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after Memmius had departed for Mytilene. Finding that Memmius had abandoned his design of erecting the edifice with which the wall in question would have interfered, he consented to bestir himself in the matter; but thinking that the Areiopagus would not retract their decree without “he consent of Memmius, he wrote to the latter, urging his request in an elegant epistle, which is still extant (ad Fam. xiii. 1. Comp. ad Att. v. 11, 19). [C. P. M.] PATROPHILUS (IIarpádixos), bishop of Scythopolis, and one of the leaders of the Eusebian or semi-Arian party in the fourth century. He was deposed at the council of Seleuceia (A. D. 359) for contumacy, having refused to appear before the council to answer the charges of the presbyter Dorotheus. (Socrat. H. E. ii. 40: Sozom. iv. 22.) He must have died soon after, for his remains were disinterred and insultingly treated (Theophanes, Chronographia) during the re-action which followed the temporary triumph of paganism (A. D. 361-363) under Julian the apostate [JuLIANUs). Patrophilus appears to have been emiment for scriptural knowledge. Eusebius of Emesa is said to have derived his expositions of Scripture from the instructions of Patrophilus and Eusebius of Caesareia (Socrat. H. E. ii. 9); but Sixtus Senensis is mistaken in ascribing to Patrophilus a translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek. (Sixtus Senens. Biblioth. Sancta, lih. iv.; Le Long, Billioth. Sacra, recensita ab A.G. Masch. Pars il. vol. ii. sect. i. § 23; Fabric. Billioth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 716. The scanty

notices of the life of Patrophilus have been collected by Tillemont, Mémoires, vols. vi. vii.) [J. C. M.]

PATROUS, PATROA (ITarpoos, oa), and in Latin, Patrii Dii, are, properly speaking, all the gods whose worship has been handed down in a nation or a family from the time of their fathers, whence in some instances they are the spirits of departed ancestors themselves. (Lucian, De Mort. Porg. 36.) Zeus was thus a Seós warpoos at Athens (Paus. i. 3. § 3, 43. § 5), and among the Heracleidae, since the heroes of that race traced their origin to Zeus. (Apollod. ii. 8. § 4.) Among the Romans we find the divinities avenging the death of parents, that is, the Furiae or Erinnyes, designated as Patrii Dii. (Cic. in Perr. ii. 1, 3; comp. Liv. xl. 10.) But the name was also applied to the gods or heroes from whom the gentes derived their origin. (Serv. ad Aen. iii. 832; Stat. Theb. iv. lll.) [L. S.] Q. PATU'LCIUS, one of the accusers of Milo de Vi in B. c.52 (Ascom. in Milon. p. 54, ed. Orelli). It may have been this same Patulcius who owed Cicero some money, which Atticus exerted himself in obtaining for his friend in B. c. 44 (Patulcianum nomen, Cic. ad. Att. iv. 18). PATCLEIUS, a rich Roman eques in the reign of Tiberius (Tac. Ann. ii. 48). PATZO, GREGORIUS. [GREGoRius, No.30, p. 310.] PAULA JULIACORNELIA, the first wife of Elagabalus, a lady, according to Herodian, of Yery noble descent. The marriage, which was celebrated with great pomp at Rome, took place, it ** appear A. b. 219, soon after the arrival of the Yontul emperor from Asia. Paula was di. voteea w the course of the following year, deprived * * * of Augusta, and reduced to a private

