“ To the kings of Germany, of France, and of England, and to all other kings, dukes and counts, and generally to all on whom our courtesy may condescend, greeting, and love in our grace. Whereas it is very commendable for all who please to relinquish error, through wisdom,—we send to you that you may not delay coming to us to receive your fiefs and inheritances from our hands, by denying your God and the Christian faith, and laying aside your errors, in which you and your predecessors have been too long involved. Should you not instantly obey these our commands, our indignation will be raised, and our powerful sword turned against you, with which we will have your heads as a recompense, without sparing yourselves or your countries. These letters were given on the vigil des Ambassadiens, the 10th year from our coronation, and the 2d from our noble victory and destruction of the unfortunate country of Cyprus.”


OTHER MATTERS. This year, the earl of Suffolk and sir Thomas Rampstone, on account of the duke of Brittany having joined king Charles, made an inroad on his duchy with about twelve hundred combatants, and advanced even to Rennes, where the duke resided. They committed great waste, and made a very considerable booty in prisoners and effects, with which they returned to a large village in that country, called Tintenarch *. On the morrow, they marched back to lower Normandy with all they had gained, without any opposition. Soon afterward, sir Thomas fixed his quarters in a small town, called St. James de Beuvron, which had been destroyed; but he had it repaired and re-fortified to serve him as a post to carry on the war against the Bretons, for it was but half a league from their country. Sir Thomas was deputy to the earl of Suffolk, the governor of lower Normandy, and thence he led the English on different excursions through Brittany, carrying on a severe warfare.

The duke, to oppose them, assembled a large force of his nobles, whom he gave in charge to his brother the count de Richemont, lately made constable of France. The count led them straight to St. James de Beuvron, which he instantly besieged, and commenced his operations with a grand skirmish. Having surrounded it on all sides, he established his quarters, and had his engines pointed against the walls, which greatly damaged them. He attacked the place by storm, which lasted for a considerable time very sharply.

A party of Bretons from the lower parts of the duchy had been posted below the town, near to a pond; and to get near the walls, it was necessary to cross the head of this pond, which was very narrow. There was beside it a small bulwark under the command of an English knight, sir Nicholas Bourdett, having with him from sixty to eighty combatants, and near to it was one of the town-gates well guarded by the English. When these Bretons were descending the ditch in great numbers to attack the walls, they heard on each side of them the English shouting, “ Salisbury! Suffolk !” which threw the Bretons into great confusion. Sir Nicholas, seizing the opportunity of their dismay, vigorously fell on them, and, meeting scarcely any defence, put to death or drowned in the pond from seven to eight hundred, and made about fifty prisoners. The English won eighteen standards, and one banner. News of this defeat was speedily carried to the count, who was storming the town on the opposite side. He was much hurt at the intelligence, and ordered the retreat to be sounded, for the siege had been raised on the other side of the place.

When the count had collected his men together, he held a council on what should now be done, and it was resolved, that considering the great loss they had sustained, it would be prudent to march away, which was carried into effect; but he waited until midnight, when he returned to the town of Fougeres in a disorderly manner, leaving behind great quantities of provision, stores, bombards, and other artillery. Sir Thomas, with his six hundred men, for he had no more, and the greater part of them were wounded, remained in the town very much rejoiced at his good fortune ; and he caused all the things the enemy had left behind them to be brought thither.

* Tintenarch-probably Tinteniac, a village near St. Malo. + Q. Bardett

Two days after this affair, the carl of Suffolk joined sir Thomas with fifteen hundred combatants, whom the latter conducted with some of his own men to a strong monastery that soon surrendered. The earl thence advanced farther into the country, toward the city of Dol, with the intent to reside there. In the mean time, the duke of Brittany sent a poursuivant with letters to the earl, to request that he would consent to a suspension of arms, according to the enclosed terms, which being agreed to, he remanded sir Thomas and his men, who returned to St. James de Beuvron with a very rich booty. A negotiation now took place, when a truce was signed to last for three months; and the earl of Suffolk had four thousand five hundred francs for consenting to it. The truce was well kept until the end of June, which terminated it, as the two parties could not agree on a final peace, so that the war recommenced, and the English daily committed great waste on the country by fire and sword.

