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nus,” he exclaims, “this city is still a city, but the people are others, who formerly knew nothing of courts of justice or of laws, but wore goat-skins about their ribs, and dwelt without this city, like timid deer. And now they are the good (&yaôot); and those who were formerly noble (€0.0Aoi) are now the mean (8éoot): who can endure to see these things?" (vv. 53–58, ed. Bergk.) The intercourse of common life, and the new distribution of property, were rapidly breaking down the old aristocracy of birth, and raising up in its place an aristocracy of wealth. “They honour riches, and the good marries the daughter of the bad, and the bad the daughter of the good, wealth confounds the race (tute yévos). Thus, wonder not that the race of citizens loses its brightness, for good things are confounded with bad." (vv. 189–192.) These complaints of the debasement of the nobles by their intermixture with the commons are embittered by a personal feeling ; for he had been rejected by the parents of the girl he loved, and she had been given in marriage to a person of far inferior rank (Toxxov ćuou kakiaw); but Theognis believes that her affections are still fixed on him (vv. 261–266). He distrusts the stability of the new order of things, and points to a new despotism as either established or just at hand. Most of these political verses are addressed to a certain Cyrnus, the son of Polypas; for it is now generally admitted that the same IIoAvraíðms, which has been sometimes supposed to refer to a different person, is to be understood as a patronymic, and as applying to Cyrnus. From the verses themselves, as well as from the statements of the ancient writers, it appears that Cyrnus was a young man towards whom Theognis cherished a firm friendship, and even that tender regard, that pure and honourable Taihepaatsa, which often bound together men of different ages in the Dorian states (vv. 253, foll., 655, 820, 1051, foll. ; Suid. s.v. Oéoyvus ; Phot. Lea. s. v. Küppos). From one passage (805, foll.) it appears that Cyrnus was old enough, and of sufficient standing in the city, to be sent to Delphi as a sacred envoy (êewpés) to bring back an oracle, which the poet exhorts him to preserve faithfully. There is another fragment, also of a political character, but in a different tone. addressed to a certain Simonides; in which the revolution itself is described in guarded language, which indicates the sense of present danger; while in the verses addressed to Cyrnus the change is presupposed, and the poet speaks out his feelings, as one who has nothing more to fear or hope for. The other fragments of the poetry of Theognis are of a social, most of them of a festive character. They “place us in the midst of a circle of friends, who formed a kind of eating society, like the philistia of Sparta, and like the ancient public tables of Megara itself.” (Müller, p. 123.) All the members of this society belonged to the class whom the poet calls “the good.” He addresses them, like Cyrnus and Simonides, by their names, Onomacritus, Clearistus, Democles, Demonax, and Timagoras, in passages which are probably fragments of distinct elegies, and in which allusion is made to their various characters and adventures ; and he refers, as also in his verses addressed to Cyrnus, to the fame conferred upon them by the introduction of their names in his poems, both at other places, where already in his own time his elegies were sung at banquets, and in future ages. A good

account of these festive elegies is given in the following passage from Muller: —“The poetry of Theognis is full of allusions to symposia: so that from it a clear conception of the outward accompaniments of the elegy may be formed. When the guests were satisfied with eating, the cups were filled for the solemn libation ; and at this ceremony a prayer was offered to the gods, especially to Apollo, which in many districts of Greece was expanded into a paean. Here began the more joyous and noisy part of the banquet, which Theognis (as well as Pindar) calls in general r&aos, although this word in a narrower sense also signified the tumultuous throng of the guests departing from the feast. Now the Comos was usually accompanied with the flute: hence Theognis speaks in so many places of the accompaniment of the flute-player to the poems sung in the intervals of drinking; while the lyre and cithara (or phorminx) are rarely mentioned, and then chiefly in reference to the song at the libation. And this was the appropriate occasion for the elegy, which was sung by one of the guests to the sound of a flute, being either addressed