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their heads nine times to the very ground, kissing it each time. When they arrived in front of the sultan, who was seated in great pomp in a high gallery, he kept them a full hour in his presence, and then had them conducted to a tower for their prison so long as he should stay in Cairo, where the sultan was served royally and abundantly with all sorts of provision, excepting wine; but this was secretly supplied to him by Christian merchants. The other Cypriot prisoners were confined in divers places.

While the king of Cyprus thus remained prisoner to the sultan of Babylon in Cairo, the archbishop of Nicosia, brother to the king, sent for sir Peter de Lusignan, constable of Jerusalem, and resigned to him the government of the island of Cyprus. He was no sooner in the possession thereof, than he executed rigorous justice by punishing all who, in these times of tribulation, had attempted to revolt. Shortly after, the archbishop returned to Nicosia, which by degrees was repeopled.

In the course of time, a Genoese merchant, named Benedict Percussin, moved by compassion, required of the regency at Cyprus that he might be sent to Cairo, for that he had great hopes of obtaining the king's liberty. He was accordingly sent thither, and was so successful with the sultan that he ransomed the king of Cyprus for two hundred thousand ducats, and on condition that he would also pay an annual tribute to the sultans of Babylon of five thousand ducats. Thus was peace made between the sultan and the king of Cyprus ; and on the feast of the Assumption of our Lady, the latter was delivered from chains. After this, the sultan frequently sought opportunities of conversing with him, and put different questions by way of tempting him to abandon the Christian faith ; but the king made such sagacious and prudent answers, that the sultan, not knowing how to reply, ordered him refreshments of all sorts, and then dismissed him ; for, on the ransom being agreed on, the sultan had him taken from his prison, and lodged in the town.

The king was often permitted to make excursions into the country for his amusement, well mounted, but always attended by some of the Saracens. When part of his ransom was paid, and security accepted for the remainder, on Palm Sunday he had his full liberty, and embarked on board a galley in the port of Alexandria. In company with the admiral of Rhodes, he disembarked at Cerines, where he was met by his sister, his children, and all the nobles and gentlemen of the island, who most reverently and humbly gave thanks to our Lord Jesus Christ for his safe return.

Some days afterward he left Cerines, and went to Nicosia, where he was joyfully received by his subjects, and was lodged at the mansion of the constable of Jerusalem, wherein he ever after remained, because his own palace had been burnt and destroyed by the Saracens. After the death of his queen, Charlotte, he never remarried ; nor, as his attendants firmly believed, had he connexion with any other woman : he lived after this for a considerable length of time.

CHAPTER XL.-THE CASTLE OF MOYENNES, IN CHAMPAGNE, SURPRISED BY THE FRENCH.

-THE POPE GIVES SENTENCE IN FAVOUR OF THE DUKE OF BRABANT.—THE FORTRESS OF ORIPECTE, IN PROVENCE, WON BY TREACHERY. In these days, the castle of Moyennes, in Champagne, was surprised by a party from king Charles, through the treachery of an Englishman of the garrison. It was, however, instantly besieged by the earl of Salisbury, who remained so long before it that it was forced to surrender. The French within it were allowed to depart in safety ; but those who had been attached to the English and Burgundian party were punished with death ; and among them was a gentleman called Gilles de Clary. Sir John de Luxembourg was present at the surrender; and when the walls had been completely demolished, he returned to his castle of Beaurevoir.

The pope this year published his definitive sentence in the suit of the duke of Brabant, by which he declared that the marriage between the duke of Gloucester and Jacqueline duchess of Bavaria was null and void; and that if the duke of Brabant should dic, the said duke of Gloucester and the duchess Jacqueline could not be legally married to each other.

The duke of Gloucester, on being informed of this sentence of the pope, took to wife a woman of low degree compared with his rank, named Eleanor Cobham *, of whom mention has been before made. The duke had for some time lived with her as his mistress ; and her character was not spotless in regard to her connexions with others beside the duke. This created much wonder in France and in England, considering that the duke did not act conformably to the blood he sprung from.

At this period sir John Blondel, accompanied by John Blondel, his cousin-german, and eight others his companions in arms, by means of the chaplain, gained the fortress of Oripecte in Provence, of which John Cadart was governor, and made him prisoner, expecting to receive a large sum for his ransom. News of this was soon spread over the country, and the place was so expeditiously and strongly besieged, that those who had won it were glad to be allowed to depart in safety, and without carrying away anything. Notwithstanding this treaty, on their marching out, John Blondel was slain by the peasants, and the chaplaic who had done the treason was beheaded.

