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art, such as buildings, temples, statues, and pic-
tures. He also mentions mountains, rivers, and
fountains, and the mythological stories connected
with them, which indeed are his chief inducements
to speak of them. His religious feeling was strong,
and his belief sure, for he tells many old legends
in true good faith and seriousness. His style has
been much condemned by modern critics, some of
whom consider it a sample of what has been called
the Asiatic style. Some even go so far as to say
that his words are wrongly placed, and that it
seems as if he tried to make his meaning difficult
to discover. But if we except some corrupt pas-
sages, and if we allow that his order of words is
not that of the best Greek writers, there is hardly
much obscurity to a person who is competently
acquainted with Greek, except that obscurity which
sometimes is owing to the matter. He makes no
attempt at ornament; when he speaks of the noble
works of art that he saw, the very brevity and
simplicity with which he describes many beautiful
things, present them to us in a more lively manner
than the description of a connoisseur, who often
thinks more about rounding a phrase than about
the thing which he affects to describe. With the
exception of Herodotus, there is no writer of an-
tiquity, and perhaps none of modern times, who has
comprehended so many valuable facts in a small
volume. The work of Pausanias is full of matter
mythological, historical, and artistic ; nor does he
neglect matters physical and economical. His
remarks on earthquakes (vii. 24), on the soft stone
full of sea shells (Aidos ko'yxitms) used in the
buildings of Megara, on the byssus above referred
to, and on a kind of silk worm (vi. 26), show the
minuteness of his observation. At Patrae he was
struck with the fact (vii. 21. § 14) that the females
were double the number of the males; which is
explained by the circumstance that the greater part
of them got their living by making head-gear, and
weaving cloth from the byssus of Elis. He has thus
preserved a valuable record of the growth and
establishment of manufacturing industry in a small
Greek town in the second century of our aera.
When Pausanias visited Greece, it was not yet
despoiled of all the great works of art. The coun-
try was still rich in the memorials of the unrivalled
genius of the Greeks. Pausanias is not a critic or
connoisseur in art, and what is better, he does not
pretend to be one ; he speaks of a thing just as he
saw it, and in detail. His description of the works
of Polygnotus at Delphi (x. 25–31), the paintings
in the Poecile at Athens (i. 15), the treasures of
art collected in Elis (v. vi.), among which was the
Jupiter of Pheidias (v. 10), are valuable records,
simply because they are plain facts. Greece was
still richer in sculpture at the time of his visit than
in painting, and he describes works of all the great
Greek sculptors, both in marble and in bronze ;
nor does he omit to mention the memorials of the
archaic style which were still religiously preserved
in the temples of Greece.
The first edition of Pausanias was printed at
Venice, 1516, fol., by Aldus, but it is very incor-
rect. Xylander (Holzmann) commenced an edi-
tion, which was finished by Sylburg, and appeared
with the Latin version of Romolo Amaseo, at
Frankfort on the Main, 1583, fol., and at Hanau,
1613. The edition of Kühn, Leipzig, 1696. fol.,
also contains the Latin version of Romolo Amaseo,
which was first published at Rome in 1547, 4to,
M

