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PANDARUS (IIávěapos.) 1. A son of Lycaon, a Lycian, commanded the inhabitants of Zeleia on mount Ida, in the Trojan war. He was distinguished in the Trojan army as an archer, and was said to have received his bow from Apollo. He was slain by Diomedes, or, according to others, by Sthenelus. He was afterwards honoured as a hero at Pinara in Lycia. (Hom. Il. ii. 824, &c., v. 290, &c.; Serv. ad Aen. v. 496; Strab. xiv. p. 665; Philostr. Her. iv. 2.) 2. A son of Alcanor, and twin-brother of Bitias, was one of the companions of Aeneas, and slain by Turnus. (Virg. Aen. ix. 672, 758.) [L. S.] PANDEMOS (IIávömuos), i.e. “common to all the people," occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, and that in a twofold sense, first describing her as the goddess of low sensual pleasures as Venus vulgivaga or popularis, in opposition to Venus (Aphrodite) Urania, or the heavenly Aphrodite. (Plat. Sympos. p. 180; Lucret. iv. 1067.) She was represented at Elis by Scopas riding on a ram. (Paus. vi. 25. $2.) The second sense is that of Aphrodite uniting all the inhabitants of a country into one social or political body. In this respect she was worshipped at Athens along with Peitho (persuasion), and her worship was said to have been instituted by Theseus at the time when he united the scattered townships into one great body of citizens. (Paus. i. 22. § 3.) According to some authorities, it was Solon who erected the sanctuary of Aphrodite Pandemos, either because her image stood in the agora, or because the hetaerae had to pay the costs of its erection. (Harpocrat. and Suid. s. v.; Athen. xiii. p. 569.) The worship of Aphrodite Pandemos also occurs at Megalopolis in Arcadia (Paus. viii. 32. § 1), and at Thebes (ix. 16. § 2). A festival in honour of her is mentioned by Athenaeus (xiv. p. 659). The sacrifices offered to her consisted of white goats. (Lucian, Dial. Meret. 7 ; comp. Xenoph. Sympos. 8. § 9; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 101 ; Theocrit. Epigr. 13.) Pandemos occurs also as a surname of Eros. (Plat. Symp. l.c.) [L. S.] PANDI'0N (IIavôtwy). 1. A son of Aegyptus and Hephaestine. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.) 2. A son of Phineus and Cleopatra. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 3; Schol. ad Soph. Ant. 980; comp. PHINEUs.) 3. One of the companions of Teucer. (Hom. Il. xii. 372.) 4. A son of Erichthonius, the king of Athens, by the Naiad Pasithea, was married to Zeuxippe, by whom he became the father of Procne and Philomela, and of the twins Erechtheus and Butes. In a war against Labdacus, king of Thebes, he called upon Tereus of Daulis in Phocis, for assistance, and afterwards rewarded him by giving him his daughter Procne in marriage. It was in his reign that Dionysus and Demeter were said to have come to Attica. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 6, &c.; Paus. i. 5. § 3; Thucyd. ii. 29.) 5. A son of Cecrops and Metiadusa, was likewise a king of Athens. Being expelled from Athens by the Metionidae, he fled to Megara, and there married Pylia, the daughter of king Pylas. When the latter, in consequence of a murder, emigrated into Peloponnesus, Pandion obtained the government of Megara. He became the father of *seus Pallas, Nisus, Lycus, and a natural son, Oeneus, and also of a daughter, who was married * Siron (Apollod. iii. 15. § 1, &c.; Paus. i. 5. § * * $ 5 ; Eurip. Med. 660). His tomb was

