in the empire, and whom he put to death a few months afterwards, when he concluded a peace with Constantine, who stipulated positively for the deposition of this puppet Caesar. Eckhel assigns a medal bearing on the obverse the legend IMP. c. AUR. v.A.L. v ALENs. P. F. AUG., and on the reverse Jovi conservator, I AUGG., to this Walens; but it seems doubtful whether he ever received, formally at least, any higher title than that of Caesar. [Compare MARTINIANUs.] (Excerpta Wales. 17, 18; Aurel. Wict. Epit. 40; Zosim. ii. 19, 20.) [W. R.] WALENS, DONATIUS, a centurion in the army of Hordeonius Flaccus in Germany, attempted with some few others to protect the images of Galba, when the rest of the soldiers revolted to Vitellius, but was seized, and shortly afterwards put to death. (Tac. Hist. i. 56, 59.) VALENS, FA’BIUS. 1. One of the principal generals of the Emperor Vitellius in A. D. 69. His character is drawn in the blackest colours by Tacitus; and among the various profligate commanders in that civil war, Valens seems to have been the most notorious for his avarice, venality, and cruelty. He was of an equestrian family, and was born at Anagnia, a town of Latium. He entered freely into the debaucheries of Nero's court, and at the festival of the Juvenalia, in which the most distinguished persons of the state were obliged to take a part (see Dict, of Antiq. s. v. Jurenalia, 2d ed.), he was accustomed to act the licentious part of a mime, at first, as if by compulsion, but afterwards evidently from choice. He was subsequently appointed by Nero legatus of the first legion in Germany. In the troubles immediately preceding and following Nero's death, Valens endeavoured to persuade Verginius Rufus, who governed Upper Germany, to assume the purple ; and when Rufus refused to do so, Valens sought to blacken his character, and accused him to Galba of attempting to make himself emperor. Soon after Galba’s accession, Valens, in conjunction with the legate of another legion, Cornelius Aquinus, put to death Fonteius Capito, the governor of Lower Germany, on the plea that he was intending to revolt, but, as many thought, because he had refused to take up arms at the solicitation of Valens and Aquinus. However this may be, Valens claimed great merit with Galba for the services he had rendered him in exposing the plots of Verginius Rufus, and destroying Fonteius Capito, who might have been a dangerous rival; and upon receiving no reward, he complained bitterly that he had been treated with ingratitude. Accordingly, upon the arrival of Vitellius in Lower Germany as the successor of Capito, Valens was one of the first to urge him to seize the empire, and this time he was more successful than he had been with his former commanders. The legions in Upper Germany refused to take the oath of allegiance to Galba on the 1st of January, A. D. 69. Valens thereupon marched into Cologne on the following day, and saluted Vitellius as emperor. His example was immediately followed by the soldiers in Lower Germany, and on the next day by those of Upper Germany, and active preparations were made to prosecute the war against Galba. Vitellius entrusted the conduct of it to Valens and A. Caecina, the latter of whom had commanded a legion in Upper Germany, and had been one of the chief leaders of the revolt in favour of Vitellius.

