried to Rouen, and the duke of Burgundy privately advised the besieged to treat with the king of England on the best terms they could. When this was made public, there was a universal grief throughout the town, for the inhabitants were sorrowful at heart: however, some of the captains and principal citizens comforted them as well as they were able, and afterwards assembled in the town hall to consider on their future conduct towards the king of England. They resolved, since they had now lost all hope of

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