deliberation, from among the wisest of your subjects, who defended your rights, and did equal justice to the lowest as well as to those of the highest rank; but now your rights are greatly infringed upon, and daily diminished, by which the people are very much oppressed.

“The third point respects your domains, which are exceedingly ill managed, insomuch that many houses, castles, and edifices, are falling to ruin. In like manner are your woods destroyed, your mills out of repair, your rivers and ponds robbed, and in general all the revenues of your domains are become, from their great diminution, of scarcely any value.

“The fourth point concerns churchmen, the nobility, and the people ; and first, it is a well-known fact, that the clergy are grievously vexed, and suffer great losses, as well from the judges of the realm as from men at arms, and several other descriptions of persons, who take by force their provisions, ransack their houses, nay, make them ransom themselves from further injuries, by which means they have scarcely a sufficiency left to perform the divine service. The nobility are frequently summoned, under pretext of aiding you in your wars, and never receive one penny for their attendance or service; and to purchase armour, horses, and other necessaries for war, they are often forced to sell their properties. In respect to your people, it is very certain that they must speedily be ruined, from the vexations they suffer under your bailiffs, provosts, and especially from the farmers of your domains, and under your soldiers. These grievances have been so long winked at that it may be feared that the indignation of God will be roused against you, unless you shall provide remedies for them. It is notorious that your enemies, during the reigns of Philip and John, both kings of France, your noble predecessors, did infinite mischief to your realm ; and that they long detained, against the will of king Richard, your ally and son-in-law, as well as against your own, his wife and your daughter. They drowned several nobles and others who had an affection for her, broke the truces, and have wasted and set fire to several places in your kingdom, in Picardy, Flanders, Normandy, Brittany, and Aquitaine, where they have done irreparable damages.

“We do not, noble sir, advise that you should neglect the war you have undertaken against your enemies,—for that would reflect disgrace on your honour and great council, and put an end to the dissensions that now remain among them, and the war they have on their hands against the Welsh and Scots. Should peace be made between them, greater evils might befal your kingdom than before. It seems to us, as a certain truth, that you will find it very difficult to raise the necessary supplies for this war from your domains, or other sources. Two heavy taxes have been lately imposed, under pretence of supporting the wars; notwithstanding which, not one penny of their receipt has been expended on them, which may cause many evils,—for there are great discontents among the clergy, the nobility, and the people; and should they rise together (which I hope will never happen), more real dangers may be the consequence than have ever yet befallen the realm. Every person in your kingdom who is loyally attached to you must feel much grief in seeing the money of your realm thus wasted.

“We have thought ourselves, noble lord, thus bounden by our obligations to you, to lay the complaints of the nation before you ; and, that we may avoid incurring your royal indignation, or that of our lady the queen, or of the princes of the blood, or others of your faithful subjects, we do not wish to make personal charges, nor to seek for any part in your government, but most humbly supplicate you to apply a remedy to the vexations we have stated, and request that you call into your presence those who may assure you of the truths we have told you, that you may seek wholesome counsel, and briefly put an end to such peculations. To aid so good a work, we offer you our persons, our fortunes, and our friends; and as in truth we cannot patiently see or suffer such things to be done against your honour, and that of your royal majesty, it is our intention never to cease supplicating your majesty until some efficient steps be taken to remedy them."

Such was the petition of John duke of Burgundy and his brothers.

Another day, when the king was in a tolerably good state of health, the three beforementioned petitioners, accompanied by their uncle the duke of Berry, and many princes and knights of France, withmaster Regnault de Corbie, first president of the parliament, and a number of officers of state, went to the hotel de St. Pol, where they found the king, who had quitted his apartment and was in the garden. After having reverently saluted him, the three brothers did their homages for the lordships they held under him, namely, duke John for his duchy of Burgundy, and his counties of Flanders and Artois,- Anthony duke of Limbourg, for his county of Rethel,--and Philip the younger, for his county of Nevers. There were also a very great number of noblemen, knights, and esquires, who did their homages to the king for the estates they held from him in different parts of the kingdom. When the three brothers had requested certificates from the king of the duties they had performed, they took leave of him and departed for their hotels.