shown in the territory of Megara, near the rock of Athena Aethyia, on the sea-coast (Paus. i. 5. § 3), and at Megara he was honoured with an heroum (i. 41. § 6). A statue of him stood at Athens, on the acropolis, among those of the eponymic heroes (i. 5. § 3, &c.). [L. S. PANDIO'NIDAE (IIavôtovíðar), a patronymic of Pandion, i.e. the sons of Pandion, who, after their father's death, returned from Megara to Athens, and expelled the Metionidae. Aegeus, the eldest among them, obtained the supremacy, Lycus the eastern coast of Attica, Nisus Megaris, and Pallas the southern coast. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 6; Paus. i. 5. § 4 ; Strab. ix. p. 392; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 285; Dionys. Perieg. 1024.) [L. S.] PANDO'RA (Ilavödpa), i. e. the giver of all, or endowed with every thing, is the name of the first woman on earth. When Prometheus had stolen the fire from heaven, Zeus in revenge caused Hephaestus to make a woman out of earth, who by her charms and beauty should bring misery upon the human race (Hes. Theog. 571, &c.; Stob. Serm. 1). Aphrodite adorned her with beauty, Hermes gave her boldness and cunning, and the gods called her Pandora, as each of the Olympians had given her some power by which she was to work the ruin of man. Hermes took her to Epimetheus, who forgot the advice of his brother Prometheus, not to accept any gift from Zeus, and from that moment all miseries came down upon men (Hes. Op. et Dies, 50, &c.). According to some mythographers, Epimetheus became by her the father of Pyrrha and Deucalion (Hygin. Fab. 142; Apollod. i. 7. § 2; Procl. ad Hes. Op. p. 30, ed. Heinsius; Ov. Met. i.350); others make Pandora a daughter of Pyrrha and Deucalion (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 23). Later writers speak of a vessel of Pandora, containing all the blessings of the gods, which would have been preserved for the human race, had not Pandora opened the vessel, so that the winged blessings escaped irrecoverably. The birth of Pandora was represented on the pedestal of the statue of Athena, in the Parthenon at Athens (Paus. i. 24. § 7). In the Orphic poems Pandora occurs as an infernal awful divinity, and is associated with Hecate and the Erinnyes (Orph. Argon. 974). Pandora also occurs as a surname of Gaea (Earth), as the giver of all. (Schol. ad Aristoph. A v. 970; Philostr. Wit. Apoll. vi. 39 ; Hesych. s. v.) [L. S.] PAND0'RUS (IIavówpos). 1. A son of Erechtheus and Praxithea, and grandson of Pandion, founded a colony in Euboea. . (Apollod. iii. 15. § l; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 281.) 2. A surname of the Earth, in the same sense as Pandora, and of Aesa, or Fate. (Hom. Epigr. 7. 1 ; Stob. Eclog. i. p. 165, ed. Heeren.) [L. S.] PA'NDROSOS (IIávôporos), i.e. “the allbedeving,” or “refreshing,” was a daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, and a sister of Erysichthon, Herse, and Aglauros. According to some accounts she was by Hermes the mother of Ceryx (Pollux, Onom. viii. 9). She was worshipped at Athens, along with Thallo, and had a sanctuary there near the temple of Athena Polias (Apollod. ii. 14. §§ 2, 6 ; Paus. i. 2. § 5, 27. § 3, ix. 35. § 1). Respecting her probable representation in one of the pediments of the Parthenon, see Welcker, in the Class. Mus. vol. iii. p. 380, &c. [L. S.] PANDUS, LATI’NIUS, propraetor of Moesia in the reign of Tiberius, died in his province, A. D. 19. (Tac. Ann. ii. 66.)