Valens was entrusted with 40,000 men belonging to the army of Lower Germany, with orders to march through Gaul, and persuade it to submit to Witellius, or, if he could not succeed in so doing, to lay it waste with fire and sword, and finally to cross over into Italy by Mont Genèvre (Cottianis Alpibus). Caecina received 30,000 men belonging to the army of Upper Germany, with orders to march direct into Italy by the pass of the Great St. Bernard (Poeninis jugis). Valens commenced his march early in January. His formidable army secured him a friendly reception in Gaul; but upon his arrival at Diviodurum (Metz), his soldiers were seized with a panic terror, and slaughtered 4000 of the inhabitants. This massacre, however, instead of provoking any resistance in Gaul, only made the people still more anxious to deprecate the wrath of the troops. On reaching the capital of the Leuci, the modern Toul, Valens received intelligence of the death of Galba and the accession of Otho ; and this news produced the recognition of Vitellius throughout the whole of Gaul, the inhabitants of which detested alike both Otho and Vitellius, but were more afraid of the latter. Valens, therefore, continued to advance without any interruption. The inhabitants of Lugdunum (Lyons) persuaded him to march against Vienna (Vienne), which had espoused the cause of Windex and Galba; but the Viennenses averted the impending danger by throwing themselves before the army as suppliants, and by giving an immense sum of money to Walens, of which the soldiers likewise received a small portion. The avarice of Valens knew no bounds, and he employed the great power which he now possessed, to gratify it in every possible manner. Throughout his march the proprietors of the lands and the magistrates of the cities paid hin large sums of money not to march through their property or encamp upon it; and if money failed, they were obliged to appease him by sacrificing their wives and daughters to his lusts. On his arrival in Italy, Valens took up his quarters at Ticinum (Pavia), where he nearly lost his life in an insurrection of the soldiers. He took refuge in the dress of a slave in the tent of one of his officers, who concealed him till the danger was over. Valens afterwards put this man to death on suspicion of his having taken a thousand drachmae from his baggage. (Dion Cass. lxiv, 16; comp. Tac. Hist. ii. 29.) Caecina, who had arrived in Italy before Valens, had meantime been defeated by the generals of Vitellius in the neighbourhood of Cremona; and although Valens and Caecina disliked each other, and it was thought that the latter had been defeated, because Valens had purposely not made sufficient haste to join him, yet their mutual interests now led them to unite their forces, and to act in harmony against the common enemy. Otho's generals earnestly dissuaded him from risking a battle, but their opinion was overruled by the emperor, who was anxious to bring the war to a close. The result was the battle of Bedriacum, in which Valens and Fabius gained a decisive victory, and thus secured for Vitellius the sovereignty of Italy. [OTho..] The two generals remained in northern Italy for some time after the battle, till they were joined by Vitellius, whom they accompanied to Rome. Vitellius advanced them to the consulship, which they entered upon on the 1st of September, and he left the whole government in their hands

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Although they were more jealous of one another than ever, they agreed in one point, which was to obtain all the property they could lay their hands on, while their besotted master was indulging in every kind of debauchery. But the approach of Antonius Primus, who had espoused the cause of Vespasian, and was marching into Italy at the head of the Pannonian and Moesian legions, compelled Caecina and Valens to prepare again for war. As Valens was at the time only just beginning to recover from a severe illness, he was obliged to remain at Rome, while his colleague marched against Primus. The treachery of Caecina, who deserted Vitellius and joined Primus, has been related elsewhere. [CAEcINA.] Valens remained faithful to Vitellius, almost the only fact recorded in his favour. He had left Rome a few days after Caecina, and might perhaps have prevented the revolt of the latter, if the indulgence of his pleasures had not delayed him on the march. He was still in Tuscany when he heard of the victory of Primus and the capture of Cremona [PRIMUs], and as he had not sufficient troops to oppose the enemy, he resolved to sail to Gaul and rouse the Gallic provinces to espouse the cause of Vitellius: but he was taken prisoner by some ships sent after him by Suetonius Paulinus at the islands of the Stoechadae (the Hieres) off Massilia. He was kept in confinement for a time, but about the middle of Sep. tember was slain at Urbinum (Urbino) and his head shown to the Vitellian troops, to contradict the report that he had escaped to Germany and was there collecting an army. (Tac. Hist. i. 7, 52, 57, 61. 66, ii. 24, 27–30, 56, 59, 71, 92, 95, 99, iii. 15, 36, 40, 43, 62; Plut. Otho, c. 6.) 2. A friend of the younger Pliny, who addressed a letter to him (Ep. iv. 24), from which we gather that he was a young man at the time. VALENS, MA'NLI US, legatus of a legion in Britain in the reign of Claudius, A. D. 50. He is afterwards mentioned as the legatus of the Italica legion in the civil wars in A. D. 69, and is probably the same as the C. Manlius Valens, who was consul with C. Antistius Vetus in the last year of Domitian's reign, and who died in the same year in the ninetieth year of his age. (Tac. Ann. xii. 40, Hist. i. 64; Dion Cass. lxvii. 14.) VALENS, PINA'RIUS, was named praefect of the praetorians upon the elevation of Maximus and Balbinus. He was paternal uncle of the former. (Capitolin. Mar. et Bulb. 4, 5). [W. R.] VALENS, VECTIUS. See above VALENs, physicians, No. 1. WALENS, WI'NNIUS, a centurion in the praetorium of Augustus, memorable for his extraordinary strength. (Plin. H. N. vii. 19. s. 20.) VALENTINIA'NUS I., Roman emperor A. D. 364–375, was the son of Gratianus, and was born A. D. 321, at Cibalis in Pannonia. [GRAti.ANt's...] He bore also the name of Flavius, which was common to all the emperors after Constantine. His first wife was Valeria Severa, by whom he became the father of the emperor Gra. tianus. Valentinian entered the army when young, and showed military talents ; but the emperor Constantinus for some reason or other deprived him of his rank A. D. 357. Under Julian he held the office of tribune of the guard, or of the Scutarii, as Orosius terms the body (vii. 32), and in this capacity he was with Julian at Antioch, A. D. 362, and accompanied him to a heathen temple. Julian,

