insisted that some of the quaestors should be chosen from the plebeians. In B. c. 415 Fabius was one of the consular tribunes, and again in B. c. 407. (Liv. iv. 43, 49, 58 ; Diod. xiii. 24, xiv. 3.) 7. Q. FABIUs Q. F. M. N. WIBULANUs, third son of No. 4, was consul B. c. 423 with C. Sempronius Atratinus, consular tribune for the first time B. c. 416 (omitted through accident by Livy, iv. 47), and for the second time B. c. 414. (Liv. iv. 37, 49 ; Diod. xiii. 9, 38.) At the beginning of the following year he was intertex. (Liv. iv. 51.) 8. Q. FABIUs M. F. Q. N. WIBULANUs AMBusTus, son of No. 5, was consul B. c. 412 with C. Furius Pacilus. (Liv. iv. 52.) He was the last Fabius of the name of Wibulanus. Ambustus now became the name of the family. [AMBUSTUs.] VIBU LE'N US AGRIPPA. [AGRIPPA.] L. WIBU'LLIUS RUFUS, a senator and an intimate friend of Pompey, is mentioned on one or two occasions by Cicero before the breaking out of the civil war. He was a man of resolution and energy, and was much trusted by Pompey, who made him Praefectus Fabrūm in the civil war. When Caesar marched into Italy at the beginning of B. c. 49, Pompey sent Vibullius into Picenum to strengthen his cause in that quarter, but he was unable to effect any thing, as all the towns declared in favour "of Caesar, and he accordingly threw himself into Corfinium, which was held by Domitius Ahenobarbus. Vibullius was one of the senators who fell into Caesar's hands on the surrender of Corfinium, and was along with the others dismissed uninjured by the conquerors. A few days afterwards Pompey sent him into Spain to assist Afranius and Petreius in carrying on war against Caesar. He was again taken prisoner by Caesar on the conquest of Pompey's troops in that country, and was again pardoned. When Caesar landed in Greece in B. c. 48, he despatched him to Pompey with offers of peace, and Vibullius made the greatest haste to reach Pompey, not from any desire to favour the views of Caesar, but in order to give Pompey the earliest intelligence possible of the arrival of his enemy in Greece. (Cic, ad. Q. Fr. iii. 1, § 5, ad Att. vii. 24, viii. 1, 2, 11, 15 ; Caes. B.C. i. 15, 23, 34, 38, iii. 10, 1].) WICA POTA, that is, “the Victor and Conqueror" (quae vincit et potitur), was a Roman divinity of victory, whose temple was situated at the foot of the hill Welia. (Liv. ii. 7; Cic. de Leg. ii. 11.) [L. S.] W1CTOR, an abandoned man, whom it was supposed that M. Antonius would recall from exile in B. c. 44. (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 14.) VICTOR, SEX. AURELIUS, who is commonly ranked among the Latin historians, flourished in the middle of the fourth century under the emperor Constantius and his successors. According to his own account (de Caes. 20), that is, supposing the work from which we quote to be a genuine document, he was born in the country of very humble parents, but rose to distinction by his zeal in the cultivation of literature. Having attracted the attention of Julian when at Sirmium, he was appointed by that prince governor of one division of Pannonia. At a subsequent period, he was elevated by Theodosius to the high office of city praefect, and there seems no good reason to doubt that he is the Sex. Aurelius Victor, who was consul along with Valentinian in A. D. 373. With regard to the period of his death, nothing is

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known, nor can we collect any further information concerning his life, except that it has been inferred from certain observations in the memoir of Hadrian (de Caes. 14) that he was a pagan. (Vict. de Cies. 16, 20, 28, 41 ; Amm. Marc. xxi. 10, and the notes.) The following works, which present in a very compressed form a continuous record of Roman affairs, from the fabulous ages down to the death of the emperor Theodosius, have all been ascribed to this writer, but the evidence upon which the determination of authorship depends, is very slender, and in all probability the third alone belongs to the Sex. Aurelius Victor whom we have noticed above. I. Origo Gentis Romanae, in twenty-three chap. ters, containing the annals of the Roman race, from Janus and Saturnus down to the era of Romulus. We here find many curious tales and traditions derived apparently from ancient sources, and it may be regarded as a valuable contribution towards the legendary history of the city. Joannes Metellus, Ausonius Popma, and