to the company at large, or (as is always the case in Theognis) to a single guest.” (p. 124.) Schneidewin traces a marked distinction in the style and spirit of those portions of the poems of Theognis, which he composed in his youth and prosperity, and those which he wrote in his mature age, and when misfortunes had come upon him. As to the form in which the poems of Theognis were originally composed, and that in which the fragments of them have come down to us, there is a wide field for speculation. The ancients had a collection of elegiac poetry, under his name, which they sometimes mention as Aéoyela, and sometimes as rm, and which they regarded as chiefly, if not entirely, of a gnomic character. (Plat. Menon. p. 95, d.) Xenophon says that “this poet discourses of nothing else but respecting the virtue and vice of men, and his poetry is a treatise (airy/pauwa) concerning men, just as if any one skilled in horsemanship were to write a treatise about horsemanship.” (Xenoph. ap. Stob. Florileg. lxxxviii.) To the same effect Isocrates mentions Hesiod, Theognis, and Phocylides, as confessedly those who have given the best advice respecting human life (kal 'yūp toūTovs parl utv &pia Tovs yeyeviata avuéoùAous to Big Tây &rtpárwy); and, from the context, it may be inferred that the works of these poets were used in Greek education (Isocrat. all Nicocl. 42, p. 23, b). Suidas (s. v.) enumerates, as his works, an Elegy eis Tovs aw8évras Tāv Xupakova tww év troAtopkig (see Welcker. Proleg. p. xv.); Gnomic Elegies, to the amount of 2800 verses (Yvčual 3' Aeyelas eis érm 6%); a Gnomology in elegiac verse, and other hortatory counsels, addressed to Cyrnus (kai Tpös Kūpwov, Tov airod Épéuevor, Tvøuoxoysaw 5' éAeyetwv kal étépas àrotocas repaivetirás). Suidas adds, that these poems were all of the epic form (tà Tâvra érixás), a phrase which can only be explained by taking the word epic in that wide sense, of which we have several other instances, one of which (Plat. Men. p. 95, d.) has been noticed above, as including poems in the elegiac verse; for all the remains of Theognis which we possess are elegiac, and there is no sufficient reason to suppose that he wrote any epic poems, properly so called, or even any gnomic poems in hexameter verse. Had he done so, the fact would surely have been indicated by the occasional appearance of consecutive hexameters in the gnomic extracts from his poems. The passage of Plato (l.c.), sometimes quoted to show that he wrote epic poetry, seems to us to prove, if anything, the very opposite. The poems, which have come down to us, consist of 1389 elegiac verses, consisting of gnomic sentences and paragraphs, of one or more couplets; which vary greatly in their style and subjects, and which are evidently extracted from a number of separate poems. Even in the confused account of Suidas we trace indications of the fact, that the poetry of Theognis consisted of several distinct elegies. In what state the collection was in the time of Suidas, we have not sufficient evidence to determine; but, comparing his article with his well-known method of putting together the information which he gathered from various sources, we suspect that the work which he calls Tvåual 5.' éAeyesas els ērm 84, was a collection similar to that which has come down to us, though more extensive, and with which Suidas himself was probably acquainted, and that he copied the other titles from various writers, without caring to inquire whether the poems to which they referred were included in the great collection. Xenophon, in the passage above cited, refers to a collection of the poetry of Theognis; though not, as some have supposed, to a continuous gnomic poem; and it is evident that the collection referred to by Xenophon was different from that which has come down to us, as the lines quoted by him as its commencement are now found in the MSS. as vv. 183—190. The manner in which the original collection was formed, and the changes by which it has come into its present state, can be explained by a very simple theory, perfectly consistent with all the facts of the case, in the following manner. Theognis wrote numerous elegies, political, convivial, affectionate, and occasional, addressed to Cyrnus, and to his other friends. In a very short time these poems would naturally be collected, and arranged according to their subjects, and according to the persons to whom they were addressed ; but at what precise period this was done we are unable to determine: the collection may have been partly made during the poet's life, and even by himself; but we may be sure that it would not be left undone long after his death. In