The edition of C. G. Siebelis, Leipzig, 1822–

1828, 5 vols. 8vo, has an improved text, and the corrected version of Amaseo, with a copious commentary and index. The edition of Imm. Bekker, Berlin, 1826–7, 2 vols. 8vo, is founded solely on the Paris MS. 1410, and the few deviations from the text are noted by the editor; there is a very good index to this edition. The latest edition is by J. H. C. Schubart and C. Walz, Leipzig, 1838–40, 3 vols. 8vo. There is a French translation by Clavier, with the Greek text collated after the Paris MSS. Paris, 1814, &c., 6 vols. 8vo. The latest German translation is by E. Wiedasch, Munich, 1826–29, 4 vols. 8vo. There is an English translation by Thomas Taylor, the translator of Plato and Aristotle, which in some passages is very incorrect. [G. L.] PAUSA'NIAS (IIavaavías). l. A commentator on Heracleitus, hence surnamed ‘Hpakaertiaris. (Diog. Laërt. ix. 15.) 2. A Lacedaemonian historian, who, according to Suidas (s. v.), wrote, IIepi ‘EAAmaróvrov, Aakawiká, xpoviká, repl’Auspikrvóvov, repl rôv čv AdKwaiv čopróv. He is probably the author referred to by Aelian and Arrian (Tactic. c. 1) as having written on the subject of Tactics. [W. M. G.] PAUSA'NIAS (IIavoravías), the name of two Greek physicians. 1. A native of Sicily in the fifth century B. c., who belonged to the family of the Asclepiadae, and whose father's name was Anchitus. He was an intimate friend of Empedocles, who dedicated to him his poem on Nature. (Diog. Laërt. viii. 2. § 60; Suidas, s. v. 'Amrvous ; Galen, De Malh. Med. i. 1. vol. x. p. 6.) There is extant a Greek epigram on this Pausanias, which is attributed in the Greek Anthology to Simonides (vii. 508), but by Diogenes Laërtius (l.c.) to Empedocles. The latter opinion appears to be more probable, as he could hardly be known to Simonides, who died B. c. 467. It is also doubtful whether he was born, or buried, at Gela in Sicily, as in this same epigram Diogenes Laërtius reads éðpeye TéAa, and the Greek Anthology &0ape TéAa. Perhaps the former reading is the more correct, as it seems to be implied by Diogenes Laërtius that Pausanias was younger than Empedocles, and we have no notice of his dying young, or being outlived by him. 2. A physician who attended Craterus, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and to whom the king addressed a letter when he heard he was going to give his patient hellebore, enjoining him to be cautions in the use of so powerful a medicine, probably about B. c. 324. (Plut. Aler. c. 41. [W. A. G.] PAUSA'NIAS (IIavgavías), artists. 1. A statuary, of Apollonia, made the statues of Apollo and Callisto, which formed a part of the great votive offering of the Tegeans at Olympia. He flourished, therefore, about B. c. 400. (Paus. x. 9. § 3 ; DAEDALUs II.) 2. A painter, mentioned by Athenaeus as a Topv6-ypapos, but otherwise unknown. (Ath. xiii. p. 567, b.) [P. S.I PAU'SIAS (IIavorías), one of the most distinguished painters of the best school and the bost period of Greek art, was a contemporary of Aristeides, Melanthius, and Apelles (about B. c. 360– 330), and a disciple of Pamphilus. He had previously been instructed by his father Brietes, who