PANHELLENIUS (IIavexxiv.os), i.e. the god common to, or worshipped by all the Hellenes or Greeks, occurs as a surname of the Dodonaean Zeus, whose worship had been transplanted by the Hellenes, in the emigration from Thessaly, to Aegina. Subsequently, when the name Hellenes was applied to all the Greeks, the meaning of the god's surname likewise became more extensive, and it was derived from the propitiatory sacrifice which Aeacus was said to have offered on behalf of all the Greeks, and by the command of the Delphic oracle, for the purpose of averting a famine (Paus. i. 44. § 13). On that occasion Aeacus designated Zeus as the national god of all the Greeks (Pind. Nem. v. 19 ; Herod. ix. 7 ; Aristoph. Equit. 1253; Plut. Lycurg. 6). In Aegina there was a sanctuary of Zeus Panhellenius, which was said to have been founded by Aeacus; and a festival, Panhellenia, was celebrated there. (Paus. i. 18. § 9; Müller, Aeginet. p. 18, &c. 155, &c.) [L. S.] PANIDES (IIavíðms), a king of Chalcis on the Euripus, who is said to have given his opinion that Hesiod was superior as a poet to Homer, and hence became proverbial as a man of perverse taste and judgment. (Philostr. Her. xviii. 2.) [L. S.] PANODO'RUS, an Egyptian monk in the reign of the emperor Arcadius, wrote a xpovoypá‘ptov, in which he found great fault with Eusebius, from whom, however, he took many of his statements. He is frequently mentioned by Syncellus. (Voss. de Hist. Graec. p. 308, ed. Westermann ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 444.) PANOMPHAEUS (Ilavoupaios), i.e. the author of all signs and omens, occurs as a surname of Helios (Quint. Smyrn. v. 624), and of Zeus, who had a sanctuary on the Hellespont between capes Rhoeteum and Sigeum. (Hom. Il. viii. 250; Orph. Argon. 660; Ov. Met. xi. 198.) [L. S.] PA/NOPE (IIavórm), the name of two mythical personages, one a daughter of Nereus and Doris (Hom. Il. xviii. 45; Hes. Theog. 250), and the other a daughter of Thespius. (Apollod. ii. 7. § 8. [L. S.] PANOPEUS (IIavoress), a son of Phocus and Asteropaea, and brother of Crisus or Crissus, with whom he is said to have quarrelled even when yet in his mother's womb. He accompanied Amphitryon on his expedition against the Taphians or Teleboans, and took an oath by Athene and Ares not to embezzle any part of the booty. But he broke his oath, and as a punishment for it, his son Epeius became unwarlike. He is also mentioned among the Calydonian hunters. (Hom. Il. xxiii. 665; Lycophr. 935, &c.; Apollod. ii. 4. § 7; Paus. ii. 29. § 4, x. 4. § 1 ; Ov. Met. viii. 312; Schol. ad Eur. Orest. 33.) [L. S.] PANO'PION, URBI’NIUS, was proscribed by the triumvirs in B. c. 43, but was preserved by the extraordinary fidelity of one of his slaves who exchanged dresses with his master, dismissed him by the back-door as the soldiers were entering the villa, then placed himself in the bed of Panopion, and allowed himself to be killed as if he were the latter. Panopion afterwards testified his gratitude by erecting a handsome monument over his slave (Val. Max. vi. 8. § 6; Macrob. Saturn. i. 11). Appian calls the master Appius (B.C. iv. 44); and Dion Cassius (xlvii. 10) and Seneca (de Benef iii. 25) relate the event, but without mentioning any Ilaine.

PANOPTES. [Argus.]