others, have assigned this tract to Asconius Pedianus, influenced chiefly by some expressions in which they conceived that the author spoke of Livy and Virgil as his contemporaries, but the es in which these occur (xxiii. § 7, iii. § 7, vii. § 4), do not fairly admit of any such interpretation, while the general tone of the phraseology certainly bears no resemblance to that of the Augustan age. On the other hand, it seems certain, from the total dissimilarity in style, that it cannot have proceeded from the same hand with the two pieces which we shall next describe; and for this and other reasons Arntzenius has pronounced it to be the production of some of the later grammarians who were desirous of prefixing a suitable introduction to the series. The Origo was first printed at Antwerp, 8vo. 1579, with the commentary of Andreas Schottus in a volume, containing also the three following: — II. De Viris illustribus Urbis Romae, in eightysix chapters, commencing with the birth of the twin sons of Mars and Ilia, and concluding with the death of Cleopatra. The whole, or nearly the whole of the MSS. attach the name of Plinius to this piece: by some scholars it has been given to Cornelius Nepos, by others to Aemilius Probus. The numerous mistakes with which it abounds forbid us to fix upon any one belonging to the brighter epochs of Roman literature. It was first printed at Naples, by Sixtus Riesinger, about 1470, and again by Jac. de Ripoli, at Florence, in 1478. III. De Caesaribus, in forty-two chapters, exhibiting short biographies of the emperors, from Augustus to Constantius. This, as we have stated, may reasonably be regarded as the work of Sex. Aurelius Victor, who was praefect of the city under Theodosius. It was first printed at Antwerp, 8vo. 1579, with the commentary of Schottus. IV. De Vita et Moribus Imperatorum Romanorum Ercerpta ea libris Ser. Aurelii Victoris, or as it is frequently styled Ser. Aurelii Victoris Epitome de Caesaribus, in forty-eight chapters, commencing with Augustus and concluding with Theodosius. These lives agree for the most part almost word for word with the preceding, but variations may here and there be detected, some points being lightly passed over, or altogether omitted, in the one collection, which are dwelt upon at considerable length in the other. This will be seen clearly by comparing the

sections in each on Nerva and Hadrian. Moreover, it will be remarked, that while the first series terminates with Constantius, the second comes down as low as Arcadius and Honorius. All the MSS. are inscribed with the words Epitome Victor., or Victoris, or Victorini, and a keen controversy has been maintained as to the real name of the abbreviator. It seems clear, at all events, that he cannot be the Aurelius Victor who compiled the De Caesaribus: he followed or rather copied the latter very closely, but consulted other sources, and did not consider himself bound to adhere slavishly to his statements. The Epitome was first printed at Strasburg, 8vo. 1505, and again by Aldus, 8vo. Venet. 1516, at the end of his edition of SuetoIllus. These four pieces were first published together by Andreas Schottus (8vo. Antw. 1579), who brought to light the Origo and the De Caesaribus from the only MS. of them known to exist, and laboured with great earnestness to prove that the whole were the work of the same writer, and that the writer was Sex. Aurelius Victor. The best edition which has yet appeared, is that of Jo. Arntzenius, Amst. et Traj. Bat. 1733, forming one of the Dutch Wariorum Classics, in 4to. An elaborate edition was commenced by Schroeter, of which two volumes only have been published (8vo. Lips. 1829, 1831) comprising the Origo and the De Viris illustribus. [W. R.] VICTOR, CLAUDIUS, the nephew of Civilis, served under his uncle in the revolt of the Batavi in A. D. 69–70, and was sent with Julius Maximus against Vocula. (Tac. Hist. iv. 33.) VICTOR, FLA’VIUS, the son of Maximus, who ruled as emperor in Spain, Gaul, and Britain, was associated by his father in the government with the title of Augustus. While Maximus marched into Italy to wrest that country from the feeble hands of Valentinian II., Victor was left behind in Gaul. Theodosius himself conquered Maximus; and shortly afterwards Arbogastes, the general of Theodosius, defeated Victor and put him to death. For further details see MAxIMus, p. 997, and Theodosius, p. 1005.