To obviate these evils, the duke, and his brother the constable, had the town of Pontorson, which divides Norniandy from Brittany, and is two leagues from Mont St. Michel, well repaired and fortified, to serve as a barrier town against the English.

A few days after this, the earl of Suffolk was dismissed from his government, and the earl of Warwick appointed in his stead, who assembled a considerable body of men and laid siege to Pontorson. During this siege, the English were in constant danger of having their convoys of provision cut off by the garrisons of Mont St. Michel and other places. To prevent which, lord Scales* was detached with five hundred combatants to lower Normandy to escort the convoys. On his return, the Bretons, who had been made acquainted therewith, placed themselves, to the amount of fifteen hundred men, in ambuscade, near to Mont St. Michel, and, watching their opportunity, sallied out on the English, as they were marching by. They found them, however, in handsome array ; and they made so valorous a resistance that the Bretons were completely routed. Eight hundred were slain ; and in the number were the lord Château-Geron, the lord de Couesquen, the lord de Chambourg, the baron de Chamboches, the lord de la Hunaudes, sir Pierre le Porc, the commander of the Scotsmen, and many others of the nobility. The lord de Rohant and several great lords were made prisoners.

This event was known in Pontorson by the English having caused the dead bodies of the baron de Soulenges and sir Pierre le Porc, and of others, to be brought to the walls, and delivered to the garrison for burial, and hastened their determination of surrendering to the earl of Warwick, on having their lives spared, as they had no longer hopes of succour. They were marched out of the town with white staves in their hands, leaving all their baggage and effects behind them. Lord Scales was made governor of the town.

Toward the end of this year, sir John de Luxembourg assembled in Picardy, and the parts adjacent, about a thousand combatants, men-at-arms and archers, with the intent to besiege and reduce to his obedience the town of Beaumont in Argonne, held by William de Flavy, of the party of king Charles,—which Flavy, and those under his command, did many injuries and oppressive acts to all the surrounding country.

In these days, duke Philip of Burgundy again collected a large body of troops from Flanders and Artois, to march into Holland and besiege the duchess Jacqueline in the town of Gouda. On this occasion he wrote to inform his nobles that he was resolved this campaign to finish the war with Holland, and not return until it was ended. They had indeed often been assembled for this purpose, and were almost tired with the war. The duke led this armament to Sluys, and there embarked for Holland. During these tribulations the English continued a severe warfare on the borders and in Brittany. A very sharp combat took place between them and the Bretons, under the command of the constable de Richemont, in which nunibers were slain on both sides ; but, in the end, the earl of Warwick and his English gained the day.

• Thomas lord Scales, seneschal of Normandy in 26 † Alain VIII, viscount Rohan, died in 1429, leaving Hen. VI. d. 38 Hen. VI. His daughter and beir married one son, Alain IX, who was lieutenant-general of Brittany Anthony Widvile, carl of Rivers.

during the duke's imprisonment by the Penthicves,


[A. D. 1428.] Sir JOHN DE LUXEMBOURG in the beginning of this year had besieged Beaumont in Argonne. He was attended by many of the nobles from Picardy, and frequent skirmishes took place between the besieged and besiegers. In one of them, a vigorous and subtle man-at-arms, named Enguerrand de Brigonval, was made prisoner, which much troubled sir John de Luxembourg, who feared he was wounded or killed,- for William de Flavy had wickedly caused a coffin to be buried with great ceremony, meaning to have it understood that Enguerrand was dead. He had also a solemn funeral service performed, intending at the same time to send Enguerrand secretly out of the town to some safer place, knowing him to be a rich man, and able to pay a heavy ransom. Notwithstanding the obstinate defence of the besieged, they were soon so closely blockaded that no one could go out of the town without danger of his life. William de Flavy, therefore, losing all hope of succour, and foreseeing that he must in the end yield, entered into a treaty with sir John de Luxembourg, to surrender the place toward the latter end of May, on condition that he and his men should march away in safety with their baggage and effects.