it is said, commanded him to sacrifice to the idol, or resign his office ; but Valentinian, who had been baptized in the Christian faith, refused. According to most of the historians, Valentinian was . exiled for his adherence to his religion. Jovian succeeded Julian A. D. 363, and Lucilianus, the father-in-law of Valentinian, took him with him to Gaul. Lucilianus lost his life in a disturbance at Rheims, and Valentiman only saved himself by flight. Returning to the East he was rewarded by Jovian with the office of captain of the second company of Scutarii. When Jovian died suddenly at Dadastana, on the borders of Galatia and Bithynia, on the 16th of February, A. D. 364, Valentinian was at Ancyra. For ton days the empire was without an emperor, but it was at last agreed by the officers of the army of Jovian, who were at Nicaea, that Valentinian should be the successor of Jovian. Valentinian came to Nicaea, and on the 26th of February he assumed the imperial insignia in the presence of the army in the plain of Nicaea. Valentinian maintained the pure Catholic faith, though his brother Valens was an Arian. He forbade, under pain of death, all pagan ceremonials, magical arts and sacrifices by night; but this was a prudent measure of police, and nothing more. He restored the figure of the cross and the name of Jesus Christ on the Labarum or chief standard of the armies, for Julian had removed these Christian symbols. He also renewed and perhaps extended a law of Constantine, which forbade any judicial proceedings, or the execution of any judicial sentence on Sunday. However, Valentinian did not meddle with religious disputes, and either from indifference or good sense, he said it was not for him, a layman, to deal with difficulties of that description. Though a Catholic, he did not persecute either Arians or heathens: he let every man follow his own religion, for which Ammianus Marcellinus (xxx. 9) has commended him ; and certainly his moderation in this respect must be considered a remarkable feature in his character. Though there were some enactments made by him against Manichaeans, Donatists and the other heretics, the general religious freedom which he allowed is undisputed (Cod. Theod. 9. tit. 16. s. 9), and the emperor set an example which even now is not completely followed in modern Europe. This is the most unequivocal evidence of the good sense and the courage of Valentinian. Ecclesiastical writers, like Baronius, as a matter of course blame that toleration which they suppose to be condemned by the religion which they profess. Ammianus and other writers have spoken particularly of the personal merits and defects of Valentinian. He was robust and handsome ; he had a natural eloquence, though he had no literary acquirements ; he was neat in his apparel, but not expensive ; and his chastity is specially recorded. He possessed good abilitics, prudence, and vigor of character. He had a capacity for military matters, and was a vigilant, impartial, and laborious administrator. Ammianus sums up by saying that he had so many good qualities that, if every thing had been equal in him, he would have been as great a man as Trajan or Marcus Aurelius. Among his faults was that of having a very good opinion of himself, and he punished sometimes with excessive severity. Yet he is accused of behaving with too much leni:y