VI'CTOR, PU’BLIUS, the name prefixed to an enumeration of the principal buildings and monuments of ancient Rome, distributed according to the regions of Augustus, which has generally been respected as a work of great authority by Italian local antiquaries, from Nardini downwards. Bunsen, however, in his Beschreibung der Stadt Rom (vol. i. p. 173, 8vo. Stutt. 1830), after a careful examination into the history of this tract and of the similar production ascribed to SExtus RUFUs, has arrived at the conclusion that, in their present state, they cannot be received as ancient at all, but must be regarded as mere pieces of patchwork fabricated not earlier than the fifteenth century. To this opinion Becker in his Handbuch der Iromischen Alterthümer fully subscribes, and does not

hesitate to characterise them as wilful impostures. (Consult the excellent papers on the Topography of Rome by E. H. Bunbury, published in the Classical Museum, and especially the remarks in No. X. p. 328.) The De Regionibus Urbis Romae, as this production is usually entitled, was first printed by Joannes de Tridino, at Venice, 4to. 1505, in a volume containing also “Beda de Temporibus ; " it will be found under its best form in the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Romanarum of Graevius, vol. iii. p. 37. fol. Traj. ad Rhen. 1694. [W. R.] VICTO'RIA, the personification of victory among the Romans, as Nice was among the Greeks. Dionysius (i. 33) relates that Evander by the command of Minerva dedicated on mount Palatine a temple of Victoria, the daughter of Pallas. On the site of this ancient temple a new one was built by L. Postumius, during the war with the Samnites ; and M. Porcius Cato added to it a chapel of Victoria Virgo. In later times there existed three or four sanctuaries of Victory at Rome. (Liv. x. 33, xxix. 14, xxxv. 9; P. Victor, Iteg. Urb. iv. vii. viii.) [L. S.] VICTO'RIA or VICTORI’NA, the name given by Trebellius Pollio to the mother of Wictorinus, and with her he completes his catalogue of the thirty tyrants [see AUREolus], two more being thrown in as supernumeraries. According to this historian after the death of her son she was hailed as the mother of camps (Mater Castrorum); and coins were struck, bearing her effigy, in brass, silver, and gold. Feeling herself however unequal to the weight of empire, she transferred her power first to Marius, and then to Tetricus, by whom some say that she was slain, while others affirm that she died a natural death. Two medals have been described, one bearing the legend MP. victoRIA. AUG., the other IMP. victor INA Aug. ; but they seem to be unique and are open to suspicion. (Trebell. Poll. Trio. Tyrann. iv., vi., xxx., mentions both of the above names ; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xxxiii. the former only ; comp. Eckhel, vol. vii. p. 454.) [W.R.] VICTORI’NUS, C. AUFI’DIUS, a chosen friend and counsellor of M. Aurelius, was distinguished alike for his high principles and for his eloquence, in which he was excelled by no one among his contemporaries. He was legate in Germany, proconsul of Africa, and praefect of the city under Commodus. Although detested by that emperor on account of his virtues, he escaped destruction by his bold and fearless bearing, died a natural death soon after the ruin of Perennis [PERENNIs], and was honoured by the erection of a statue to his memory. He is probably the same person with the C. Aufidius Victorinus who is marked in the Fasti as consul for the second time in A. D. 183, the year in which the first great plot against Commodus was organised and failed. (Dion Cass. lxxii. 4, l l ; Gruter, ccclxix. 2; Capitolin. M. Aurel. 38). [W. R.] VICTORI'NUS, CORNE'LIUS, praefect of the praetorians under Antoninus Pius. (Capitolin. Anton. Pius, 8.) W. R.] VICTORI'NUS, FU'RIUS, praefect of the praetorians under M. Aurelius. (Capitolin. M. Aurel. 