this collection, the distinction of the separate poems in each great division would naturally be less and less regarded, on account of the uniformity of the metre, the similarity of the subjects, and—in the case especially of those addressed to Cyrnus– the perpetual recurrence of the same name in the different poems. Thus the collection would gradually be fused into one body, and, first each division of it, and then perhaps the whole, would assume a form but little different from that of a continuous poem. Even before this had happened, however, the decidedly gnomic spirit of the poems, and their popularity on that account (see Isocr. l. c.), would give rise to the practice of extracting from them couplets and paragraphs, containing gnomic sentiments ; and these, being chosen simply for the sake of the sentiment contained in each individual passage, would be arranged in any order that accident might determine, without reference to the original place and connection of each extract, and without any pains being taken to keep the passages distinct. Thus was formed a single and quasi-continuous body of gnomic poetry,

which of course has been subjected to the common fates of such collections; interpolations from the works of other gnomic poets, and omissions of passages which really belonged to Theognis; besides the ordinary corruptions of critics and transcribers. Whatever questions may be raised as to matters of detail, there can be very little doubt that the socalled poems of Theognis have been brought into their present state by some such process as that which has been now described. In applying this theory to the restoration of the extant fragments of Theognis to something like their ancient arrangement, Welcker, to whom we are indebted for the whole discovery, proceeds in the following manner. First, he rejects all those verses which we have the positive authority of ancient writers for assigning to other poets, such as Tyrtaeus, Mimmermus, Solon, and others; provided, of course, that the evidence in favour of those poets preponderates over that on the ground of which the verses have been assigned to Theogmis. Secondly, he rejects all passages which can be proved to be merely parodies of the genuine gnomes of Theognis, a species of corruption which he discusses with great skill (pp. lxxx. foll.). Thirdly, he collects those passages which refer to certain definite persons, places, seasons, and events, like the epigrams of later times; of these he considers some to be the productions of Theognis, but others manifest additions. His next class is formed of the convivial portions of the poetry; in which the discrimination of what is genuine from what is spurious is a matter of extreme difficulty. Fifthly, he separates all those paragraphs which are addressed to Polypaides; and here there can be no doubt that he has fallen into an error, through not perceiving the fact above referred to, as clearly established by other writers, that that word is a patronymic, and only another name for Cyrnus. Lastly, he removes from the collection the verses which fall under the denomination of trauðuká, for which Suidas censures the poet ; but, if we understand these passages as referring to the sort of intercourse which prevailed among the Dorians, many of them admit of the best interpretation and may safely be assigned to Theognis, though there are others, of a less innocent character, which we must regard as the productions of later and more corrupt ages. The couplets which remain are fragments from the elegies of Theognis, mostly addressed to Cyrnus, and referring to the events of the poet's life and times, and the genuineness of which may, for the most part, be assumed; though, even among these, interpolations may very probably have taken place, and passages actually occur of a meaning so nearly identical, that they can hardly be supposed to have been different passages in the works of the same poet, but they seem rather to have been derived from different authors by some compiler who was struck by their resemblance. The poetical character of Theognis may be judged of, to a great extent, from what has already been said, and it is only necessary to add that his genuine fragments contain much that is highly poetical in thought, and elegant as well as forcible in expression. The so-called remains of Theognis were first printed in the Aldine collection, Venet. 