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to the officers when they misconducted themselves; and of enriching himself by arbitrary means, though the same authorities say that he endeavoured to alleviate the sufferings of the people. The truth is that the character of a man, who possesses supreme power, may be made to appear almost anything, according to a writer's temper and judgment. Many instances of the severity, and even of the cruelty of Valentinian are recorded ; and Gibbon, following chiefly the authority of Ammianus, has made him a monster of cruelty. Yet Valentinian had feelings of compassion, when he was not in an angry mood, and he promulgated a constitution against the exposure of children (Cod. Just 8. tit. 51. (52.) s. 2. A. D. 374); and he encouraged learning, though he was illiterate, by the foundation of schools. (Cod. Theod. 14. tit. 9.) Valentinian, after being declared emperor on the 26th of February, moved to Nicomedia on the 1st of March, where he conferred on his brother Valens the dignity of Constable, that is, he made him chief of the stable ; and on the 28th of March, being then at Constantinople, he declared him Augustus in the Hebdomon, or field of Mars, in the neighbourhood of that city. The two brothers confirmed to the town of Nicaea, when Valentinian was declared emperor, the title of Metropolis, and raised it to equal rank with Nicomedia. In the early part of this year the two emperors left Constantinople, and passed through Hadrianople, Philippopolis, and Sardica, to Naesus in Dacia, in the neighbourhood of which they remained some days to arrange the affairs of the empire. Valentinian kept Jovinus general of the troops in Gaul (magister armorum), to which rank he had been promoted by Julian, and Dagalaephus (militiae rector), who owed his promotion to Jovian. Victor and Arinthaeus were attached to the service of Valens. Zosimus, indeed, states (iv. 2) that the two emperors were hostile to all the friends of Julian, and that all those who had been promoted by Julian were deprived of their offices, except Arinthaeus and Victor; but Zosimus may be mistaken here, as in other cases. The provinces of the empire were also distributed between the two brothers. Valens had the East, comprising Asia, Egypt, and Thrace; Valentinian had the West, comprising Illyricum, Italy, the Gauls, Britain, Spain, and Africa. After this partition Valens set out for Constantinople to govern the East, of which he knew not even the language, and Walentinian for Italy. Valentinian went to Milan, where he arrived some time in November, and he stayed there till the beginning of A. D. 365. Volusianus, prefect of Rome, was succeeded in this year by Symmachus, the father of the orator, to whom some constitutions of Walentinian are addressed, by which the emperor endeavoured to secure the provisioning of Rome, and provided for the repair of the buildings. A constitution of this year enacted that the governors of provinces must not sit in judgment in matters civil or criminal, in private, but that judicial proceedings must be held with open doors. The nations on the Roman frontiers were disturbing the provinces, and the vigilance of Walentinian was required to protect his empire. Romanus, who had been made comes of Africa under Jovian (A. D. 363), instead of protecting the country, which he was sent to govern, plundered

the people worse than the border tribes. On the accession of Valentinian, the people of Leptis sent their presents to the new emperor, and at the same time represented to him the wretched condition of their country. In the mean time, a barbarous tribe, called Austuriani, were threatening Leptis and plundering the country, and Valentinian sent Palladius to inquire into the state of affairs in the province of Africa. But Palladius, who was corrupted by Romanus, reported that the people of Leptis and the rest of the province had nothing to complain of The result was, that those who had complained of Romanus were punished (Amm. Marc. xxviii. 6). It appears from various constitutions, that Walentinian visited several places in North Italy during the year A. D. 365. A constitution of this year appears to be the earliest in which the Defensores are spoken of, and it is addressed to “Seneca Defensor" (Cod. Just. i. tit. 55). In the month of October Valentinian left Italy for Gaul, and he was at Paris about the end of the month. His presence was required by an irruption of the Allemanni, who had ravaged the country west of the Rhine. Valentinian sent Dagalaephus against them, and he went himself as far as Rheims; but the Allemanni had retired, and Valentinian returned to Paris, where he appears to have remained the following year A. D. 366. In the beginning of A. D. 366 the Allemanni again entered Gaul during a severe winter, defeated the Roman troops and killed Charietto, who was comes of the Two Germanies. Dagalaephus, who was sent against the Allemanni by the emperor, was tardy in his movements, and he was replaced by Jovinus the master of the horse (magister equitum), who defeated the Allemanni in several engagements. One battle was fought at Scarponna between Metz and Toul, and another in the neighbourhood of Châlons-sur-Marne with a body of Allemanni which had penetrated as far as this place. Jovinus announced his victory to the emperor at Paris, who at the same time received the head of the usurper Procopius, which had been sent to him by his brother Valens. Valentinian appears to have passed the close of the year and the winter-at Rheims. At this time he built forts on the Rhine to stop the incursions of the Germans, and he recruited his armies for the defence of this frontier. His measures secured tranquillity on that side of the empire during the rest of his reign. The residence of Valentinian at Rheims to the month of June A. D. 367, is proved by the constitutions which he promulgated. One of the 18th of August is dated from Amiens, and addressed to Praetextatus, praefect of Rome. During this time he was suffering so much from illness that there was talk about his successor; but Valentinian recovered, and, on the 24th of August, his son Grotianus, then little more than eight years of age, was declared Augustus at Amiens in presence of the army. About this time Valentinian divorced his wife Severa or Valeria Severa, and married Justina, a Sicilian woman, by whom he became the father of Valentinian II. and of three daughters, one of whom, Galla, was afterwards the wife of Theodosius I. Justina was an Arian, but she concealed her heresy as long as her husband lived. At the close of A. D. 367 the Allemanni, under Randon, surprised and pillaged Moguntiarum (Mainz) during a festival which the Christius