PANSA, a cognomen in many Roman gentes, indicated a person who had broad or splay feet. Pliny classes it with the cognomens Plancus, Plautus, Scaurus (Plin H. N. xi. 45. s. 105). PANSA. Q. APPULEIUS, consul, B. c. 300, with M. Valerius Corvus V. He laid siege to Nequinum in Umbria, but was unable to take the place (Liv. x. 5, 6, 9). PANSA, C. CORE'LLIUS, consul, A.D. 122, with M'. Acilius Aviola (Fasti). PANSA, L. SE'STIUS, whose demand was resisted by Q. Cicero in B. c. 54 (Cic. ad Qu. Fr. ii. li). PANSA, L. TITI/NIUS, with the agnomen S.Accus, one of the consular tribunes B. c. 400, and a second time in B. c. 396. (Liv. v. 12, 18; Fasti Capit.) PANSA, C. VI'BIUS, consul B. c. 43 with A. Hirtius. His father and grandfather also bore the praenomen Caius, as we learn from coins in which the consul is designated c. f. c. N. (see below); but we know nothing of the history of his family, save that his father was proscribed by Sulla (Dion Cass. xlv. 17), which was probably one reason that led Pansa to espouse the side of Caesar, of whom he was always a faithful adherent, and to whom he was indebted for all the honours he obtained in the state. Pansa was tribune of the plebs B. c. 51, in which year he took an active part, in conjunction with M. Caelius, and some of his other colleagues, in opposing the mea. sures which the consul M. Marcellus and others of the aristocratical party were directing against Caesar." (Cic, ad Fam. viii. 8. §§ 6, 7.) Pansa was not employed by Caesar in any important military command during the civil war, but he continued to enjoy his confidence and esteem, and received from him in B. c. 46 the government of Cisalpine Gaul as successor to M. Brutus. Cicero speaks of his departure from the city at the end of December in that year to take the command of the province, and says “that he was followed by extraordinary good wishes on the part of all good men, because he had relieved many from misery, and had shown great good feeling and kindliness in the recent calamities.” (Cic, ad Fam. xv. 17.) Pansa returned to Rome in B. c. 45 ; and in B. c. 44 Caesar nominated him and Hirtius, his colleague in the augurate, consuls for B. c. 43. From that time the name of Pansa becomes so closely connected with that of Hirtius, that it is impossible to relate the history of the one without giving that of the other. The reader is therefore referred to the article HIRT1Us, where he will find an account of the events of the years B. c. 44 and 43, till the fall of both the consuls at Mutina in the month of April in the latter year, together with references to all the ancient authorities. There is a large number of coins bearing the name of Pansa, of which we give three specimens below. The first of these has on the obverse the

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head of Apollo, and on the reverse Pallas in a chariot drawn by four horses; it is supposed by Eckhel more ancient than the time of the consul, and is therefore referred by him to the father or grandfather of the latter. The next two coins belong to the consul. The former bears on the obverse the head of Bacchus, and on the reverse Ceres in a chariot drawn by two dragons: the latter has on the obverse a youthful head, and on the reverse Ceres with a torch in each of her hands and with a pig by her side. (Eckhel, vol. v. P. 339.)

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PANTACLES (Iavraxxis), an Athenian, immortalized by Aristophanes as a pre-eminently stupid man, who, preparing to conduct a procession, put on his helmet before he fixed the crest to it. He was ridiculed also for his stupidity by Eupolis in the Xpwoodvoyévos. (Arist. Ran. 1034 ; Schol. ad loc, ; comp. Meineke, Fragm. Com. Graec. wl. i. p. 145, ii. p. 544.) [E. E.] PANTAENUS (IIávravos), the favourite preceptor of Clemens Alexandrinus. Of what country he was originally, is uncertain. Cave endeavours to seconcile the various accounts by conjecturing that he was of Sicilian parentage, but that he was born in Alexandria. In this city he was undoubtedly educated, and embraced the principles of the stoical school of philosophy. We do not find it mentioned who the Parties were that instructed him in the truths of Christianity, but we learn from Photius (Cod. 118) that he was taught by those who had seen the Apostles, though his statement that he had heard some of the Apostles themselves justly appears to Cave chronologically impossible. About A. D. 181, he had acquired such eminence that he was apPointed master of the catechetical school in Alexandria, an office which he discharged with great Reputation for nine or ten years. At this time the learning and piety of Pantaenus suggested him as * Proper Person to conduct a missionary enterprise * India. Of his success there we know nothing. But we have a singular story regarding it told by * Jerome. It is said that he found in India a *PY of St. Matthew's Gospel, written in Hebrew, *hich had been left by St. Bartholomew, and that * brought it back with him to Alexandria. He Probably resumed his place in the catechetical ** which had been filled during his absence by his Vo and friend Clemens. The persecution * Severus, A. D. 202, drove both Pantaenus