1495, fol., mentioned under Theocritus (p. 1034, b.), then in the several collections of the gnomic poets published during the 16th century. (See Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr. s. v.) Of several other old editions, the most important are, that of Jo. Lodov. Tiletanus, Paris, 1537, 4to. : that of El. Vinet. Santo, Paris, 1543, 4to.: that of Joachim Camerarius, who was the first to discover that the collection was not a single work by a single author, and whose edition is still very valuable for its critical and explanatory notes; its full title is, Libellus scolasticus utilis, et valde bonus, quo continentur, Theognidis praecepta, Pythagorae versus aurei, Phocytidae Praecepta, Solonis, Tyrtaei, Simonidis, et Callimachi quacdam Carmina, collecta et caplicata a Joachimo Camerario Palepergen, Basil. 1551, 8vo.: that of Melanchthon, with his Erplicatio, or exposition of the author, delivered in his lectures at the University of Wittemberg, Witeberg, 1560, 8vo.; often reprinted, but without the Eaplicatio: that of Seber, who used three MSS. which had not been collated before, but whose edition is inaccurately printed, Lips. 1603, 8vo.; reprinted more accurately, 1620, 8vo., but this edition is very rare : that of Sylburg, with the other gnomic poets, Ultraject. 1651, 12mo, ; reprinted, 1748, 12mo.: that of H. G. Just, Francof. et Lips. 1710, 8vo.: that of Fischern, with a German translation, Altenburg, 1739, 8vo. : that in the edition of Callimachus, the editorship of which is doubtful, Lond. 1741, 8vo. (see Hoffmann, s. v. Callimachus): and that of Bandini, with a metrical Italian version, Florent. 1766, 8vo. There are two standard modern editions; that of Imm. Bekker, who has preserved the order of the MSS., Lips. 1815, and 2d ed. 1827, 8vo. ; and that of Welcker, who has re-arranged the verses in the manner explained above, Francof. 1826, 8vo. : there is also an edition of the text, with critical notes, by J. Casp. Orellius, Turic. 1840, 4to. The poems are also contained in several of the ancient collections of the Greek poets, besides those of the gnomic poets already referred to (see Hoffmann), and in the following modern collections: Brunck's Gnomici Poetae Graeci, Argentorat. 1784, 8vo., reprinted 1817, 8vo. ; a)2, reprinted, for the use of colleges and schools, by Schaefer, Lips. 1817, 12mo., and in tne Tauchnitz Classics, 1815, 1829, 32mo. ; Gaisford's Poetae Minores Gracci, Oxon. 1814–1820, Lips. 1823, 8vo.; Boissonade's Poetae Gracci Gnomici, Paris, 1823, 32mo. ; Schneidewin's Delectus Poesis Graecorum, Gotting. 1838, 8vo. ; and Bergk's Poetae Lyrici Graeci, Lips. 1843, 8vo. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. pp. 704, foll.; Welcker, Prolegomena ad Theognidem, comp. the Review by Geel, in the Bill. Crit. Nov. vol. iv. pp. 209–245; Schneidewin, Theogn. Eleg. Prooemium, in his Delectus, pp. 46–56; Müller, History of the Literature of Ancient Greece, vol. i. pp. 120–124; Ulrici; Bode ; Theognis Restitutus, The personal history of the poet Theognis deduced from an analysis of his ea isling Fragments, Malta, 1842, 4to. ; this last work we have not seen ; it is favourably mentioned by Schneidewin, who says, “manches ist sehr siunreich ausgefasst u. anregend,” in Mühlmann and Jenicke's Repertorium d. class. Philologie, 1844, vol. i. p. 41, in which periodical also will be found references to several recent papers in the German periodicals on matters relating to Theognis: for an account of other illustrative works, see Hoffmann, Ler. Bibliogr. s. v.) 2. A tragic poet, contemporary with Aristophanes, who mentions him only in three passages, but they are rich ones. In the first (Acharn. 11)

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and in the third, he describes the frigid character of his compositions by the witticism, that once the whole of Thrace was covered with snow, and the rivers were frozen, at the very time when Theognis was exhibiting a tragedy at Athens (Acharn. 138). This joke is no doubt the foundation for the statement of the scholiast that Theognis was so frigid a poet as to obtain the nickname of Xiév (Schol ad Acharn. 11; copied by Suidas, s. v.). It would seem from a passage of Suidas (s. v. Nukóuaxos) that, on one occasion, Theognis gained the third prize, in competition with Euripides and Nicomachus. It is stated by the scholiast on Aristophanes, by Harpocration (s. v.), and by Suidas (s. v.), on the authority of Xenophon, in the 2d Book of the Hellenics, that Theognis was one of the Thirty Tyrants; and perhaps, therefore, the name €eoyévms, in the passage of Xenophon referred to (Hell. ii. 3. § 2), should be altered to Oéoyvis. According to these statements Theognis began to exhibit tragedies before the date of the Acharmians, B. c. 425, and continued his poetical career down to the date of the Thesmophoriazusae, B. c. 411, and was still conspicuous in public life in B. c. 404.