CHAPTER XLI.-THE DUKE OF BEDFORD LAYS SIEGE TO MONTARGIS.—THE SIEGE IS RAISED BY

THE FRENCH.—OTHER EVENTS BRIEFLY TOUCHED ON. This year, the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of France for king Henry, had the town and castle of Montargis besieged by the earls of Warwick and Suffolk. With them were the lord de la Pole, brother to the earl of Suffolk, sir Henry Bisset, and other captains, having under them three thousand combatants.

The town was so situated that it required three different sieges, which could with difficulty afford assistance to each other : however, the English formed lodgments all around it and fortified them. The earl of Warwick was quartered in a nunnery on one side of the town. They soon threw bridges over different parts of the river to serve for communications between their quarters. Having done this, they made vigorous approaches toward the town, which they damaged very much by their cannon and engines of war. The besieged made so good a defence, that the business was continued for more than two months, during which time they sent notice to king Charles that, unless speedy succours were afforded them, they must surrender to his enemies. The king, hearing this, assembled his council, when it was resolved to raise the siege, or at least to throw reinforcements of men and provision into the place. This was attempted, but without effect. An assembly of men-at-arms was then ordered by king Charles at Orleans, and the command of them given by the king to the count de Dunois, bastard of Orleans. He had with him sir William d'Albretht lord d'Orval, the lords de Graville, de Villag, de Gaucourt, Estienne Vignolles, surnamed La Hire, sir Gilles de St. Simon, Gaultier Boussart, and many other captains, amounting to sixteen hundred combatants, all men of tried courage. They commenced their march with a large train of forage-carts, intending only to revictual the town, and not to raise the siege.

When they were arrived within half a league of the enemy's camp, they held a council as secretly as they could, and determined to attack the nearest quarters of the English. They had some of the garrison of Montargis with them as guides,—and in the number was one called le Petit Breton. La Hire was appointed leader of one of the parties, and fell on the English quarters with great courage, shouting, “ Montjoye St. Denis !" The English were quite unprepared, -and their camp was soon on' fire in various parts,—and much slaughter was committed near to where the lord de la Pole was lodged : indeed the whole of that part was defeated, and the lord de la Pole escaped with eight others in a small boat. The garrison of the town had dammed up the river so high that the bridges the English had made were overflowed, and most of them who attempted to escape over them fell into the water and were drowned.

The bastard of Orleans, while this was going forward, made a vigorous attack on the quarters of sir Henry Bisset : he had dismounted, and began to be hard pressed, when those who had destroyed the lord de la Pole's quarters opportunely came to his support, for the

• She was third daughter to Reginald lord Cobham, † William, second son of the constable d'Albreth, lond who died 24 Hen. VI.

of Orval.

lord de Graville had been wounded. The English, finding that fortune was against them, began to retreat toward the quarters of the earl of Warwick ; but crossing a bridge in haste, and too many at once, it broke down with their weight, and great numbers lost their lives. Add to this, that the garrison made a well-timed sally to assist their friends, and killed great numbers and made many prisoners.

In the mean time, the earl of Warwick assembled his men around him as speedily as he could ; but when he perceived the greatness of his loss, for from one thousand to fifteen hundred had been slain, drowned, or taken, he formed his men in order of battle, and thus retreated to a small eminence, covered with vineyards, above his quarters. The French, who had fought hard and were fatigued, entered Montargis. When night came on, the English collected their men together, the greater part of whom were now on foot, and retreated to castle Landonin Nemours, and to other places under their dominion. The French remained in Montargis, making good and hearty cheer, being rejoiced that with the aid of God they had accomplished the purpose they had been sent on. They afterward returned to king Charles of France, who received them most graciously.

In this year, duke John of Brabant, after a very severe illness, departed this life in his castle of Lencure*, repeating most devoutly, “ Miserere mei, Deus, &c. He was buried in the chapel of this castle, near to the body of his father. On his decease, his brother Philip count de Liguy and de St. Pol took possession of all his territories. Thus was the duchess Jacqueline deprived of her two husbands,—for, as I have before said, the duke of Gloucester had married another woman, and the duke of Brabant was dead. During the life of the duke of Brabant, a person named John Chevalier had engaged, at the request as it was said of the countess-dowager of Hainault, to put an iron collar round the duke's neck, for which this chevalier was arrested at Brussels and beheaded.

At the same time, the fortress of Escandeur, near to Cambray, was put into the hands of sir John de Luxembourg, with the consent of the duke of Burgundy, and was the cause why sir Louis, bastard brother to the duchess Jacqueline, to whom it had belonged, carried war and tribulation through that country in fighting the battles of his sister, but he lost his inheritance for so doing.