These same days there arrived at Paris, and in the adjacent villages, full six thousand fighting men, in obedience to the summons of the duke of Burgundy and his brothers, under the command of Jean sans pitié *, bishop of Liege, and the count de Cleves. This force was collected to oppose the duke of Orleans, should he attempt any insult against them; for they were well informed of his not being well pleased that they had forced his nephew, the dauphin, to return to Paris, nor with the petition they had made to the king. What raised his indignation the more, and especially against the duke of Burgundy, was his knowledge that the charges in this petition attached more to him than to any other of the princes of the realm. The duke of Orleans, not knowing what turn these matters might take, nor what measures might be pursued against his person, ordered men at arms from all quarters to his assistance. In the number, sir John Harpedanne came with his men from the frontiers of the Boulonois. From other parts came the duke of Lorrain and the count d'Alençont with a large body of men, who were quartered at Melun, and in that neighbourhood, to the amount of fourteen hundred armed with helmets, besides a great multitude of other sorts.

The whole country round Paris, the Isle of France, and Brie, were sorely oppressed by the men at arms of both parties. The partisans of the duke of Orleans bore on their pennons the motto, “ Je l'envie ;” and the duke sent messengers to the queen and to king Louis I, who was preparing to set out for his kingdom of Naples with a powerful body of men at arms, to come to him at Melun. The king, leaving his own business, went thither, and bad a conference with the queen and the duke, after which he returned to Paris, with the intention of negotiating between the two parties.

He held many consultations with the dukes of Berry and Bourbon, and the king's council, to attempt a reconciliation between the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy. Whilst this was passing, the duke of Orleans wrote letters to many of the principal towns in the kingdom, complaining that many defamatory and injurious reports against his person and honour had been very industriously spread through Paris, which ought not to obtain any credit until he should make answer to them. In like manner, he wrote to the university of Paris, sending ambassadors to require that the matters in dispute between him and the duke of Burgundy should be argued before them, and that they should decide which of the two was to blame. The university, on the receipt of this letter, sent some of their principal members as ambassadors to the duke at Melun, who stated three points which they were ordered to lay before him. In the first place, they thanked him for the honour he had done them by sending them his ambassadors : secondly, they declared that they should be very happy to witness the commencement of a reformation in the kingdom; and thirdly, that they should greatly rejoice to see him and the duke of Burgundy reconciled.

The duke of Orleans, having listened to them, instantly made answer, that they had not acted wisely in supporting and advising the duke of Burgundy in his measures, which had been principally directed against himself, as they could not have been ignorant that he was son and brother to a king ; that the regency of the kingdom had been given to him as the most proper person, and was in fact his right, considering the state of the king's health, and the youth of his nephew the duke of Aquitaine. He added, secondly, that those members of the university who were strangers, and from different countries, ought not to interfere in • Brother of William count of Hainault.

Alençon, bere mentioned. Alençon reverted to the crown + Philip the Bold, king of France, gave the county of on the death of Charles III, the last duke, in 1525. Alençon to his son Charles count of Valois, father of Louis II. son of Louis duke of Anjou and king of Philip VI, and of Charles II. count of Alençon, who was Naples, brother to king Charles V. whose expedition is succeeded by his son Peter, the third count, who, dying in recorded by Froissart. 1404 left it to his son, John, last count and first duke of

the government or reformation of the kingdom, but should leave it to him and those of the blood royal, and the king's ministers. In reply to their third point, he said, that there was no need of pacification between him and the duke of Burgundy, because there was not any warfare, nor had any challenges passed between them.

When the ambassadors had heard these answers they withdrew, very much confused, and returned to Paris. On the ensuing Saturday, while the duke of Burgundy was in his hotel d'Artois, he was informed, and it was a fact, that the queen and the duke of Orleans, with all their force, had marched from Melun, and were on their road to Paris. The duke, on hearing this, mounted his horse, and rode to the hotel d’Angiers, where he found the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry and of Bourbon, with other lords of the king's council, who, when they knew of the arrival of the said duke of Orleans, were all greatly astonished; for this was in direct contradiction to their intent, and to the treaty which they were meditating between the parties.