were celebrating. The Romans retaliated by gaining over an Allemann to assassinate his king Withicabus, a man who in a feeble body possessed a great spirit, and had caused the Romans no small trouble. While the emperor was on his road from Amiens to Treves on the Mosel, he heard of the ravages which the Picts and other barbarians were committing in Britain. The conduct of this war was finally entrusted to Theodosius, the father of the first emperor Theodosius. [Thronosius.] To the year A. D. 368 probably belongs a constitution of Valentinian addressed to Olybrius, then prefect of Rome (Cod. Theod. 2. tit. 10. s. 2; Cod. Just. 2. tit. 6. s. 6), for the regulation of the conduct of advocates, who were forbidden to use abusive language, or to say anything which might injure the reputation of the party to whom they were opposed, unless it was necessary to maintain the case of their client. The constitution contains other regulations. By another constitution he ordered that there should be a physician appointed for each of the fourteen regions of Rome, to look after the health of the poor. In the autumn of this year Valentinian left Treves for an expedition against the Allemanni, whom he drove with great loss from a mountain where they had fortified themselves. This place called Solicinium has been conjectured to be Sulz, near the source of the Necker. The emperor returned with his son to Treves, which he entered in a kind of triumph. In A. D. 369 Valentinian was occupied with building forts on the left bank of the Rhine, from its mouth to the country of the Rhaeti; and he also constructed some forts on the other side of the river. Mannheim, at the junction of the Necker and the Rhine, is supposed to be one of these positions. His residence was chiefly at Treves during this year, but he made excursions to various places on the Rhine. A story recorded in the Alexandrine Chronicle, and also in Zonaras, of the emperor's severity seems hardly credible. An eunuch named Rhodanus, an attendant on Valentinian, had been convicted before Sallustius of defrauding a widow, and he was ordered to make restitution. Instead of doing this he appealed from the judgment, and the widow was advised to present her petition to Valentinian when he was seated in the Circus. The eunuch was near his master, when the widow presented her petition, and the emperor immediately ordered the eunuch to be seized, to be carried round the Circus while proclamation of his crime was made, and then to be burnt alive in the presence of the spectators. In A. D. 370 Valentinian was still at Treves, or near it, as appears from the constitutions promulgated in this year. The Saxons now broke loose on the Roman territory, where they plundered all before them ; but they were alarmed by the appearance of Severus, commander of the infantry (peditum magister), who made peace with them on condition of their retiring. But the Romans treacherously laid an ambuscade, and destroyed the Saxons on their march back, at a place called Deuso, according to Hieronymus, which may be Deutz, opposite to Cologne. Ammianus (xxviii. 5) considered this treachery justifiable under the circumstances. A constitution of this year addressed to Damasus, bishop of Rome (Cod. Theod. 16. tit. 2. s. 20), was intended to check the greediness of the clergy. It is commented on by Gibbon with his usual relish for scandal against