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The latter coin was accidentally omitted in the article ELAGABALUs, and is therefore given here. PAULI'INA or PAULLI'N A. l. Do MITIA PAULINA, the sister of the emperor Hadrian (Dion Cass. lxix. l l ; Gruter, Inscr. p. cclii. n. 4). 2. Lolli.A PAULINA. [Lolli.A., No. 2.] 3. Pom PEIA PAULINA, the wife of Annaeus Seneca the philosopher, whom he married rather late in life. She was probably the daughter of Pompeius Paulinus, who commanded in Germany in the reign of Nero. She seems to have been attached to her husband, who speaks of her with affection, and mentions in particular the care which she took of his health (Senec. Ep. 104). She was with her husband at dinner when the centurion came from Nero to tell Seneca that he must die. The philosopher received the intelligence with calmness, embraced his wife, and bade her bear their separation with firmness; but as she begged that she might die with him, he yielded to her entreaties, and they opened their veins together. Nero, however, unwilling to incur a reputation for unnecessary cruelty, commanded her voins to be bound up. Her life was thus spared; and she lived a few years longer, but with a paleness which testified how near she had been to death. This is the account of Tacitus (Ann. xv. 60–64), which differs somewhat from that in Dion Cassius (lxi. 10, lxii. 25), who relates the event to the disparagement of Seneca. PAULI'NA. We learn from Ammianus Marcellinus that the wife of Maximinus I. was of amiable disposition, seeking to mitigate by gentle counsels the savage temper of her husband, by whom, if we can trust the statements of Syncellus and Zonaras, she was eventually put to death. No ancient historian, however, has mentioned her name, but numismatologists have conjectured that certain coins bearing on the obverse the words Diva PAULINA, and on the reverse CoNsecratio, a legend which proves that they were struck after the decease of the personage whose effigy they bear, ought to be considered as belonging to this princess. (Amm. Marc. xiv. 1. § 3; Zonar. xii. 16; Syncell. Chron. s. A. M. 5728; Eckhel, vii. p. 296). [W. R.]

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PAULLI/NUS or PAULI'NUS, a lengthened form of Paullus or Paulus, like Albinus of Albus. [Albinus, p. 90.] This cognomen only occurs under the empire. For the sake of uniformity we adopt the form Paulinus, but respecting the orthography, see PAULLUs.

PAULI/NUS (IIavaivos), literary. 1. Of ANTIoch (l), better known as Paulinus of Tyre [No. 9..]

2. Of ANTIoch (2). Paulinus was ordained presbyter by Eustathius, bishop of Antioch [EUst Athius], and was a leader among the Eustathian party in that city. When Athanasius, after his return from exile on the death of the emperor Constantius II. and the murder of George of Cappadocia, the Arian patriarch [GEORGius, No. 7], assembled a council at Alexandria, Paulinus sent two deacons, Maximus and Calimerus, to take part in its deliberation. He was shortly after ordained by the hasty and impetuous Lucifer of Cagliari [Lucifera] bishop of the Eustathians at Antioch ; a step unwarrantable and mischievous, as it prolonged the schism in the orthodox party, which would otherwise probably have been soon healed. His ordination took place in A. D. 362. He was held, according to Socrates (H. E. iv. 2) and Sozomen (H. E. vi. 7), in such respect by the Arian emperor Valens as to be allowed to remain when his competitor Meletius [MELET1Us] was banished. Possibly, however, the smallness of his party, which seems to have occupied only one small church (Socrat. H. E. iii. 99 ; Sozom. v. 13), rendered him less obnoxious to the Arians, and they may have wished to perpetuate the division of the orthodox by exciting jealousy. Paulinus's refusal of the proposal of Meletius to put an end to the schism is mentioned elsewhere [MEletius, No. 1] ; but he at length consented that whichever of them died first, the survivor should be recognized by both parties. On the death of Meletius, however (A. D. 381), this agreement was not observed by his party, and the election of Flavian [FLAviaNUs, No. 1] disappointed the hopes of Paulinus, and embittered the schism still more. In A. D. 382 Paulinus was present at a council of the Western Church, which had all along recognised his title, and now ardently supported his cause ; but the Oriental churches generally recognised Flavian, who was de facto bishop of Antioch. Paulinus died A. D. 388 or 389. His partizans chose Evagrius to succeed him [Evagrius, No. 1]. A confession of faith by Paulinus is preserved by Athanasius and Epiphanius in the works cited below. (Epiphanius, Haeres. lxxvii. 21, ed. Petavii; Socrates, H. E. iii. 6, 9, iv. 2, v. 5, 9, 15 ; Sozomen, H. E. v. 12, 13, vi. 7, vii. 3, 10, 11, 15 ; Theodoret, H. E. iii. 5, v. 3, 23; Athanasius, Concil. Alexandrin. Epistol.