14.) [W. R.] VICTORI'NUS, M. PIAVVO’NIUS, who is included by Trebellius Pollio in his list of the thirty tyrants [see AUREolus], was the third of the usurpers who in succession ruled Gaul while it was dismembered from the empire during the reign of the imbecile son of Walerian. Victorinus, however, had previously been assumed as a colleague by Postumus to whom he afforded important aid in the war against Gallienus, and after the destruction of Gallienus alone enjoyed the sovereignty. He is said to have possessed many of the highest qualities both of a general and a statesman, but was unhappily a slave to his passions, which eventually proved his ruin, for he was assassinated at Agripso by one of his own officers whose honour he ad wounded. This event seems to have taken place in A. D. 268 after he had reigned for somewhat more than a year. (Trebell. Pollio, Trig. Tyrann. v. ; Aurel. Vict. de Caes. xxxiii.; Eutrop. ix. 7 ; it would be a vain task however to attempt to reconcile these authorities with each other.)



VictoriNUs JUNIoR, son of the foregoing according to Pollio, by whom alone he is mentioned, being numbered among the thirty tyrants, was roclaimed Caesar immediately before the death of is father whose fate he shared. (Trebell. Pollio, Trig. Tyrann. vi.) [W. R.] VICTORI’NUS, literary and ecclesiastical. The subjects of the three following articles have proved a source of considerable embarrassment to the historian of literature. Both the first and second appear to have been rhetoricians before they became theologians, both wrote commentaries on the Scriptures and both are believed to have been Christian poets, a series of coincidences which, combined with identity of name, rendered confusion almost inevitable, while the second and third, if we admit the existence of the third, having both compiled essays upon the same departments of grammar, became in like manner mixed up with each other. The difficulties connected with the subject have been in some degree removed by Rivinus in a book entitled Sanctae Reliquiae duum Victorinorum, Pictariensis unius Episcopi Martyris, Afri alterius Cai Marii, &c. 8vo. Goth. 1652, and by Launoy in his dissertation De Victorino Episcopo et Martyre, Par. 1664, in the appendix to which we find a discussion on five distinguished persons who bore the name of Victorinus; but several points are still involved in much obscurity. 1. Victor.INUs, bishop of Pettaw on the Drave in Styria, hence distinguished by the epithet Petavionensis, or Pictaviensis, flourished towards the close of the third century (A. D. 270–290), and suffered martyrdom during the persecution of Diocletian, probably in A. D. 303. St. Jerome tells us that he understood Greek better than Latin ; and that, in consequence, his works, though pregnant with great thoughts, were couched in poor language ; a criticism which has been thought inconsistent with the fact recorded by Cassiodorus that

he was originally a rhetorician (Victorinus, de oratore episcopus, Inst. Div. 5). The difficulty, however, will be removed if we suppose that Greek was his native language, but that he felt himself constrained to write in Latin, with which he was less conversant, because it was the tongue spoken in the province where he exercised his episcopal functions. It is to be remarked that this Victorinus was long supposed to have been bishop of Poitiers, an error first dissipated by the dissertation of Launoy, who demonstrated that Petalium in upper Pannonia, and not Pictavium, was the see from which he derived his designation. St. Jerome informs us that he wrote commentaries In Genesin . In Erodum : In Levitician; In Iesaiam : In Exechielem ; In Abacue ; In Ecclesiasten : In Cantica Canticorum; In Apocalypsin Joannis adversus omnes haereses (some editors place a stop after Joannis and suppose Adrersus omnes haereses to be the name of a separate tract); and many other pieces. Of all these it is doubtful whether any one remains. In the third volume of the Bibliotheca Patrum Marina (fol. Lugdun. 