Two lines are referred to by some writers, as quoted from a tragedy of Theognis, entitled Ovéatms, by Stobaeus (xcii. 5); but a careful examination of the passage shows that it refers to the Thyestes of Euripides. We have, however, one line from Theognis, quoted by Demetrius (de Eloc. 85):

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The metaphor in this line is referred to by Aristotle (Rhet. iii. 11), in conjunction with an equally bold one from Timotheus which Aristotle mentions also in other passages (Rhet. iii. 4 ; Poèt. xxi. 12); whence Tyrwhitt, Hermann, and Ritter (ad Arist. Poèt. l. c.) have fallen into the error of ascribing the former metaphor also to Timotheus, instead of Theognis. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ii. p. 324; Welcker, die Griech. Trag. pp. 1006, 1007; Kayser, Hist. Crit. Trag. Graec. pp. 325, 326; Wagner, Frag. Trag. Graec. pp. 92, 93, in Didot's Biblio. theca Scriptorum Graecorum). 3. The author of a work trepi Tøy ov P35s &varia v. from the second book of which is a quotation made by Athenaeus (viii. p. 360, b. ; Vossius, de Hist. Grace. p. 504, ed. Westermann). [P. S.] THEOGNOSTUS (966), worros). 1. A Chris. tian writer, a native of Alexandria, the author of a work entitled too uakaptov Ocoyuártov 'Axe:ay^péa's kai éénymtow Vitorvrégets. Photius, who speaks in very disrespectful terms of him, gives a brief account of the contents of the work. (Cod. 106.) It seems, from what he says, that Theognostus closely followed Origenes. The style is described by Photius as being of a very inferior description. Athanasius, however, speaks in much higher terms of Theognostus. (Fabric. Biłł. Grace. vol. x. p. 709.) 2. A Byzantine grammarian, who lived at the

beginning of the ninth century after Christ. He was the author of a work on prosody, which is still extant in manuscript, addressed to the emperor Leo, the Armenian. He also wrote a history of the reign of Michael II., surnamed the Stammerer, the successor of Leo. (Willoison, Anecd. Graec. vol. ii. p. 127; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 350.) [C. P. M.] THEO'LYTUS (eeóAvros), of Methymna, in Lesbos, an epic poet of an unknown, but certainly not an early period, who is mentioned once by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, and twice by Athenaeus. The latter author, in one passage (vii. p. 296, a, b.) quotes three lines from his Bakxtrè firm, that is, an epic poem on the adventures of Dionysus, to whose contest with the sea-god Glaucus, his rival in the love of Ariadne, the lines quoted by Athenaeus refer. The other reference to Theolytus is a quotation from him, ev Ševrépée “npav (Ath. xi. p. 470, c.), not 'opov, as the reading was before Schweighâuser, who shows that here, and in other references to similar works, the genitive is not that of &pg, but of &pos, a word of the same meaning as &pa, but used in the plural in the specific sense of Annals. (See Liddell and Scott, and Seiler and Jacobitz, s. v.) Another correction made by Schweighâuser in this latter passage is the restoration of the true form of the poet's name, which Casaubon had altered to 966kAvros. (Plehm. Lesbiaca, p.201.) [P. S.] THEO'MEDON (9eouéðav), a physician who accompanied Eudoxus the astronomer and physician in his first visit to Athens, about the year B. c. 386, and who supported him while he was attending Plato's lectures in that city. , (Diog. Laërt. viii. 8. § 86.) [W. A. G.] THEOMESTOR (9eouñarwp), a Samian, son of Androdamas, commanded a vessel in the Persian fleet at Salamis ( B. c. 480), and for his services in that battle was made tyrant of Samos by Xerxes. (Herod. viii. 85, ix. 90.) | E. E.] THEOMNASTUS, one of the instruments of Verres in his oppression of the Sicilians. (Cic. Jerr. ii. 21, 51, iv. 66.) THEOMNESTUS (6eóuvmorros), one of the Greek writers on veterinary surgery, who may perhaps have lived in the fourth or fifth century after Christ. None of his works remain, but some fragments are to be found in the collection of writers on veterinary surgery, first published in Latin by John Ruellius, 1530, fol. Paris, and afterwards in Greek by Simon Grynaeus, 1537, 4to. Basil. [W. A. G.] THEOMNESTUS (Qedumaros), artists. 1. A statuary of Sardis, of unknown time, who made the statue of the Olympic victor Ageles of Chios. (Paus. vi. 15. § 2.) He may safely be identified with the Theomnestus mentioned by Pliny among those who made athletus et armatos et renatores sacrificantesque (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34). 2. A sculptor, the son of Theotimus, flourished in Chios, under the early Roman emperors, as we learn from a Chian inscription, in which his name occurs as the maker, in conjunction with Dionysius, the son of Astius, of the monument erected to the memory of Claudius Asclepiades, a freedman of the emperor, by his wife, Claudia Tertulla. (Murator. vol. ii. p.mxiv. 11; Boeckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 2241, vol. ii. p. 210 : R. Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, pp. 417, 418, 2d ed.)