the clergy, against whom, however, we have the evidence of the imperial constitution, and that of Hieronymus. Damasus, the bishop of Rome, was himself a man of dubious character, and the virtuous Praetextatus, a pagan, told him that he would turn Christian himself if he could secure the see of Rome, “a reproach,” observes Gibbon, “ in the form of a jest.” Ammianus (xxviii. 1) gives an account of the cruelties exercised at Rome by Maximinus, who held the office of the Vicaria Praefectura, against persons who were accused of magical arts. Maximinus put many persons to the torture, and even to death, upon the charge of using magic. Maximinus was punished by Gratian, the successor of Valentinian, for all his misdeeds. Magic, or whatever is meant by the term, was a great abomination in the eyes of Valentinian: he permitted all the arts of the Roman aruspices to be practised, and every other ceremonial of the ancient religion, provided no magic was practised. He even maintained the Pontifices in the provinces in all their privileges, and allowed them the same rank as Comites. This was going even beyond toleration, and further than a wise policy can justify. He relieved from all civil duties such ecclesiastics as devoted all their time to the service of the church, and had entered the clerical body before the commencement of his reign; but as to others, they were liable to discharge all civil duties like any layman. These and other constitutions of the first half of A. D. 371 were promulgated at Treves, the favourite residence of Valentinian, which he left for a short time to conduct operations against the Germans in the neighbourhood of Mainz. He was again at Trèves in December, and he appears to have passed the year A. D. 372 there or in the neighbourhood. The emperor did nothing this year that is recorded, except to promulgate a constitution against the Manichaeans, who were always treated with great severity. The year A. D. 373 was the fourth joint consulship of the two Augusti, Valentinian and Valens, and Valentinian spent a great part of this year in Italy. Maximinus was made Praefectus (of Gaul, as Tillemont shows), and this brought about the ruin of Remigius, once Magister Officiorum, who had been a partner of Comes Romanus in his maladministration. Remigius had resigned his office and retired to the pleasant neighbourhood of his native Mainz to cultivate the land. Maximinus, who was somewhere near, which is confirmatory of Tillemont's conjecture that he was in this year prefect of Gaul, put to the torture one Caesarius, who had served under Remigius, in order that he might discover what Remigius had received from Romanus. Remigius, being informed of these proceedings against him, hanged himself (Amm. Marc. xxx, 2). Palladius, who had deceived his master in the affair of Comes Romanus, was also arrested by order of Valentinian ; and he too pronounced his own sentence, and executed it by hanging himself. Romanus, the chief criminal, was put in prison by Theodosius, when he was sent against Firmus [THEodosius], and proof was found of his knavery in the affair of Leptis. The historian, however, has not the gratification of finding any evidence of the punishment of Romanus, either under the reign of Valentinian or that of his successor.