In these days a terrible combat took place near to Mont St. Michel, between the English who had possession of Mont de Hellemt on the one side, and the French and Bretons on the other ; but in the end the French were victorious, having killed or put to flight the English and consequently gained the castle.

CHAPTER XLII.-THE CASTLE OF MALMAISON, BELONGING TO THE BISITOP OF CAMBRAY, IS

TAKEN BY SIR JOHN BLONDEL.-OTHER EVENTS.

[A. . 1427.! In the beginning of this year, the fortress of Malmaison, situated two leagues from the castle of Cambresis, belonging to Jean de Lens, lord of Liéequerque and bishop of Cambray, in right of his bishopric, was surprised by sir John Blondel of king Charles's party, accompanied by a few men. The governor for the bishop was a fair esquire, called Walter de Baillon, whom they caught in bed. Sir John Blondel, having traversed the ditches, though full of water, scaled the walls by means of ladders, and entering the lower court, seized the guard, and his troops posted themselves in ambuscade near the bridge of the dungeon. In the morning, when the porter lowered the drawbridge, they rushed upon him with drawn swords, and put him to death ; after which, they entered without further opposition, although it was the strongest of all the forts in that country,

The adjacent parts were greatly alarmed at this conquest, even those within the castle of Cambresis ; and the bishop of Cambray, being then there, was much surprised how and by whom it could have been taken, for at that time the whole country was at peace. The bishop, however, sent some of his people and the inhabitants of Cambresis to Malmaison, to learn who had done this, and by what means. On their arrival, they had a parley with those who had taken it; but they, through mischief, replied by shouting the war-cries of Burgundy and Luxembourg, and those who had come thither returned to Château Cambresis. Sir John Blondel, having soon provided himself with provision, stores, and men in abundance, began to make inroads on the country of Cambresis, and the parts adjoining, committing irreparable injuries, and in some of these he was joined by parties attached to the duke of Burgundy and sir John de Luxembourg. In the mean time, the bishop sent to the duke of Burgundy, to know if it had been with his consent that his castle had been taken. The duke replied, that so far from having consented, he would send him such assistance that his castle should be restored to him.

* Leneure. The annotations at the beginning of the tion, substitutes Genappe for Leneure, but without any volume, French edition, supposc it to be Geneppe or comment.-En.] Gueneppe, a summer residence of the dukes of Brabant, + Mont de Hellem must be Tombelaine (probably a whither Louis XI. when dauphia, fled to, and resided at corruption of Tombe d' Heléne), a small rock near to during his stay in Brabant. [Buchon, in his recent edi- Mont St. Michel.

Some time after the decease of duke John of Brabant, a grand assembly of the nobility was held at Valenciennes, at which were present the duke of Burgundy, the counts de Namur, de Penthievre, and de Conversan, the prince of Orange, sir John de Luxembourg, the bishops of Tournay and of Arras, with many other churchmen, to consider who was to have the government of Hainault. After long and mature deliberation, it was resolved it should remain in the hands of the duke of Burgundy, who in consequence nominated various officers for the due government thereof.

In this year, the earl of Warwick and other Englishımen besieged the town of Pontorson, and forced the garrison to surrender on capitulation, provided they were not relieved by a certain day, and that the French and Bretons should not be sufficiently strong to conquer the English. As they were not relieved, the place was surrendered according to the terms of the capitulation.

CHAPTER XLIII.—SIR JOHN BLONDEL SURRENDERS THE CASTLE OF MALMAISON, WHICH HE

HAD TAKEN FROM THE BISHOP OF CAMBRAY. When the meeting broke up at Valenciennes, the duke of Burgundy went to Mons in Hainault, attended by a great part of his council, and while there constituted (as I have said) different officers, natives of Hainault, for the well governing that country. During his stay at Mons, sir John Blondel came thither on a passport from the duke, and was by him more than once summoned and required to restore the castle of Malmaison to the bishop of Cambray. Sir John would not consent to this, but gave evasive answers. The duke then resolved to afford the bishop such aid as should recover for him the castle ; and the bishop sont summonses to all his friends to come to his assistance.