seu Tomus ad Antiochenses, c. 9; Hieron. Epistol. ad Eustoch. No. 27, edit. vett., 86, ed. Benedict, 108, § 6, ed. Wallars. ; In Rufin. lib. iii. 22; Chronicon, ed.Wallars. ; Theophan. Chronog. pp.47, 57, 59, ed. Paris, pp. 37, 45, 47, ed. Venice, pp. 85, 104, 109, ed. Bonn ; Le Quien, Oriens Christian. vol. ii. col. 715 ; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. viii.; Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. ix. p. 314.) 3. Of BITERRAE or BAETERRAE (the modern Béziers), in Gaul, of which city he was bishop about A.D. 420. Some have thought that the Acta S. Genesii notarii A relatensis are to be ascribed to this Paulinus rather than to Paulinus of Nola, under whose name they have been commonly published. Paulinus of Biterrae wrote an encyclical letter, giving an account of several alarming portents which had occurred at Biterrae. This letter is lost. Oudin has mistakenly said that it is cited in the Annales of Baronius. Possibly Paulinus of Biterrae is the Paulinus to whom Gennadius (De Viris Illustribus, c. 68) ascribes several Tractatus de Initio Quadragesimae, &c. (Idatius, Chron, ad ann. xxv. Arcad, et Honor. ; Miraeus, Auctar. de Scriptoril. Eccles. c. 63; Tillemont, Mémoires, vol. v. p. 569; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 410, vol. i. p. 389; Oudin, De Scriptorib. Eccles. vol. i. col. 923; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ix. p. 315, Biblioth. Med. et Infim. Latinit. vol. v. p. 205, ed. Mansi ; Acta Sanctor. Aug. vol. v. p. 123, &c.; Gallia Christiana, vol. vi. col. 295, ed. Paris, 1739; Histoire Litt. de la France, vol. ii. p. 131.) 4. MERoPius Pontius AN1c1Us PAULINUs. [See below]. 5. Of MEDIolanum or MILAN. 6. Of NoLA. [See below.] 7. Of PELLA or PoENITENs, the PENITENT. A poem entitled Eucharisticon de Vita Sua, by a writer of the name of Paulinus, has been twice published. . It appeared among the poems of Panlinus of Nola [see below] in the Appendir to the first edition of De la Bigne's Bibliotheca Pa. trum, which Appendir was published, fol. Paris, 1579, but was omitted in the following editions of the Bibliotheca, whether published at Paris, Cologne, or Lyon, and also in the Bibliotheca of Galland. It was again printed by Christianus Daumius, with the works of Paulinus Petrocorius [PETRocorius], 8vo, Leipzig, 1686. A full account of the author may be gathered from the poem, which is in hexameters, not, as has been incorrectly stated, in elegiac verse. He was the son of Hesperius, proconsul of Africa, who was the son of the poet Ausonius. [Ausonius; HESPERIUS.] He was born in A. D. 376, at Pella in Macedonia; and after being at Carthage, where he remained a year and a half during his father's proconsulship, he was taken at three years of age to Bourdeaux, where he appears to have been educated. An illness at the age of fifteen interrupted his studies, and the indulgence of his parents allowed him to pursue a life of ease and pleasure, in the midst of which, however, he kept up a regard to appearances. At the age of twenty he married a lady of ancient family, and of some property. At thirty he lost his father, whose death was followed by a dispute between Paulinus and his brother, who wished to invalidate his father's will to deprive his mother of her dowry. In A. D. 414 he joined Attalus, who attempted to resume the purple in Gaul under the patronage of the Gothic prince Ataulphus [ATAULPHUs; ATTALUs], and