3. A painter, contemporary with Apelles. All

that is known of him is contained in the statement of Pliny, that Mnason, the tyrant (of Elateia), gave him one hundred minae apiece for certain pictures, each of which represented a single hero. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 21.) [P. S.] THEON (9éww). Of three of this name whose writings yet remain, two are mathematicians who are often confounded together. The first is Theon the elder, of Smyrna, best known as an arithmetician, who lived in the time of Hadrian. The second is Theon the younger, of Alexandria, the father of HYPATIA, best known as an astronomer and geometer, who lived in the time of Theodosius the elder. Both were heathens, a fact which the date of the second makes it desirable to state ; and each held the Platonism of his period. The confusion would probably be avoided, if they were named after their leaders in science: they would then be called Theon the Pythagorean, and Theon the Ptolemaist. The date of “Theon of Smyrna the philosopher.” to quote in full the account which Suidas gives of him, depends upon the assumption (which there seems no reason to dispute) that he is the Theon whom Ptolemy and the younger Theon mention as having made astronomical observations in the time of Hadrian. Theon of Smyrna certainly wrote on astronomy. On the assumption just made, Ptolemy has preserved his observations of Mercury and Venus (A. D. 129–133). Bouillaud supposes that it is Theon of Smyrna to whom Proclus alludes as having written on the genealogies of Solon and Plato, and Plutarch as having written on the lunar spots. (See Bouillaud's preface, or the quotations in Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iv. p. 35.) All that we have left is a portion of a work entitled, Two katē was muatikāv xpngsuww eis thv too IIA4twvos avdiyvacaw. The portion which now exists is in two books, one on arithmetic, and one on music: there was a third on astronomy, and a fourth IIepl ris év kóauq àpuovías. The work on arithmetic is of the same character as that of Nico MAchus ; and as both these writers name Thrasyllus, and neither names the other, it may be supposed that the two were nearly contemporary. The book on music is on the simplest application of arithmetic. The two books were published by Bouillaud, from a manuscript in De Thou's library, Paris, 1644, quarto (Gr. Lat.). The book on arithmetic has been recently published, with Bouillaud's Latin, various readings, and new notes, by Professor J. J. de Gelder, Leyden, 1827, 8vo; the preface is the fullest disquisition on Theon which exists. We may refer to it for an account of the bust which was found in Smyrna by Fouquier, with the inscription eEnNAIIAATON IKON41AOCObONOIEPEYCeenNTONIIATEPA, now in the museum at Rome. There are scattered notices (for which see De Gelder) by which it seems that Theon had written other works: a manuscript headed Seoxo-yotsueva is mentioned as attributed to him, which is probably only the work known under that name, with an assumed authorship. Bouillaud mentions an astronomical fragment which he sound; and also the assertion of Isaac Vossius, made to him. that an astronomical treatise existed in the Ambrosian library at Milan. Of the life of Theon of Alexandria, called the younger (described by Suidas as 6 ex row uovaetov), nothing is known except the melancholy history of his daughter IIYPATIA. We shall now take the

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various writings to which his name is attached, in order. 1. Scholia on Aratus. Of these there are at least two sets, the second first printed by Buhle, in his edition, as emendatiora. Grotius is of opinion that the first are not the work of Theon, but of several hands: this he infers from their containing repetitions and contradictions, which is not a very safe premise for the conclusion. Kuster (Suidas, s. v.) attributes them, without reason given, rather to Theon the sophist. That they are unworthy of the astronomer, is true enough ; but rejections made on such a ground are dangerous things. These scholia were printed in the Aldine" edition of Aratus, in that of Valder's collection [Ptol EMAEus, p. 573], in Morell's edition, Paris, 1559, 4to., in Fell's, Oxford, 1672, 8vo, and also in Buhle's. Halma, in his edition (Gr. Fr.) Paris, 1822, 4to, has given selections, which his critics have asserted to be very ill chosen. (Hoffman, Lcric. Bibliogr. vol. i. p. 233). 2. Edition of Euclid. Of the manner in which Theon is asserted to have edited Euclid we have already said enough. [Eucleides, pp. 68, b, 69, b, 70, a.] 3. Eis rov too IIroxeuasov weyáAmy givtaštv trouvmudrav BiéAía la'. This is the great work of Theon, the commentary on the Almagest, addressed to his son Epiphanius. But the Almagest has thirteen books, while Theon's commentary is marked as having only eleven. The commentary on the third book has not come down to us with the name of Theon, but with that of Nicolas Cabacillas ; and those on the tenth and eleventh books are joined together. The commentary on the later books is obviously mutilated by time; for a circumstance connected with that on the fifth book, see PAPPUs. On this commentary, Delambre (who has given a full account of it, I/ist. Astron. Anc. vol. ii. pp. 550 –616) passes the following judgment: “ Theon commences by announcing that he will not follow the example of ordinary commentators, who show themselves very learned on passages which offer no difficulty, and are silent upon all which would give trouble to understand or to explain. He has not always kept this promise ; I have often referred for information, and I have only found Ptolemy's words faithfully copied or slightly modified. It is a paraphrase which may give some explanation of methods, but which really presents nothing which a little attention would not find in the text, none of those lost traditions, which must then have existed at the Observatory of Alexandria, nothing new upon the instruments or the method of using them. Theon seems to know no one but Ptolemy and to have read nothing but the Syntaxis....... This commentary is not what could have been made then, nor even what could have been made now.” We have mentioned in the article Ptol EMAEUs all the editions of the commentary which accompany those of the text. The only separate edition (if it be right so to call it) is that of Halma, forming a continuation of the four volumes already mentioned in PTolkMAEUs. It includes only the

* This Aldine edition, Venice, 1499, folio, is not a separate work, but part of what is frequently catalogued as Scriptores Astronomici Veteres, containing Julius Firmicus, Manilius, &c. as well as Aratus.