By this means sir John gained possession of Beaumont, in which he placed his own garrison, and appointed as governor Valeran de Bournouville. Enguerrand de Brigonval was likewise given up to him, safe and well. While this siege was carrying on, a truce was agreed to between sir John de Luxembourg and the townsmen of Mouzon, until the feast of St. Remy ensuing ; and in the interval the burghers were to go to king Charles to learn if they might depend on succours from him, or whether they were to surrender to sir John.

When these matters had been concluded, sir John dismissed his troops, and returned to his castle of Beaurevoir. William de Flavy, in like manner, disbanded those who had served under him, and went with a few attendants, under passports, to the mansion of his lord and father ; for during the time he was besieged in Beaumont, the duke of Bar had caused one of his fortresses, called Neufville sur Meuse, to be destroyed, which was held by a garrison of his, and wherein he had placed all his treasures.



TREATY. On the return of the duke of Burgundy, with such vast preparations of stores and men-atarms, into Holland, to besiege the duchess Jacqueline in the town of Gouda, whither she had retired with her adherents, the country was greatly alarmed. The duchess, in consequence, held a council of her most faithful friends, when, having considered the great power of the duke, that the majority of the nobles and commonalty were already turned to his party, and that it was very doubtful if she could further resist, it was determined that she should offer terms of peace to her adversary the duke; and a treaty of the following import was concluded by the commissioners from each party.

The duchess Jacqueline shall acknowledge and avow that the duke of Burgundy is the true and legal heir to all her territories, and that henceforth she shall appoint him governor and guardian of them, promising to give him possession of all the towns and castles she now holds, in which the duke shall place such captains as he may please. The duchess promises also never to marry but with the consent of the said duke; and the town and castle of Zeneuberche is to be given up to the duke of Burgundy. When this treaty had been signed, a day was appointed for the meeting of the parties in the town of Delft—when, after mutual salutations and gratulations, they received, by themselves or by their commissaries, the.oaths of many of the principal towns. Thus was Holland, after having long suffered the miseries of war, restored to peace; and the duke of Burgundy, having disbanded his Picards, returned to his countries of Flanders and Artois.



JACQUELINE INTO HAINAULT. In the month of May ensuing, the earl of Salisbury, a knight very expert, and of great renown in arms, by orders from king Henry and his ministers, assembled a force of six thousand combatants, men tried in war, great part of whom he was to carry to France to the aid of the duke of Bedford, who styled himself regent of that kingdom. The earl sent off a detachment of three thousand to Calais, whence they marched to Paris, to carry on the war against king Charles. About Midsummer-day, the earl followed with the remainder of his men, and, crossing to Calais, marched by St. Pol, Dourlens, and Amiens, to Paris, where he was joyfully roceived by the duke of Bedford, and the council of France attached to the interests of king Henry.

Instantly on his arrival many councils were held respecting the war; and it was resolved that the earl, after having subdued some trilling towns held by the enemy, should lay siege to Orleans, which they said had done them great injury. On the council breaking up, orders were issued for the Normans, and others of the English party, to assemble immediately ; and such diligence was used, that within a very short time the earl of Salisbury had upward of ten thousand combatants. The principal captains were, the earl of Suffolk, the lord Scales, the lord de Calaboche, the lord Lisle, Classedach, and many valiant and expert men-in-arms. When they had been well feasted and honoured in Paris, they departed, under the command of the earl of Salisbury, to besiege the town of Nogent le Roi, which was soon conquered, and great part of the garrison put to death : the rest escaped by paying large ransoms. The earl marched thence to Gergeau.

While this was passing, the duke of Burgundy had returned to Holland with his most faithful adherents, to make further arrangements with his cousin the duchess Jacqueline, and to receive the oaths of fidelity from divers others of the nobles and towns of that country. After these matters were finished, the duke, and duchess Jacqueline, went into Hainault; and in all the towns through which they passed they received similar oaths to what had been given in Holland and Zealand, from the nobles, clergy, and commonalty. In some places, they were received with honour and respect, although very many were much dissatisfied with these arrangements, but at present they saw no means to remedy them.