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from whom he accepted the title of Comes Rerum Privatarum, thinking thus to be secure from the hostility of the Goths. He was, however, disappointed. The city where he resided (apparently Bourdeaux) was taken, and his house plundered ; and he was again in danger when Wasates (Bazas), to which he had retired, was besieged by the Goths and Alans. He proposed now to retire to Greece, where his mother had good estates, but his wife could not make up her mind to go. He then thought of becoming a monk, but his friends diverted him from this plan. Misfortunes now thickened about him ; he lost his mother, his mother-in-law, and his wife ; his very children forsook him, with the exception of one, who was a priest, and who died soon after suddenly. His estates in Greece yielded him no revenue; and he retired to Massilia (Marseille), where he hired and farmed some land, but this resource failed him, and alone, destitute and in debt, he was reduced to live on the charity of others. During his residence at Massilia, he became acquainted with many religious persons, and their conversation combined with his sorrows and disappointments to impress his mind deeply with religious sentiments. He was baptired in A. D.422, in his forty-sixth year, and lived at least till his eighty-fourth year (A. D. 460), when he wrote his poem. Some have supposed, but without good reason, that he is the Benedictus Paulinus to whose questions of various points of theology and ethics Faustus Reiensis wrote an answer. [FAustus REIENsis.] (Our authority for this article is the Histoire Littéraire de la France, vol. ii. p. 343, &c., 46.1, &c., not having been able to get sight of the poem itself, which is very rare. See also Fabric. Biblioth. Med. et Infim. Latini, vol. v. p. 206, ed. Mansi; and Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. i. p. 290, in his article on Paulinus Nolanus) 8. PETRoconius. [PETRocorius.] 9. Of Tyke. Paulinus, bishop of Tyre, was the contemporary and friend of Eusebius of Caesareia, who addressed to him the tenth book of his Historia Ecclesiastica. Paulinus is conjectured, from an obscure intimation in Fusebius, to have been a native of Antioch (Euseb. Contra Marcel. Ancyr. i. 4). He was bishop of Tyre, and the restorer of the church there after it had been destroyed by the heathens in the persecution under Diocletian and his successors. This restoration took place after the death of Maximin Daza [MAxiMixus II.] in A. D. 313, consequently Paulinus must have obtained his bishopric before that time. On the dedication of the new building, an oration, Ilarinupixás, Oratio Panegyrica, was addressed to Paulinus, apparently by Eusebius himself, who has preserved the prolix composition (Euseb. H. E. x. i. 4). On the outbreak of the Arian controversy, Paulinus is represented as one of the chief supPorters of Arianism. But it is not clear that he took a decided part in the controversy ; he appears to have been, like Eusebius, a moderate man, averse to extreme measures, and to the introduction of unscriptural terms and needless theological definitions. Arius distinctly names him among those who agreed with him ; but then Arius gave to the confession to which this statement refers the most orthodox complexion in his power. (Theo*ret H.E. i. 5). Eusebius of Nicomedeia (ibid.6) ** to Paulinus, rebuking him for his silence * “ncealment of his sentiments; but it is not