Valentinian passed the winter of A. D. 373 at Milan, but he was again at Treves in May and June of the following year A. D. 374. He was upon the Rhine, probably in the neighbourhood of Bâle, when he received intelligence of the Quadi invading Illyricum: the cause was this. As the emperor was anxious to protect the frontiers, he ordered some forts to be built north of the Danube, in the country of the Quadi. The Quadi complained of this encroachment to Equitius, master-general of Illyricum, who consented to suspend the works till the emperor had signified his pleasure. But Marcellinus, the son of Maximinus, was made dux of Valeria, a province of Illyricum, by his father's interest, and he continued the fortifications without troubling himself about the Quadi. The king of the Quadi, Gabinius, came to remonstrate with Marcellinus, who received him civilly and asked him to eat; but as the king was retiring after the entertainment, the Roman treacherously caused him to be assassinated. The Quadi, joined by the Sarmatians, crossed the river into the Roman province, which was destitute of troops, and destroyed the grain which was ready for the harvest. Probus, Praefectus Praetorio, though much alarmed, prepared to defend Sirmium; but the barbarians did not disturb him, and preferred running after Equitius to whom they attributed the death of their king. The barbarians destroyed two legions, and the province would have been lost, but for the vigour and courage of a young man, who was afterwards the emperor Theodosius. Valentinian heard of this incursion of the Quadi at his royal residence of Treves, but he deferred his campaign against the Quadi to the following year, and in the mean time he employed himself in securing the friendship of Macrianus, king of the Allemanni, with whom he had an interview near Mainz. Macrianus accepted the terms which the Roman emperor came to offer, and became the ally, or at least not the enemy of Valentinian. The emperor spent this, his last winter at Treves, which he did not quit till the month of April, A. D. 375, to march towards Illyricum. He took with him his wife Justina and his second son Valentinian. Gratian was left at Treves. The emperor fixed his head-quarters at Car. nuntum, which was probably on the Danube, and below the site of Vienna. His first care was to inquire into the conduct of Probus, the praefect, who was charged with oppressing the people; but Valentinian did not live long enough to come to any decision about Probus. After preparing for the campaign the emperor crossed the Danube, but his operations were not very decisive, and at the approach of winter he re-crossed the river, and fixed himself at Bregetio, probably near Presburg. While giving an audience to the deputies of the Quadi, and speaking with great heat, he fell down in a fit and expired suddenly on the 17th of November, after a reign of twelve years, all but a hundred days. His body was embalmed and carried to Constantinople to be interred. Gibbon's sketch of the reign of Valentinian and Valens (c. 25) has great merit: it is rapid, exact and instructive Tillemont (Histoire des Empereurs, v.) is painfully minute as usual; but his authorities are always valuable, and his judgment, when not biassed by his peculiar way of thinking, is generally sound. The reign of Valentinian is worth a careful study in his extant legislative

enactments. His many great qualities entitle him to a place among the most distinguished of the illustrious Romans. [G. L.]

coin of valextix IANUs I.

VALENTINIA'NUS II., Roman emperor A. d. 375–392, a son of Valentinianus I., was with his mother Justina, about one hundred miles from the camp of Bregetio, when his father died there, A. D. 375. His brother Gratianus was at Treves. Valentinian and his mother were summoned to Bregetio, when the army proclaimed Valentinian, Augustus, six days after his father's death. He was then only four or five years of age; and Gratian was only about seventeen. Gratian assented to the choice of the army, and a division of the West was made between the two brothers. Valentinian had Italy, Illyricum and Africa. Gratian had the Gauls, Spain and Britain. This division, however, if it actually took place, was merely nominal. and Gratian as long as he lived was actually emperor of the West. One reason for supposing that Gratian really retained all the imperial power is the fact, that after the death of Valens, and in A. D. 379, Gratian ceded a part of Illyricum to Theodosius I., whom he declared emperor of the East. This seems to show at least that the division of the empire of the West between Gratian and Valentinian was not completed at the time when Theodosius received a part of Illyricum.

In A. D. 383, Gratian was murdered at Lyon. [GRATIANts; Theodosius I.] Milan was the chief residence of Valentinian II. from the time of his father's death, and he was in this city during A. D. 384. He made Symmachus prefect of Rome, probably about the close of A. p. 384. Valentinian was still at Milan in the first half of A. d. 386, and afterwards at Aquileia. His mother Justina, who acted in his name, and was an Arian, employed herself in persecuting the Catholics during this and the following year. In A. D. 386, Valentinian addressed a letter to Sallustius, the presert of Rome, in which he ordered him to rebuild the church of St. Paul, near Rome, on the road to Ostia. . The church was rebuilt, but apparently somewhat later than the time of this order.

Maximus, who had usurped the throne of Gratan, left Valentinian a precarious authority out of fear for Theodosius I. : but in August, A. p. 387, he suddenly crossed the Alps, and advanced towards Milan, the usual residence of Valentinian. The emperor and his mother fled to the Hadriatic, where they took shippingandarrived at Thessalonia. In A. D. 388, Theodosius defeated Maximus, and restored Valentinian to his authority as emperor of the West. [Theodosius I.] In A. p. 389, Valentinian went into Gaul to conduct operations against the Franks on the Rhine. Arbogast was at that time commander of the Roman forces in Gaul, Nothing further is recorded of this campaign, except that Valentinian had a conference with Mar.

comir and Sunnon, the chiefs of the Franks, who

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