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his labours before his death appears from an expression of Eusebius (H. E. v. 10), Texevrów tryeoral. We do not know the exact date of his death, but it cannot have been prior to A. D. 21 1, as he lived to the time of Caracalla. His name has a place in the calendar of the Roman Church, on the seventh of July. He was succeeded by Clemens Alexandrinus. This, with some other points, has been disputed by Dodwell (ad Irenaeum, p. 501, &c.). who makes Pantaenus to be not the predecessor, but the successor of Clemens. He was a man of much eloquence, if we may trust the opinion of Clemens, who calls him a Sicilian bee. Both Eusebius and Jerome speak of his writings, the latter mentioning his Commentaries on the Scriptures, but we have not even a fragment of them. Cave states that he is numbered by Anastasius of Sinai amongst the commentators who referred the six days' work of the Creation to Christ and the Church. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 569; Cave, Apostolici, p. 127, &c., Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 81, &c.; Euseb. H. E. v. 10.) [W. M.G.] PANTA'LEON (IIavtaxéwy), historical. 1. A son of Alyattes, king of Lydia, by an Ionian woman. His claim to the throne in preference to his brother Croesus was put forward by his partisans during the lifetime of Alyattes, but that monarch decided in favour of Croesus. (Herod. i. 92.) 2. Son of Omphalion, was king or tyrant of Pisa in Elis at the period of the 34th Olympiad (B. c. 644), assembled an army, with which he made himself master of Olympia, and assumed by force the sole presidency of the Olympic games on that occasion. The Eleans on this account would not reckon this as one of the regular Olympiads. (Paus. vi. 21. § 1, 22. § 2.) We learn also from Strabo that Pantaleon assisted the Messenians in the second Messenian war (Strab. viii. p. 362), which, according to the chronology of Pausanias, followed by Mr. Clinton, must have been as much as thirty years before ; but C. O. Müller and Mr. Grote regard the intervention of Pantaleon as furnishing the best argument for the real date of the war in question. (Clinton, F. H. vol. i. p. 188; Müller's Dorians, vol. i. p. 17; ; Grote's Greece, vol. ii. p. 574.) 3. A Macedonian of Pydna, an officer in the service of Alexander, who was appointed by him governor of Memphis, B. c. 331. (Arr. Anal. iii. 5. § 4. o An Aetolian, one of the chief citizens and political leaders of that people, who was the principal author of the peace and alliance concluded by the Aetolians with Aratus and the Achaeans, B. c. 239. (Plut. Arat. 33.) He was probably the same as the father of Archidamus, mentioned by Polybius (iv. 57). 5. An Aetolian, probably a grandson of the preceding, is first mentioned as one of the ambassadors charged to bear to the Roman general, M. Acilius Glabrio, the unqualified submission of the Aetolians, B. c. 191. (Polyb. xx. 9.) Again, in B. c. 169 he appears as one of the deputies at Thermus before C. Popillius, when he uttered a violent harangue against Lyciscus and Thoas, (Id. xxviii. 4.) He is also mentioned as present with Eumenes at Delphi, when the life of that monarch was attempted by the emissaries of Perseus. On this occasion he is termed by Livy “Aetoliae princeps.” (Liv. xlii. 15.) 6. A king of Bactria, or rather perhaps of the I