1677) we find a Commentarius in Apocalysis bearing his name ; but the best judges have for the most part either rejected it altogether or regarded it as much altered and interpolated by different hands, both on account of the discrepancies in style which may be here and there detected, and also from the circumstance that the millenarian doctrine is here directly impugned, while we know that it was advocated by Victorinus. The prologue is given up by all. The fragment published by Cave (H. L. vol. i. p. 147), from a MS. in the archiepiscopal library at Lambeth, entitled De Fabrica Mundi, has, with better reason, been supposed to be an extract from the annotations on Genesis or on the Apocalypse, and here the opinions of the Chiliasts are avowedly supported. Various foundling poems have been fathered upon this Victorinus without any evidence direct or circumstantial. Such are De Jesu Christo in 137 hexameters and Hymnus de Pascha Domini s. De Logno Vitae in 70 hexameters, both contained in the collection of Fabricius ; the De Cruce Domini found among the works of Cyprian (see Bed. de locis sanct. c. 2.); and the five books Adrersus Marcionem generally appended to editions of Tertullian. (Our chief ancient authority for everything connected with Victorinus of Pettaw is St. Jerome, who speaks of him in a great number of passages, e.g. De Viris Ill. 74, comp. 187, Praef. in Iran. In Ezech. c. 36, Praef. in Mutt., Ad Damas. vol. ii. p. 569, Ad Paulin, vol. iv. p. 567, ed. Bened. &c.; see also Cassiodor. Inst. Div. 5, 7, 9; Lardner, Credibility of Gospel History, c. lvi. ; Schoenemann, Bibl. Patrum Lat. vol. i. cap. 3. § 8; Baehr, Geschichte der Röm. Litterat. Suppl. Band. lte Abtheil. § 14, 2te Abtheil. § 33.) 2. C. (or according to some MSS. Fabius) MARius VictoriNus, surnamed Afer from the country of his birth, taught rhetoric at Rome in the middle of the fourth century, with so much reputation that his statue was erected in the forum of Trajan. Convinced by diligent study of the Scriptures, he, in old age, openly embraced the true faith ; and when the edict of Julian, prohibiting Christians from giving instruction in polite literature, was promulgated, Victorinus chose to shut up his school

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rather than deny his religion. The history of his conversion is detailed at length, upon the authority of Simplicianus, bishop of Milan, in the Confessions of St. Augustine, who glories not a little in so distinguished a proselyte. The following works ascribed to this author are still extant. I. Commentarius s. Erpositio in Ciceronis libros de Inventione. First printed at Milan by Zarotus fol. 1474, again by Aldus, 8vo. Venet. 1522, along with the Annotations of Asconius upon the Orations of Cicero; and again by R. Stephens, 4to. Par. 1537. It will be found in the Antiqui Rhetores Latini of Pithou, 4to. Par. 1599, pp. 79– 239; and in the same collection as re-edited by Caperonnier, 4to. Argentor. 1756, pp. 102–255. It is likewise included in the fifth volume of Orelli's edition of Cicero. 1I. Ars Grammatica de Orthographia et Ratione Metrorum, a complete and voluminous treatise upon metres in four books, first printed by Ulric. Morhard in the collection of Latin grammarians, published under the inspection of Jo. Camerarius, 4to. Tubing. 1537. It will be found in the Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui of Putschius, 4to. Hanov. 1605, pp. 2450–2622. The translations from Plato mentioned by St. Augustine (Confess. viii. 2) have perished. III. De Trinitate contra Arium Libri IV., finished it would appear about A. D. 365. IV. De juoovate recipiendo, anabridgment of theforegoing. W. Hymni tres de Trinitate. The three last mentioned pieces were first printed at Basle, fol. 1528, in the Antidotum contra omnes Haereses, and will be found also in the Bibliotheca Patrum Mar. fol. Lugdun. 1677, vol. iv. p. 253 and p. 294; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. fol. Venet. 1772. WI. De Generatione Verbi Divini s. Confutatorium Candidi Ariani ad eumdem. First printed at Basle, fol. 1528 in the Conceptiones in Genesim et Exodum of Ziegler along with a fragment of the tract by Candidus [CANDIDUs] De Generatione Divina, to which it is a reply. Both will be found in the Orthodorographa of Heroldus, fol. Bas. 1555, p. 461, in the Haeresiologia of Heroldus, fol. Bas. 1556, p. 186, in the Analecta Vetera of Mabillon, fol. Par. 1685, vol. iv. p. 155; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. as above. VII. Ad Justinum Manichaeum contra duo Principia Manichaeorum et de vera Carne Christi. VIII. De Verbis Scripturae “Factum est Vespere et Mane Dies Unus.” The two last mentioned pieces were first published by Sirmond and inserted