The duke of Burgundy had a great number of men at arms, as well within Paris as without, who bore for motto on the pennons of their lances, in Flemish, Hie Houd! that is to say, “I have possession !” in opposition to the device of the Orleans party, Je l'envie* ! The greater part of the duke of Burgundy's forces drew up in battle array on the summit of Montfaucon, to wait the arrival of their adversaries. In the mean while the populace of Paris rose; and multitudes armed themselves to oppose the entrance of the duke of Orleans, suspecting his intentions were to give the town up to pillage and murder. They pulled down many sheds, that no obstructions might be found in the streets to the full use of the lance, and that shelter might not be afforded against the stones thrown down from the roofs of the houses. Many scholars armed themselves for the defence of the bridges; and true it was that the Parisians were far more favourable to the party of Burgundy than to that of Orleans, and were willing, should there be occasion, to assist that party to the utmost of their power.

The duke of Burgundy was fully prepared to resist and combat the duke of Orleans had he advanced as far as Paris. But the chancellor and presidents of the parliament, with other prudent men, observing the great ferment in Paris, made many visits to the hotel d'Angiers, with a view to reconcile these princes, and avert the great mischiefs that might otherwise ensue. They likewise sent messengers to the duke of Orleans, to inform him of the state of Paris, and how very unpopular he was there. The duke and the queen, on hearing this intelligence, after a short consultation with their most confidential advisers, separated : the queen went to the Bois de Vincennes, and the duke returned with his army to Corbeil. On the morrow he came to Beauté; and his army was quartered near the bridge of Charenton, and in the adjacent country. During this time, the before-named princes with many great lords and members of the council assembled, and met for several days, to consider of a reconciliation between the two parties. After some time they at length made known to each other their determination; which was, that within two days the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy should submit the whole of their disputes to the decision of the kings of Sicily and Navarre, and the dukes of Berry and Bourbon ; and for the accomplishment of the decision, they were each to bind themselves by their corporal oath, and afterward to dismiss their forces. The duke of Orleans came to lodge at his hotel at St. Anthony, near the Bastile.

A few days afterward, the prince before-named managed the affair so well that the two dukes made up their quarrel, and apparently showed in public that they were good friends; but He who knows the inward secrets of the heart saw what little dependence was to be placed on such outward appearances. The duke of Lorrain and the count d'Alençon, after this, returned home with their men, without entering Paris; and not long afterward, the duke of Burgundy departed, with his brothers and men at arms, for Artois, and thence to his county of Flanders, where he had a conference with his brother-in-law duke William, the bishop of Liege, the count Waleran de St. Pol, the count de Namurt, and several others, When this was ended, he returned to his town of Arras.

*The devices of the two parties are different in Pontus gundians set up in opposition, pennons of purple, inscribed Heuterus. (Rerum Burgundicarum, 1. 3.) According Accipio conditionem. to him, the Orleans-men bore on their lances, a white pen- + William II. count of Namur. Bon, with the inscription Jacio Aleam; and the Bur



sa. . 1406.] At the commencement of this year, the duke of Burgundy, by a grant from the king, the dukes of Orleans and Berry, and the whole council, obtained the government of Picardy. In consequence, sir William de Vienne, lord of St. George, was ordered by him to the frontiers of the Boulonois, with six hundred men armed with helmets, and a large body of Genoese cross-bows. They were encamped on these frontiers, whence they made a sharp war against the English : nevertheless, the country was not so well guarded against the inroads of the latter, but that it was in several parts laid waste by them. About this period, the ambassadors returned from England to the king and his council at Paris, namely, the earl of Pembroke and the bishop of St. David's, with some others *, who came to request that a truce might be established between the two crowns, so that commerce might have a free course in both countries. They also demanded, that the king of France should grant his eldest daughter, Isabella, formerly married to king Richard, in marriage to the eldest son of the king of England, who, in consideration of this match, would, instantly after its consummation, lay down his crown, and invest his son with the government of the kingdom.