commentary on the first and second books (Gr. Fr.) in two volumes, quarto, Paris, 1821 and 1822. 4. Commentary on the manual tables of Ptolemy. Knowledge of this work is very recent, and as it involves a work of Ptolemy himself which we have not mentioned in its place, a few words of explanation will be necessary. It was long known that certain unpublished talles (as they were called) of Theon existed in manuscript: and there is in Fabricius and others a frequent confusion of these tables with the chronological table presently mentioned. Not but what accurate information might have been found. Kuster, speaking of an emendation of Suidas, who attributes to Theon a work eis Tov II toxsuasov trpóxeipov kavóva, says that Theon wrote a commentary on the canon of Ptolemy, which canon existed in manuscript in the Imperial library. Delambre found a manuscript in the Royal Library at Paris, which he has described (Hist. Astr. Anc. vol. ii. p. 616) under the head €eavos 'AAečavöpéa's kāvoves spóxespol. Tables manuelles de Théon d’Alerandrie. This work was afterwards published by Halma, but under the title “Commentaire de Theon ... sur les tables manuelles astronomiques de Ptolémée,” in three parts, Paris, 1822, 1823, 1825, 4to. Having only very recently seen this last work, we have only as recently known that there is a distinct work of Ptolemy himself, the kávoves opóxelpo. Ptolemy's part is addressed to Syrus; Theon's to his son Epiphanius. The contents are, prolegomena, tables of latitude and longitude, and a collection of astronoinical tables, somewhat more extensive than those in the syntaxis. The prolegomena are separately headed ; one set is given to Ptolemy, another to Theon. But the tables themselves are headed TItoxeuatov 0éavos, kal "frarias Tpéxespot kāvoves. Dodwell had previously printed a fragment of the prolegomena in his “ Dissertationes Cyprianae.” Oxford, 1684, 8vo. 5. The continuation of the regal canon [PtoleMAEUs, p. 572] down to his own time is attributed to Theon. In the manual tables it is carried down to the fall of the Eastern empire with the heading IIToAeuatov, 0éwwos, K. T. A. A very full dissertation on this canon is to be found in an anonymous work “Observationes in Theonis Fastos Graecos priores.” Amsterdam 1735, quarto. The list of works attributed to Theon of Alexandria by Suidas is Mathnuaturd, 'Ap:0unrikā, slepl a muetwv kal orkotiis opwéav kai Tàs tav kopäxay opwwiis, IIepi Tàs toū kuvos éritoxois, IIepi Tàs to: NetAov &vašárews, Eis Töv II toxeuatov spéxeipov Kavčva, eis Tov utkpov 'AaTpoxášov irčurmua. In the last, Fabricius proposes to read & TTPoAóyov, taking the work to be a commentary on the collection of minor writers, which went by the name of the lesser Syntaxis. (Fabricius, Halma, lyelambre, &c. opp. citt. edit. citat.) [A. De M.] THEON (9éww), literary. 1. A grammarian, who taught at Rome in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, and was succeeded by Apion. (Suid. s.r. 'ATúv.) He was the author of a Lexicon to the Greek comedians (Kauikal Aéčeus), which is quoted by Hesychius in the Prooemium to his Lexicon. (Also, s. v. Xritaxoi : see Ruhnken, Praef. ad Hesych. pp. ix. foll.) It is doubtful whether he was the author of the comic lexicon quoted by the Scholiast to Apollonius Rhodius (iv. pp. 280, 305). He is one of the authors from whose works the

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