in his Opera Dogmatica Vetera, 8vo. Par. 1630. They will be found also in his collected works, fol. Par. 1696, vol. i. ; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. The titles were fabricated by the editor, none having been found in his Codex. IX. Commentarius in Epistolam Pauli ad Galatas, in two books. X. Commentarius in Epistolam Pauli ad Philippenses, in one book. XI. Commentarius in Epistolam Pauli ad Ephesios, in two books. XII. De Physicis, composed for the purpose of defending religion against those philosophers who attacked the Mosaic account of the Creation. The four last mentioned pieces have only recently been brought to light. St. Jerome twice refers to the commentaries of Victorinus upon the epistles of Paul; and although we learn from Sirmond (Opera, vol. i. p. 345), that the MS. from which he derived the Opuscula which we have marked VII. - VIII. contained also commentaries upon the epistles

of Paul by the same author, yet, for some reason not known, he did not publish the latter which were altogether lost sight of, until no less than three MSS. of them were discovered in the library of the Vatican by Angelo Mai, by whom they were included in the third volume of the Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio ex Vaticanis codicibus edita, 4to. Rom. 1828. Whether Victorinus wrote commentaries upon all the epistles of Paul is left in doubt by the words of St. Jerome, and cannot now be determined. The De Physicis is found in all the three Vatican MSS. subjoined to the commentary on the Ephesians; and although, not actually inscribed with the name of Victorinus seems to be alluded to by himself (Ad Ephes. lib. ii. p. 126); and bears strong external evidence of his manner. In addition to all these a descriptive epic in seven books, entitled De Fratribus VII. Maccabaeis interJectis ab Antiocho Epiphane, has been ascribed sometimes to Victorinus of Pettaw, sometimes to Victorinus Afer, and sometimes to Hilarius of Arles. If it belongs to any one of these three personages, the last is probably the rightful owner. The fame enjoyed by Victorinus as a public instructor does not gain any accession from his theological works. In style, weak, cramped, and involved, in phraseology often barbarous, sustained by no depth of learning and relieved by no brilliancy of illustration, they merit the severe criticism of St. Jerome, who pronounces their author to be both obscure and ignorant. The exposition of the essay De Inventione is more difficult to comprehend than the text which it professes to explain, the hymns are destitute of all poetical spirit, and set the laws of prosody and metre so completely at defiance that they could scarcely have proceeded from the compiler of the grammatical treatise which displays ...; research and contains many valuable observations. (Hieronym. de Viris Ill. 101; Prooem. in Epit. ad Galat., Chronic. ad A. D. 360, Adv. Rufin. vol. iv. p. 367, ed. Bened. ; Augustin. Confess. viii. 2, 4, 5; Trithem. 71 ; Honor. i. 102; Lardner, Credibility of Gospel History, c. xciv.; Galland, Biblioth. Patrum, vol. viii., Prqleg. c. iv. p. vii.; Schoenemann, Bibl. Patrum Lat. vol. i. c. 4. § 13.) 3. MAXIMUs Victor INUs. We possess three short tracts—l. De Re Grammatica; 2. De Carmine Heroico; 3. De Ratione Metrorum, all apparently the work of the same author and usually ascribed in MSS. to a Maximus Victorinus; but whether we ought to consider him the same with the rhetorician who flourished under Constantius or as an independent personage it is impossible to decide. They were first printed in the collection of ancient grammarians published by Adamus Petri, 8vo. Bas. 1527, where the two former are assigned to Marius Victorinus Afer and the third to Maarimus Victorinus ; they will be found also in the Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui of Putschius, 4to. Hannov. 1605, pp. 1938–1974; and under a greatly improved form in the Corpus Grammaticorum. Latinorum Veterum of Lindemann, vol. i. 4to. Lips. 1831, pp. 267—304. Both Putschius and Lindemann prefix the name of Maximus Victorinus to the whole three. [W. R.] Q. VICTORIUS, primi pili centurio, distinguished himself by his bravery, B. c. 194. (Liv. xxxiv. 46.)