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lmdo-Caucasian provinces south of the Paropamisus, known only from his coins. From these it appears probable that he was the successor of Agathocles, and his reign is referred by Professor Wilson to about B. c. 120 (Ariana, p. 300); but Lassen would assign it to a much earlier period. (Lassen, Zur Gesch. d. Griechischen Königen v. Baktrien, pp. 192, 263.) The coins of these two kings, Agathocles and Pantaleon, are remarkable as bearing inscriptions both in the Greek and in Sanscrit characters. [E. H. B.] PANTALEON (TIavraxéwy), literary. 1. A writer on culinary subjects, mentioned by Pollux (vi. 70), where the old reading, IIavroxéwV, is undoubtedly inaccurate. 2. A Constantinopolitan deacon and chartophylax, who probably lived in the middle of the thirteenth century. Several works of his, principally sermons, have been published, both in the original Greek, and in Latin, for which consult Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol. x. pp. 199, 242, 247, 258, vol. xi. p. 455, and Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. ii. Diss. p. 15. [W. M. G.] PANTALEON, ST. (IIavrax{wv), or PANTOLEON (IIavroxéww), or PANTELEEMON (IIavtexesuw), a physician of Nicomedia in Bithynia, in the third century after Christ, the son of Eustorgius, a person of wealth and consequence, but strongly devoted to paganism. His mother, whose name was Eubula, was a zealous Christian, and educated him in the Christian faith ; she died, however, while he was yet young, and he was in danger of relapsing into paganism. After receiving a good preliminary education, he studied medicine under a physician named Euphrosynus, and by his engaging manners and good conduct attracted the notice of the Emperor Maximian, so that he was intended for the post of one of the royal physicians. About this time he became acquainted with an aged Christian priest, named Hermolaus, by whom he was confirmed in his attachment to the Christian faith, and shortly after baptized. He then endeavoured to convert his father from paganism, in which attempt he at last succeeded. He made himself an object of dislike and envy to the other physicians by the number of cures he effected, and was at last denounced to the emperor as a Christian. After being in vain tempted to embrace paganism, and suffering many tortures (from some of which he is said to have been miraculously delivered), he was at last beheaded, probably A. D. 303. The name of Pantelečmon was given him on account of his praying for his murderers. His memory is celebrated in the Romish church on July 27. A very interesting account of his life and martyrdom is given in the “Acta Sanctorum” (Jul. 27. vol. vi. p. 397), taken chiefly from Simeon Metaphrastes. (See Bzovius, Nomenclator Sanctor. Professione Medicor. ; C. B. Carpzovius, De Medicis ab Eccles. pro Sanctis habitis, and the authors there referred to.) [W. A. G.] PANTAUCHUS (IIávrauxos). 1. A Macedonian of Alorus, son of Nicolaus, an officer in the service of Alexander, was one of those appointed to the command of a trireme on the descent of the Indus, B. c. 327. (Arr. Ind. 18.) Though this is the only occasion during the wars of that monarch on which his name is mentioned, yet we are told that he had earned a great reputation both for ability as a commander and for his personal strength and prowess. These qualities obtained for him a