clear whether he was correctly informed what those sentiments were. Athanasius (De Synodis, c. 17) charges Paulinus with having given utterance to Arian sentiments, but gives no citation from him. He certainly agreed with the bishops of Palestine in granting to Arius the power of holding assemblies of his partizans; but at the same time these prelates recommended the heresiarch to submit to his diocesan Alexander of Alexandria, and to endeavour to be re-admitted to the communion of the Church. Paulinus's concurrence in these steps shows that if not a supporter of Arianism, he was at any rate not a bigoted opponent. (Sozomen, H. E. c. 15.) Paulinus was shortly before his death translated to the bishopric of Antioch (Euseb. Contra Marcel. i. 4; Philostorg. H. E. iii. 15); but it is disputed whether this was before or after the council of Nice ; some place his translation in A. D. 323, others in A. D. 331. Whether he was present at the council of Nice, or even lived to see it, is not determined. The question is argued at considerable length by Walesius (not ad Euseb. H. E. x. 1), Hanckius (De Rerum Byzant. Scriptor. Pars i cap. i. § 235, &c.), and by Tillemont (Mém. vol. vii. p. 646, &c). We are disposed to acquiesce in the judgment of Le Quien, who places the accession of Paulinus to the see of Antioch in A. D. 323 or 324, and his death in the latter year. (Euseb. ll. cc.; Hieron. Chronicon, sub init. ; Sozomen. Theodoret. Philostorg. ll. cc.; Tillemont, vol. vi. vii; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vol. ii. col. 708, 803). [J. C. M.] PAULI'NUS, Latin fathers. 1. Of Milan (Mediolanensis), was the secretary of St. Ambrose, after whose death he became a deacon, and repaired to Africa, where, at the request of Saint Augustine, he composed a biography of his former patron.

While residing at Carthage he encountered Coeles

tius, detected the dangerous tendency of the doctrines disseminated by that active disciple of Pelagius, and, having preferred an impeachment of heresy, procured his condemnation by the council which assembled in A. D. 212 under Aurelius. The accusation was divided into seven heads, of which six will be found in that portion of the Acts of the Synod, preserved by Marius Mercator. At a subsequent period (217–218) we find Paulinus appearing before Zosimus for the purpose of resisting the appeal against this decision, and refusing obedience to the adverse decree of the pope. Nothing further is known with regard to his history, except that we learn from Isidorus that he was eventually ordained a presbyter. We possess the following works of this author: 1. Vita Ambrosii, which, although commenced soon after A. D. 400, could not, from the historical allusions which it contains, have been finished until 412. This piece will be found in almost all the editions of St. Ambrose. In many it is ascribed to Paulinus Nolanus, and in others to Paulinus Episcopus. 2. Libellus adversus Coelestium Zosimo Papae oblatus, drawn up and presented towards the close of A. D. 417. It was printed from a Vatican MS. by Baronius, in his Annales, under A. D. 218, afterwards by Labbe, in his Collection of Councils, fol. Par. 1671, vol. ii. p. 1578, in the Benedictine edition of St. Augustine, vol. x. app. pt. 2, and by Coustant, in his Epistolae Pontificum Romanorum, fol. Par. 1721, vol. i. p. 963. 3. De Benedictionibus Patriarcharum, is mentioned by Isidorus (De Viris Illustr. c. 4), but was not known to exist in an entire form until it was discovered by Mingarelli in a very ancient MS. belonging to the library of St. Salvator at Bologna, and inserted by him in the Anecdota published at Bologna, 4to. 1751, vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 199. A corrupt fragment of this tract will be found in the fifth volume of the Benedictine edition of St.Jerome, where it is ascribed to Rufinus. The three productions enumerated above are placed together in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, fol. Venet. 1773, vol. ix. p. 23. (Cassianus, de Incarn. c. 7 ; Isidorus, de Viris Illustr. 4 ; Galland, Bill. Patr. vol. ix. Proleg. c. ii.; Schönemann, Bibl. Patrum Lat. vol. ii. § 21.) 2. MEROP1Us Pontius ANICIUs PAULINUs, bishop of Nola in the early part of the fifth century, and hence generally designated Paulinus Nolanus, was born at Bourdeaux, or at a neighbouring town, which he calls Embromagum, about the year A. D. 353. Descended from illustrious parents, the inheritor of ample possessions, gifted by nature with good abilities, which were cultivated with affectionate assiduity by his preceptor, the poet Ausonius [AUsonius], he entered life under the fairest auspices, was raised to the rank of consul suffectus, before he had attained to the age of twenty-six, and married a wealthy lady named Therasia, whose disposition and tastes seem to have been in perfect harmony with his own. After many years spent in the enjoyment of worldly honours, Paulinus became convinced of the truth of Christianity, was baptized by Delphinus, bishop of Bourdeaux, in A. D. 389, distributed large sums to the poor, and passed over with his wife to Spain. The death of an only child, which survived its birth eight days, with perhaps other domestic afflictions concerning which we are imperfectly informed, seem to have confirmed the dislike with which he now regarded the business of the world. After four years passed in retirement he resolved to withdraw himself entirely from the society of his friends, to apply his wealth to religious purposes, and to dedicate the remainder of his life to works of piety. This determination, while it called forth the earnest remonstrances of his kindred, excited the most lively admiration among all classes of the devout, and the dignity of Presbyter was almost forced upon his acceptance by the enthusiasm of the populace at Barcelona (A. D. 393). He did not, however, remain to exercise his clerical functions in this province, but crossed the Alps into Italy. Passing through Florence, where he was greeted with much cordiality by Ambrose, he proceeded to Rome, and, after meeting with a cold reception from Pope Siricius, who probably looked with suspicion on the hasty irregularity of his ordination, reached Nola, in Campania, where he possessed some property, soon after Easter A. D. 394. In the immediate vicinity of this city were the tomb and miracleworking relics of Felix, a confessor and martyr, over which a church had been erected with a few cells for the accommodation of pilgrims. In these Paulinus, with a small number of followers, took up his abode, conforming in all points to the observances of monastic establishments, except that his wife appears to have been his companion. After nearly fifteen years passed in holy meditations and acts of charity, he was chosen bishop of Nola in A. D. 409 (or according to Pagi, A. D. 403), and when the stormy inroad of the Goths had passed away, dis