VICTORIUS MARCELLUS. IMARcellus.] VICTRIX. [VENus.] M. VIGE'LLIUS, a Stoic philosopher, who lived with Panaetius. (Cic. de Orat. iii. 21.) VIGI’LIUS. Dupin enumerates six ecclesiastics who bore this name. * 1. W1GILIUs TRIDENTINUs. 2. VIGILIUs, of Africa, who wrote upon the Apocalypse, as we learn from Cassiodorus. (Inst. Div. 9.) 3. W1G1LIUs, the Deacon. 4. W1GILIUs TAPseNsis. , 5. Vigilius, bishop of Brescia. 6. Vigilius, a bishop who signed the acts of the council of Agde. Of these, the first, third, and fourth only deserve particular notice. VIGILius, bishop of Trent, hence distinguished by the epithet Tridentinus, flourished towards the close of the fourth century and suffered martyrdom, probably in the second consulship of Stilicho, A. D. 405. This is the Vigilius, who, according to Genmadius, addressed to a certain Simplicianus, a letter and a tract containing Gesta sui temporis apud barbaros martyrum. We cannot doubt that two Epistles still extant under the name of Vigilius De Martyrio Sanctorum Sisinii et Sociorum, one addressed to Simplicianus, bishop of Milan, the other to John, bishop of Constantinople, are the pieces here indicated. They will be found under their best form in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Gal. land, vol. viii. (fol. Venet. 1772), p. 203. (Ambros. Epist. xxiv.; Gennad. de Viris Ill. 37; Galland, Proleg. vol. viii. c. v. p. x.; Dupin, Ecclesiastical History of the fifth Century; Schoenemann, Bibliotheca Patrum Lat. vol. i. c. 4. § 26; Bähr, Geschichte der IRöm. Lit. Suppl. Band. 2te Abtheil. $80.) VIGILIUs, a deacon who flourished under Arcadius and Honorius, is mentioned by Gennadius and Trithemius, as the compiler of a Regula Monachorum, which is still extant, and will be found, under the title Regulae Orientales er Patrum Orientalium Regulis collectae a Vigilio Diacomo, in the Coder Regularum, published by L. Holstein, 4to. Rom. 1661, Paris. 4to. 1663, and also in the work of Brockie, fol. Aug. Wind. 1759, vol. i. p. 60. (Schoenemann, Bibliotheca Patrum Lat. vol. ii. § 23.) VIGILIUs, bishop of Thapsus, in Byzacium, hence designated Tapsensis, flourished towards the close of the fifth century when Africa was overrun by the Arian Wandals. Being an orthodox Catholic, he was driven from his see by Hunneric, in A. D. 484, and took refuge at Constantinople, where he composed several works, chiefly of a polemical character. Of those enumerated below, the first has always borne the name of Vigilius, although frequently ascribed to Vigilius of Trent; the others have been found in MSS., some bearing the name of Athanasius, some of Idacius Clarus, some of Augustine, and it has been conjectured by Dupin that they were originally given to the world under these false colours, either for the sake of avoiding persecution, or in the belief that the arguments would be listened to with more respect, and make a more forcible impression if supposed to proceed from such illustrious fathers. It is manifest that such a proceeding must have given rise to the greatest confusion, and it is now almost impossible to determine with certainty the real history of these tracts. I. Adrersus Nestorium et Eutychem Libri quinque pro defensione Synodi Chalcedonensis ; the nature and object of this piece are sufficiently indicated