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From a MS. of the Fifteenth Century These requests, having been made to the royal council, were referred a few days for consideration ; but at length, they having been fully discussed, and the frauds of the English duly considered; not one of them was granted. The duke of Orleans contended, that this eldest princess of France should be given in marriage to his eldest son Charles, which afterward took place. The English ambassadors returned home, much dissatisfied at their ill ·

* Monstrelet is mistaken as to the names of the English ter alone, of the same date. Another credential is given ambassadors. The first embassy took place the 22d March, to the same prelate, bearing similar date, to contract a mar1406, and the ambassadors were, the bishop of Winchester, riage with the eldest or any other daughter of the king of Thomas lord de Camoys, John Norbury, esquire, and mas- France, and Henry prince of Wales.-See the Federa, ter John Cateryk, treasurer of the cathedral of Lincoln. A anno 1406. second credential letter is given to the bishop of Winches

success, and the war was shortly after carried on with greater bitterness between the two nations,

Even sir Clugnet de Brabant *, knight of the household to the duke of Orleans, went to Harfleur with six hundred men at arms at the king's expense. He had lately obtained the office of great admiral of France, with the approbation of sir Regnault de Trie, who had resigned it, in consideration of a very large sum of money which he had received, through the intrigues of the duke of Orleans. But as he was on the point of entering Harfleur, where there were twelve galleys ready for sea, on board of which he meant to embark to make war on the English, and take possession of his new office, he was ordered, in the king's name, not to proceed further, but to return to Paris. Shortly after, by means of the duke of Orleans, he married the dowager countess of Bloist, widow of count Guy de Blois, sister to the count de Namur, who was much irritated thereat ; and because an illegitimate brother of his had consented to the conclusion of this marriage, he had him seized by his men, on the first favourable opportunity, and beheaded, thus making his blood pay for the acts of his will.

The duke of Berry was at this time governor of Paris, and prevailed on the king and council to permit the Parisians to wear arms, to defend themselves, should there be occasion ; and the greater part of the armour that had been kept at the palace and Louvre, since the time of the Mallet insurrection I, were given back to them.



ORLEANS AND BURGUNDY. This year, the quarrels were renewed between the dukes of Bar and Lorrain, because the duke of Lorrain had straitly besieged, with a considerable force, a castle belonging to the duke of Bar, which was partly in France, and had on this account been surrendered by the marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, to the king of France. However, in spite of this, the duke of Lorrain took it; and as this conduct was highly displeasing to the king, a large army was assembled in that part of France. Sir Clugnet de Brabant, admiral of France, was ordered to march this army into Lorrain against the duke; but negotiations were entered into, so that the army was dismissed, and all those preparations ended in nothing.

About this time, the queen of France came to the town of Compiègne, accompanied by some of her children, namely, John duke of Touraine, and Isabella, who had been queen of England. The dukes of Orleans and Burgundy came thither also, as did the duchess of Holland, wife to duke William count of Hainault, with her daughter Jacqueline de Baviere, count Charles d’Angoulême, eldest son to the duke of Orleans, and many other great lords, by whom the above were attended in great state. The legate of the holy see at Roine, with many bishops, doctors and churchmen, were likewise there,— when marriages were concluded between the duke of Touraine, second son to the king of France, and Jacqueline de Baviere, and between Charles d'Orleans and Isabella, late queen of England. Isabella was cousingerman to Charles, who had been her godfathers at her baptism ; but notwithstanding this difficulty, the marriage was accomplished by means of an apostolical dispensation; and very great feasts took place at Compiègne in consequence, consisting of dinners, dancings, justs and other jollities.

A few days after, when cverything had been concluded, the duchess of Holland and her brother-in-law John of Bavaria, with the consent of the queen, the dukes before named, and

* This is a mistake. His true name was Peter de Bre- her it came to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, as a reban, surnamed le Clugnet, lord of Landreville.

version to the earldom of Flanders.

I See Froissart, vol. i. p. 697, Smith's ed. 1839. + Mary, daughter of William I., count of Namur, mar- Š The relation between godfather and godchild is conried first to Guy do Chatillon, count of Blois, and secondly sidered in the Roman catholic church as a completo bar to to this admiral de Breban. On the deaths of both her matrimony, and this is a very singular instance in which brothers (William II. in 1418, and John III, in 1428) even a Pope has ventured to license a marriage under such she becamo countess of Namur in her own right. and after circumstances.-ED.

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