charged the duties of the office in peace until his death, which took place in A. D. 431. The above sketch contains a narrative of all the facts which can be ascertained with regard to this father, but to what extent these may be eked out by laborious conjecture will be seen upon referring to biography compiled by Le Brun. The story told in the dialogues of St. Gregory, that Paulinus having given away all his possessions, made a journey into Africa, and sold himself into slavery, in order to ransom the son of a poor widow, has, upon chronological and other considerations, been generally rejected as a fable, as well as numerous legends contained in the histories of the Saints. The following works of Paulinus, all composed after he had quitted public life, are still extant, consisting of Epistolae, Carmina, and a very short tract entitled Passio S. Genesii Arelatensis. 1. Epistolae. Fifty, or, as divided in some editions, fifty-one letters, addressed to Sulpicius Severus, to Delphinus bishop of Bordeaux, to Augustine, to Rufinus, to Eucherius, and to many other friends upon different topics, some being complimentary, others relating entirely to domestic affairs, while the greater number are of a serious cast, being designed to explain some doctrine, to inculcate some precept, or to convey information upon some point connected with religion. Neither in style nor in substance can they be regarded as of much importance or interest, except in so far as they afford a fair specimen of the familiar correspondence of churchmen at that epoch, and convey a very pleasing impression of the writer. The most elaborate are the twelfth (to Amandus), which treats of the Fall and the Atonement, the thirtieth (to Sulpicius Severus) on the Inward and Outward Man, and the forty-second (to Florentius, bishop of Cahors) on the Dignity and Merits of Christ; the most curious is the thirty-first (to Severus) on the Invention of the True Cross; the most lively is the forty-ninth (to Macarius) on a famous miracle performed by St. Felix. A summary of each epistle is to be found in Funccius, and longer abstracts in Dupin. 2. Carmina. Thirty-two in number, composed in a great variety of metres. Of these, the most worthy of notice are the birthday addresses to St. Felix in heroic hexameters, composed regularly on the festival of the saint, and forming a series which embraces so complete an account of the career and achievements of that holy personage, that Bede was enabled from these documents alone to compile a prose narrative of his life. We have besides paraphrases of three psalms, the 1st, 2d, and 136th ; Epistles to Ausonius and to Gestidius, two Precationes Matutinae, De S. Joanne Baptista Christi Praecone et Legato, in 330 hexameters; an elegy on the death of a boy named Celsus; an epithalamium on the nuptials of Julianus and Ia [JULIANUs EcLANENSIs], Ad Nicetam redeuntem in Dacian, Ad Jovium de Nolana Ecclesia, Ad Antonium contra Paganos, while the list has been recently swelled by Mai from the MSS. of the Vatican, by the addition of two poems, which may however be regarded with some suspicion; the one inscribed Ad Deum post Conversionem et Baptismum suum, the other De suis Domesticis Calamitatibus. As in the case of the Epistolae, the above are differently arranged in different editions. Thus the Natalitia are sometimes condensed into thirteen, sometimes expanded into fifteen ; and in like