high place among the generals of Demetrius Poliorcetes, who in B. c. 289 left him with a large force to hold possession of Aetolia against Pyrrhus. On the approach of that monarch, Pantauchus hastened to meet him, and give him battle, when a single combat ensued between the young king and the veteran officer, in which the former was victorious. Pantauchus was carried off the field severely wounded, and his army was totally routed. Whether or not he died of his wounds we know not, but his name is not again mentioned. (Plut. Pyrrh. 7, Demetr. 41.) 2. Son of Balacrus, one of the chief friends and counsellors of Perseus, king of Macedonia, by whom we find him employed on various important confidential occasions. Thus in B. c. 171 he was one of the hostages given by the king during his conference with the Roman deputy Q. Marcius, and subsequently one of the ambassadors sent to P. Licinius Crassus with proposals for peace: and three years later (b. c. 168) he was despatched to Gentius, king of Illyria, to secure the adherence of that monarch, at whose court he remained for some time, stimulating him to acts of open hostility against Rome, and urging him to throw his whole power into the contest in favour of Perseus. (Polyb. xxvii. 8, xxix. 2, 3; Liv. xlii. 39, xliv. 23.) [E. H. B.] PANTELEEMON. [PANTALEoN.] PANTELEUS (IIavréAeos), the author of nine verses in the Greek Anthology, the first two of which stand in the Vatican MS. as an epigram on Callimachus and Cynageirus, the well-known leaders of the Athenians at the battle of Marathon (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 404, Anth. Pal. App. No. 58). There can be no doubt that the lines are a fragment of an heroic poem on the battle of Marathon, or the Persian war in general; but we have no indication of the author's age. (See Jacobs, Comment. in Anth. Graec. vol. ii. pt. 3, p. 193, vol. iii. pt. 3, p. 929; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 480, ed. Westermann; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. p. 486.) [P.S.] PANTHEIA. [ABRADATAs.] PANTHOEDUS (IIavtotôos), a dialectic philosopher about B. c. 270, who wrote a treatise, meal duopišoxiów, which was attacked by Chrysippus. He was the preceptor of Lycon, the peripatetic philosopher. (Diog. Laërt. v. 68, vii. 193.) [W. M. G.] PANTHOUS (IIáv6oos), one of the elders at Troy, was married to Phrontis, and the father of Euphorbus, Polydamas, and Hyperenor. (Hom. Il. iii. 146, xiv. 450, xvii. 24, 40, 81.) Wirgil (Aen. ii. 319) makes him a son of Othrys, and a priest of Apollo, a dignity to which, according to Servius on this passage, he was raised by Priam ; origimally he was a Delphian, and had been carried to Troy by Antenor, on account of his beauty. (Comp. Lucian, Gall. 17.) [L. S.] PANTIAS (IIavrías), of Chios, a statuary of the school of Sicyon, who is only mentioned as the maker of some statues of athletes. He was instructed in his art by his father, Sostratus, who was the seventh in the succession of disciples from Aristocles of Cydonia: Pantias, therefore, flourished probably about B. c. 420–388. (Paus. vi. 3. § 1, 9. § 1, 14. § 3; Thiersch, Epochen, pp. 143, 278, 282; ARistocles.) [P. S.] PANTO'LEON. [PANTALEoN.] PANTULEl US, A., a sculptor, who lived in Greece in the reign of Hadrian, whose statue he made for the Milesians. (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. i No. 339.) [P. S.] PANURGUS, the name of the slave of Fannius Chaerea, whom the latter entrusted to Roscius, the actor, for instruction in his art. [CHAEREAs, 677, b.] P. PANYASIS (IIavčaris).” 1. A Greek epic poet, lived in the fifth century before the Christian arm. His name is also written slavijaga is and slamians, but there can be no doubt that IIavûaris is the correct way. According to Suidas (s. v.) he was the son of Polyarchus and a native of Halicarnassus; and although the historian Duris stated that he was a Samian and the son of Diocles, yet the authority of Suidas is to be preferred, at least as far as respects his birth-place, since both Pausanias (x. 8. § 5) and Clemens Alexandrinus (vi. 2. $52) likewise call him a native of Halicarnassus. Panyasis belonged to one of the noblest families at Halcarnassus, and was a relation of the historian Herodotus, though the exact relationship in which they stood to one another is uncertain. One account made the poet the first cousin of the historian, Panyasis being the son of Polyarchus, and Herodotus the son of Lyxes, the brother of Polyarchus. Another account made Panyasis the uncle of Herodotus, the latter being the son of Rhoeo or Dryo, who was the sister of the poet (Suidas, s.v.). These conflicting accounts have given rise to much dispute among modern writers, but the latter statement, according to which Panyasis was the uncle of Herodotus, has been usually preferred. Panyasis began to be known about B. c. 489, continued in reputation till B. c. 467, in which year he is placed by Suidas, and was put to death by Lygdamis, the tyrant of Halicarnassus, probably about the same time that Herodotus left his native town, that is o B. c. 457 (Clinton, F. H. sub annis 489, 457). Ancient writers mention two poems by Panyasis. Of these the most celebrated was entitled Heracleia (Hodkaela, Athen. xi. pp. 469, d. 498, c.) or Heradeias ('Hpakaelas, Suidas), which gave a detailed account of the exploits of Heracles. It consisted of fourteen books and nine thousand verses; and it appears, as far as we can judge from the references to it in ancient writers, to have passed over briefly the adventures of the hero which had been related by previous poets, and to have dwelt chiefly upon his exploits in Asia, Libya, the HesPerides, &c. An outline of the contents of the various books, as far as they can be restored, is given by Müller, in an appendix to his work on the Dorians (vol. i. p. 532, Engl. transl. 1st ed.). The other poem of Panyasis bore the name of Ionica ('Leriká), and contained 7000 verses; it related the history of Neleus, Codrus, and the Ionic colonies, probably much in the same way as others had described in poetry the Krigets or dpxaoxoysal of different states and countries. Suidas relates that this poem was written in pentameters, but it is improbable that at so early a period a poem of such a length was written simply in pentameters;