CHAPTER L.—THE TOWNSMEN OF TOURNAY AGAIN REBEL. In the month of July of this year, the inhabitants of Tournay again mutinied against their magistrates, and rose more than once in arms, as they had frequently done before. The cause of the present tumults was the magistrates having laid a tax on beer, to aid them to pay the demands of the duke of Burgundy. However, by the exertions of some prudent persons in the town, peace was restored ; and shortly after, one of their leaders called John Isaac, a goldsmith, was arrested,--and for various crimes by him committed, and for having been the cause of Arnoul le Musi and Loctart de Villeries being beheaded, Isaac was publicly hanged on the gibbet at Tournay.

At this time, Réné duke of Bar laid siege to the castle of Passavant, in which was a person named Varnencourt, who had for a long space sorely harassed and cruelly treated the inhabitants of the country round that place.




CHURCH. The earl of Salisbury, on his arrival before Gergeau, caused it to be surrounded on all sides, and very hotly attacked by his artillery, insomuch that the garrison who held it for king Charles, fearing the consequences, entered into a treaty with the earl to surrender it, on being permitted to depart in safety. The earl, having regarrisoned it, advanced to Genville, which he besieged on all sides; but the French, being in force within it, defended themselves valiantly. After a few days, however, they held a parley with the earl, but they could not agree as to the terms of delivering it up. On the French retiring, a skirmish took place between the besiegers and the besieged, which occasioned the whole of the English to arm themselves suddenly, and without command from the earl to storm the place so vigorously that it was won, and numbers of the French taken or killed, and other great disorders committed which it would be tedious to relate.

During these transactions, the regent duke of Bedford and king Henry's ministers at Paris were earnestly attempting to acquire, for the king's use, all the rents and revenues that had been given to the church for the last forty years. To succeed in this, several great councils were held in Paris between the duke and his ministers and the members of the university, in which the matter was fully and long debated; it was, however, in the end negatived, and the church remained at peace in regard to this demand.

In this year, the king of Portugal raised a large army*, in conjunction with the duke of Cambrayt, who commanded the van division, and the whole amounted to ten thousand combatants. They led his army to an island against the infidels, where were the king of Albastre I with twenty thousand Saracens, Turks, Tartars, Barbaresques, of which the greater number were left dead on the field, and the said king of Albastre made prisoner. The king of Portugal suffered but little loss, and after the victory he returned with his army back to his own country.


IS THERE SLAIN. When the earl of Salisbury had subjected the towns of Gergeau, Genville, Mebun, and several castles and forts in those parts, to the obedience of king Henry of Lancaster, he made diligent preparations to lay siege to the city of Orleans. His army came before it in the month of October ; but as the garrison and inhabitants had long expected his arrival, they had provided themselves with all sorts of warlike stores and provision, having determined to defend the place to the last extremity.

To prevent the earl from fixing his quarters in the suburbs and fortifying them, the French had demolished the whole, including many excellent houses, and upward of twelve churches, belonging to the four orders of mendicant friars, with several fine houses of recreation for the burghers of Orleans. By thus doing they could discharge the cannon from the ramparts freely all around.

Lord Salisbury, notwithstanding this, and a violent opposition from the garrison, who made many sallies, and fired on him from culverins, and other instruments of death, to the wounding and killing many of his men, quartered himself and his army near to the walls. The English repulsed these attacks with the utmost courage, to the wonder of the besieged ; and while these skirmishings were going on, the earl ordered the tower at the end of the bridge over the Loire to be stormed, which was won, as well as a small bulwark hard by, in spite of the defence of the French. The earl commanded a party to enter and guard this

• All this seems to be a romance founded on the ex. brated for the discoveries made under his auspices in ploits of Peter, duke of Coimbra, the famous traveller, Africa and India. and Henry, duke of Visco, liis brother, much more cele + Cambray. Q. Coimbra, I Albastrc, Q.

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