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manner the letters to Ausonius are distributed into two, three, or four, according to the conflicting views of critics. 3. The authenticity of the Passio S. Genesii has been called in question by Rosweyd, but is vindicated by the concurring testimony of many MSS. Among the lost works we may notice the following:–1. Ad Theodosium Panegyricus, a congratulatory address composed in honour of the victory gained over Eugenius and Arbogastes. Although this piece is distinctly described by Honorius of Autun (De Script. Eccles. ii. 47 ; camp. Rufin. Hist. i. 27), Funccius maintains that an error has been committed as to the subject, and argues from the expressions of Paulinus himself (Ep. 9, and 28), that it was a funeral oration delivered after the death of the emperor. (See also Hieronym. Ep. 13; Cassiodor. L. S. c. 21 ; Gennadius, 48: Trithem. l 17.) 2. De Poenitentia et de Laude general omnium Martyrum, affirmed by Gennadius to be the most important of all his productions. Here again we might conjecture that there was some confusion, and that the titles of two treatises, one De Poenitentia, the other De Laude Margrun, have been mixed up together. 3. Epistolue ad Sororem, on contempt of the world. 4. Epistolae ad Amicos. 5. Suetonii Libri III. de Rojas in epitomen versibus redacti, loudly commended by Ausonius, who has preserved nine lines. 6. A translation of Recognitiones, attributed to Clemens [CleMENs Roman Us]. We hear also of a Sacramentarium and a Hymnarium. The Epistles Ad Marcellain and Ad Celantiam, together with the poems, Erhortatio ad Conjugem, De Nomine Jesu, and a Vita S. Martini in six books, do not belong to this father. The enthusiastic commendations bestowed upon the learning and genius of Paulinus by his contemporaries, and repeated by successive generations of ecclesiastical critics, if not altogether unmerited, have at least been too freely lavished. Although well versed in the works of the Latin writers, his knowledge of Greek was very imperfect, and he occasionally betrays much ignorance regarding the common facts of history. The quotations from Scripture so frequently adduced in support or illustration of his arguments, will be sound in many instances to be strangely twisted from their true signification, while his allegorical interpretations are in the highest degree far-fetched and fantastic. His Poetry, although offending grievously against the laws of prosody and metre, is in every respect far superior to his prose. The purity of the language proves how deeply he had studied the best ancient models; the descriptions are lively, the pictures vivid, but there is no creative power, no refined taste, no sublimity of thought, no grandeur of expression. The early impressions of Paulinus, commencing with that printed at Paris by Badius Ascensius, 8vo. 1516, present the text in a most mutilated, torrupt, and disordered condition. Considerable improvements were introduced by the jesuit Herbert Rosweyd (8vo. Antv. 1622), who compiled *me useful annotations and prefixed a biographical *etch by his friend Sacchini; but the first really Youable materials were furnished by another jesuit, Peter Francis Chiflet, whose Paulinus Illustratus *as published at Dijon, 4to. 1662. This was fol*ed after a lapse of more than twenty years by * very elaborate and complete edition of Jean Baptiste Le Brun, 4to. Paris, 1685, which may WOL. III,