by the title. It was first printed at Tübingen, fol. 1528, again at Cologne, 8vo. 1575, and appears under its best form, in the works of Vigilius, as collected by Chifflet, and published at Dijon, 4ta. 1664, in the same volume with Victor Witensis. II. Altercatio sus, nomine Athanasii adrersus Arium. Two dialogues between Athanasius and Arius before an arbiter named Probus. Often included in the works of Athanasius. III. Altercationes tres. Three dialogues between Athanasius, Arius, Photius, and Sabellius, apparently a second and enlarged edition of the preceding piece. IV. De Trinitute s. De unita Trinitate Deitatis Libri XII.often included among the works of Athanasius. While Chifflet assigns the whole of these books to Vigilius, some scholars maintain that the first eight belong to Idacius, the ninth, tenth, and eleventh to some unknown composer, and the twelfth, which bears the separate title De Trinitate et Spiritu Santo. to Augustine. W. De Unitate Trinitatis ad Optation s. Dialogus inter Augustinum et Felicianum Arianum. Generally included in the works of Augustine. VI. De Trinitate adversus Varimadum (or Maricadum) Libri tres. Published under the name of Idacius Clarus. VII. Contra Palladium Arianan episcopum. Included in many editions of the works of Ambrose, and also of Gregory of Nazianzus. The whole of the six last mentioned treatises will be found in the edition of Chifflet, where the authenticity of each is elaborately discussed, and in the Bibliotheca Patrum Mar. fol. Lugd. 1577, vol. viii. p. 743. (Walch, Bibliotheca Patrist. c. x. § 104.) [W. R.] VI'LLIA GENS, plebeian, is mentioned as early as B. c. 449 [Willius, No. 1], but the only member of the gens who obtained the consulship was P. Willius Tappulus, who was consul B. c. 199. The Villii were divided into the two families of AxNAlis and TAPPULUs: a few persons of the name are mentioned without any cognomen. VI'LLIUS. 1. P. WILLIt's, one of the tribunes of the plebs elected upon the expulsion of the decemvirs in B. c. 449. (Liv. iii. 54.) 2. C. WILLIUs, a friend of Tib. Gracchus, was cruelly put to death by the ruling party after the murder of Gracchus in B. c. 133. He is said to have been shut up in a vessel with snakes and vipers, which was the manner in which particides were put to death. (Plut. Tib. Gracch. 20.) VINCENTIUS, surnamed LIRINENSIS, from the celebrated monastery in the island of Lerins, where he officiated as a presbyter, was by birth a native of Gaul. We are not acquainted with any particulars regarding his career, except that he died in the reign of Theodosius and Valentinian, about A. p. 450. His fame rests upon a treatise against heretics, composed, as we are told in the body of the work itself, three years after the council of Ephesus, that is, in A. D. 434. It commonly bears the title Commonitorium pro Catholicae fidei antiquitate et universitate adrersus profanas omnium Haereticorum noritates, but according to Gennadius, when first published, it did not exhibit the name of the writer, and was designated Peregrini (i.e. the Pilgrim) adversus Haeratio, We are farther told that it was originally divided into two parts, but that the second of these having been stolen from the repositories of the author, he contented himself with briefly recapitulating the substance of what it had contained, and gave bis work to the world in one book. The great aim of

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