The duke of Burgundy made sir William de Lalain, bailiff of Hainault, the bégue de Launoy, knight, governor of Lille, with some other nobles, commanders of the aid which he sent to the bishop; but Sir John Blondel, hearing of these preparations, and knowing that the duke was displeased at his conduct, condescended to treat, and offered to surrender the castle on condition that his peace was made with the dukes of Bedford and Burgundy, that all his lands and castles, which had been confiscated to king Henry of Lancaster, were restored to hiin, that he and his men were to carry away all their effects, and that he was to be paid four thousand crowns for his expenses. High as these terms were, they were in the end agreed to, and securities given for their due performance. Thus was Malmaison delivered into the hands of Balthazar, bastard of Quesnoy, who had been appointed by the duke of Burgundy to take possession and the charge of it for a certain time. To pay the ransom-money, and other expenses, a heavy tax was laid on all ranks throughout the country of Cambresis, as well on churchmen as others, the payment of which was most rigorously exacted.

When these matters had been settled, the castle of Malmaison was razed to the ground, with the consent of the bishop and others of that country. It was a great pity, for it was a nonpareil, and the best built and strongest place in all those parts. Sir John Blondel, by means of his misconduct, succeeded in his intentions, for all his castles, lands, and manors, were restored to him.

CHAPTER XLIV.-THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY RETURNS TO HOLLAND, AND ATTACKS THE TOWN

OF HERMONTFORT*. -OTHER EVENTS. The duke of Burgundy, having finished his business in Hainault, returned to Holland with a great force of men-at-arms to punish those who, after having sworn allegiance to him, had revolted. On his march, he attacked a town fortified with thick hedges and deep ditches, called Hermontfort, which attack lasted a long time, and was very severe. The duke crossed the ditches, and valiantly fought in person with his enemies, who defended themselves with the utmost courage, regardless of their lives. In this attack the lord de Voydanquin, a valiant and powerful knight, who had with him some very expert warriors, was slain. The good lord de Saveuses was also wounded, and so badly, that he was obliged to be carried from the field, with many more in the same condition. The duke, seeing the loss he was suffering, took council, and ordered the retreat to be sounded, which was done, and they lodged themselves near to the town, where they were badly off that night for all sorts of necessaries. On the morrow, the duke marched away in another direction.

The town of Utrecht had now joined the party of the duchess Jacqueline, and the dukes of Gueldres and of Cleves that of Burgundy, by which means war and misery were daily increased throughout that country. At this time, about five hundred combatants, as well men-at-arms as archers, were assembled on the confines of Picardy, and, by orders from the duke of Burgundy (at the request of a knight called sir Phillebert Andrinet), were conducted by sir Charles de Moyencourt, Matthieu d'Hermierest, John de Longueval, and other gentlemen, to the aid of Amé duke of Savoy, uncle to the duke of Burgundy, then at war with the duke of Milan. This body of men-at-arms, after many days' marches, arrived in Savoy, and were joyfully received by the duke. They were thence ordered to the borders of Lombardy, where they committed numberless mischiefs, insomuch that, through fear of them, and from compassion to the poor natives, these two princes concluded a peace. When this was done, duke Amé of Savoy gave orders for the Picards to return home, thanking them greatly for their effective services, and presenting to some of the principal captains pieces of damask and other precious ornaments. The Picards were now marched home again. The origin of this war was owing to the duke of Milan having forcibly taken Novara and the city of Vercelli from the duke of Savoy, which were restored to him.

After the duke of Burgundy had visited many parts of Holland, and placed garrisons on the frontiers of Gouda, where the duchess Jacqueline resided, leaving some of his most expert captains for the defence of the country, such as the lord de l'Isle-Adam, sir Lyonnel de Bournouville, and others, he returned to Flanders.

In this year there were great earthquakes in Spain, Catalonia, and Languedoc, which overthrew many towns and handsome edifices; and the people remained for a long time in the utmost trouble and dismay.

CHAPTER XLV.—THE SULTAN OF BABYLON WRITES LETTERS TO THE PRINCES IN CHRISTENDOM.

—THE TENOR OF THESE LETTERS. In these days, the sultan of Babylon sent letters to all the kings and princes in Christendom, of the following tenor :

“ Baldadoch, son of Aire, constable of Jericho, provost of the terrestrial paradise, nephew of the gods, king of kings, prince of princes, sultan of Babylon, of Persia, of Jerusalem, of Chaldea, of Barbary, prince of Africa, and admiral of Arcadia, lord de Siche, des Ainces, des Payens, and des Maritans,—master Archipotel, protector of Amazone, guardian of the islands, dean of the abbeys, commander of the temples, crusher of helmets, splitter of shields, piercer of hauberks, breaker of armour, lancer of spears, overturner of war-horses, destroyer of castles, flower of chivalry, a wild boar for courage, an eagle for liberality, the fear of his enemies, the hope of his friends, the raiser up of the discomfited, standard of Mohammed, lord of all the world. * Hermontfort. Q. if not Herenthuls ?

+ Q. Humiercs.

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