still be regarded as the standard. It contains the text corrected by a collation of all the best MSS., voluminous commentaries, dissertations, indices, a new life of Paulinus, and a variety of documents requisite for the illustration of his works. The first volume of Muratori's Anecdota (4to. Mediolan. 1697) exhibited in a complete form, from a MS. in the Ambrosian library, three of the Carmina Natalitia (xi. xii. xiii.), which had previously appeared as disjointed fragments, and they are accompanied by twenty-two dissertations on all the leading events in the history of Paulinus and all the persons with whom he was in any way connected. These poems were afterwards republished, with emendations, by Mingarelli in his Anecdotorun Fasciculus (4to. Rom. 1756), and by Galland in his Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. viii. (fol. Ven. 1772) p. 211. There is a reprint of Le Brun with the additional matter from Muratori, fol. Veron. 1736. The two elegies contributed by Mai are to be found in “Episcoporum Nicetae et Paulini Scripta ex Vaticanis Codicibus edita,” fol. Rom. 1827. (Auson. Ep. 19, 23, 24; Paulin. Ep. ad Auson. i. 75; Ambros. Ep. 36; Augustin. De Civ. Dei, i. 10 : Hieronym. Ep. xiii. lviii. ed. Wallarsi ; Cassiodor. I. D. ii.; Gennad. De Script. Eccles. 48; Honor. August. ii. 47 ; Trithem. 117; Idat. Chron. ; Gregor. Dialog. iii. 1; Surius, de probatis SS. Historiis, vol. xxii.; Pagi, Ann. 431, n.53; Schönemann, Bibl. Patrum Lat. vol. i. cap. 4. $ 30 ; Bahr, Geschichte der Röm. Litterat. Suppl. Band, 1te Abtheil. § 23–25, 2te Abtheil. § 100.) [W. R.] PAULI'NUS, ANI'CIUS, consul in A. D. 498 with Joannes Scytha (Chron. Pasch. ; Cod. Just. 5. tit. 30. s. 4. PAULI'NUS, M. AURELIUS, consul A. D. 277 with the emperor M. Aurelius Probus. (Cod. Just. 8. tit. 56. s. 2.) PAULI'NUS, LO'LLIUS. [Lollius, No. 5.] PAULI'NUS, POMPETUS, commanded in Germany along with L. Antistius Vetus in A. D. 58, and completed the dam to restrain the inundations of the Rhine, which Drusus had commenced sixtythree years before. In A. D. 62 he was appointed, along with L. Piso and Ducennius Geminus, to the superintendence of the public revenues. On this occasion Tacitus calls him consularis; but his name does not occur in the consular fasti (Tac. Ann. xiii. 53, xv. 18; Senec. de Brev. Vitae, 18). Seneca dedicated to him his treatise De Brevitate Vitae; and the Pompeia Paulina, whom the philosopher married, was probably the daughter of this Paulinus. It is uncertain, however, whether the subject of this notice is the same as the Pompeius Paulinus, the son of a Roman eques of Arelate of whom Pliny speaks (H. N. xxxiii. 11. s. 50). PAULI'NUS, C. SUETO'NIUS, is first mentioned in the reign of the emperor Claudius, A. D. 42, in which year he was propraetor in Mauritania; he conquered the Moors who had revolted, and advanced as far as Mount Atlas (Dion Cass. lx. 9; Plin. H. N. v. 1.) In the reign of Nero, A. D. 59, Paulinus was appointed to the command of Britain. For the first two years all his undertakings were successful ; he subdued several nations, and erected forts in various parts of the country; but when at length in A. D. 61 he crossed over to Mona (Anglesey), which was the great strong-hold of the Britons who still resisted 1.

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