* The quantity of the name is doubtful. A late poet (Avien. Arat. Phaen. 175) makes the Penultimate short:—

“Panyasised nota tamen, cui longior aetas,”

*** was probably long in earlier times.

still, as no fragments of it have come down to us, we have no certain information on the subject. We do not know what impression the poems of Panyasis made upon his contemporaries and their immediate descendants, but it was probably not great, as he is not mentioned by any of the great Greek writers. But in later times his works were extensively read, and much admired ; the Alexandrine grammarians ranked him with Homer, Hesiod, Peisander, and Antimachus, as one of the five principal epic poets, and some even went so far as to compare him with Homer (comp. Suidas, s.v.; Dionys. de Vet. Script. Cens. c. 2, p. 419, ed. Reiske ; Quintil. x. l. § 54). Panyasis occupied an intermediate position between the later cyclic poets and the studied efforts of Antimachus, who is stated to have been his pupil (s. v. 'Avtsuaxos). From two of the longest fragments which have come down to us (Athen. ii. p. 36; Stobaeus, xviii. 22), it appears that Panyasis kept close to the old Ionic form of epic poetry, and had imbibed no small portion of the Homeric spirit. The fragments of the Heracleia are given in the collections of the Greek poets by Winterton, Brunck, Boissonade, and Gaisford ; in Düntzer's Fragments of Greek epic poetry, and in the works of Tzschirner and Funcke, quoted below. (The histories of Greek literature by Bode, Ulrici, and Bernhardy; Tzschirner, De Panyasidis Vita et Carminibus Dissertatio, Vratisl. 1836, and Fragmenta, 1842; Funcke, De Panyasidis Vita ac Poesi Dissert. Bonn. 1837; Eckstein, in Ersch and Gruber's Encyklopädie, art. Panyasis.) 2. A philosopher, also a native of Halicarnassus, who wrote two books “On Dreams” (IIepi Öveipwy, Suidas, s. v.). This must be the Panyasis, whom Artemiodorus refers to in his Oneirocritica (i. 64, ii. 35), and whom he expressly calls a Halicarnassian. Tzschirner conjectures that the passage of Duris above referred to has reference to this Panyasis; that the poet had a son named Diocles, and that the philosopher was therefore a grandson of the poet, and was called a Samian by Duris from his residence in that island. That Suidas has confounded the two persons, as he frequently does, seems probable from his calling the poet Tepatoakóros, an epithet which would be much more appropriate to the philosopher, who wrote upon dreams. PAPAEUS or PAPAS (IIaraios or IIáras), “father,” a surname of Zeus among the Scythians (Herod. iv. 59), and of Attis. (Diod. iii. 58.) [L. S.] PA/PHIA (IIapía), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from the celebrated temple of the goddess at Paphos in Cyprus. A statue of Aphrodite Paphia also stood in the sanctuary of Ino, between Oetylus and Thalamae in Laconia. (Paus. iii. 36 ; Tac. Hist. ii. 2; Hom. Hymn. in Ven. 59; Apollod. iii. 14. § 2; Strab. xiv. p. 683.) [L. S.] PAPHUS (IIáqos), a son of Pygmalion and the statue into which life had been breathed by Aphrodite. From him the town of Paphus is said to have derived its name; and Pygmalion himself is called the Paphian hero. (Ov. Met. x. 290, &c.) The father of Cinyras, the founder of the temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, is likewise called Paphus. (Hygin. Fab. 242; Apollod. iii. 14. § 2.) | L. S.] PA'PIA, the wife of Oppianicus. (Cic. pro Cluent. 9.) PA'PIA GENS, plebeian, was originally a

Samnite family. In the Samnite wars a Papius y

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