lived at Sicyon, where also Pausias passed his life. He was thus perpetually familiar with those high principles of art which the authority of Pamphilus had established at Sicyon, and with those great artists who resort to that city, of which Pliny says, diu fuit illa patria picturae. The department of the art which Pausias most practised, and in which he received the instruction of Pamphilus, was painting in encaustic with the cestrum, and Pliny calls him primum in hoc genere nobilem. Indeed, according to the same writer, his restoration of the paintings of Polygnotus, on the walls of the temple at Thespiae, exhibited a striking inferiority, because the effort was made in a department not his own, namely, with the pencil. Pausias was the first who applied encaustic painting to the decoration of the ceilings and walls of houses. Nothing of this kind had been prac-, tised before his time, except the painting of the ceilings of temples with stars. The favourite subjects of Pausias were small panel-pictures, chiefly of boys. His rivals imputed his taste for such small pictures to his want of ability to paint fast: whereupon he executed a picture of a boy in a single day, and this picture became famous under the name of hemerestos (a day's work). Another celebrated picture, no doubt in the same style, was the portrait of Glycera, a flower. girl of his native city, of whom he was enamoured when a young man. The combined force of his affection for his mistress and for his art led him to strive to imitate the flowers, of which she made the garlands that she sold ; and he thus acquired the greatest skill in flower-painting. The fruit of these studies was a picture of Glycera with a garland, which was known in Pliny’s time as the Stephaneplocos (garland-weaver) or Stephanopolis (garland-seller). A copy of this picture (apore phon) was bought by L. Lucullus at the Dionysia at Athens for the great sum of two talents. Another painting is mentioned by Pliny as the finest specimen of Pausias's larger pictures: it was preserved in the portico of Pompey at Rome. This picture was remarkable for striking effects of foreshortening, and of light and shade. It representing a sacrifice: the ox was shown in its whole length in a front and not a side view (that is, powerfully foreshortened): this figure was painted black, while the people in attendance were placed in a strong white light, and the shadow of the ox was made to fall upon them: the effect was that all the figures seemed to stand out boldly from the picture. Pliny says that this style of painting was first invented by Pausias; and that many had tried to imitate it, but none with equal success. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40.) Pausanias (ii. 27. § 3) mentions two other paintings of Pausias, which adorned the Tholus at Epidaurus. The one represented Love, having laid aside his bow and arrows, and holding a lyre, which he has taken up in their stead: the other Drunkenness (Méthy), drinking out of a glass goblet, through which her face was visible. Most of the paintings of Pausias were probably transported to Rome, with the other treasures of Sicyonian art, in the aedileship of Scaurus, when the state of Sicyon was compelled to sell all the pictures which were public property, in order to pay its debts. (Plin. l. c.) . Pliny (l.c. § 31) mentions Aristolaus, the soil

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Aristotle and Lucian the name is frequently writ-
ten IIáawv and IIágaww. [P. S.]
PAX, the personification of peace, was wor-
shipped at Rome, where a festival was celebrated
in her honour and that of Salus, on the 30th of
April. (Ov. Fast. i. 7 l l ; Juv. i. 1 15 ; Plin.
H. N. xxxvi. 5; Gell. xvi. 8.) [L. S.]
PAXAEA, the wife of Pomponius Labeo.
[LABEo, Pomposius.]
PA'XAMUS (IIá;auos), a writer on various
subjects. Suidas (s. v.) mentions that he wrote a
work called Bowruká, in two books ; also two
books on the art of dyeing (Batiká), two on hus-
bandry, and a work entitled 626ekárexvov, which
Suidas explains (according to the emendation of
Kuster, who gives éut for the old reading éta), to
be an erotic work, trepi airkpów axmud tww. Some
fragments from the treatise on husbandry are pre-
served in the Geoponica. Paxamus also wrote a
culinary work, entitled disapturuká, which, Suidas
states, was arranged in alphabetical order. To this
work an allusion is probably made by Athenaeus
(ix. p. 376, d). [W. M. G.]
PAZALIAS, an engraver on precious stones,
whose time is unknown. There is a gem of his,
representing a female bacchanal, riding on a cen-
taur, which she governs with a thyrsus. o
Gems, No. 26.) P. S.]
PEDA/NIUS. 1. T. PEDANIUs, the first
centurion of the principes, was distinguished for
his bravery in the second Punic war, B. c. 212.
(Liv. xxv. 14; Wal. Max. iii. 2. § 20.)
2. PEDANIUs, one of the legates of Augustus,
who presided in the court, when Herod accused
his own sons. (Joseph. B. J. i. 27. § 3.)
3. PEDANIUs SECUNDUs, praefectus urbi in the
reign of Nero, was killed by one of his own slaves.
(Tac. Ann. xiv. 42.)
4. PEDANIus Costa, known only from coins,
from which we learn that he was legatus to Brutus
in the civil wars.

coin of PEDANIUS COSTA.

5. PEDANIus Costa, was passed over by Vitellius in his disposal of the consulship in A. D. 69, because Pedanius had been an enemy of Nero. (Tac. Hist. ii. 71.) 6. PEDANIUs, a Roman horse-soldier, whose bravery at the capture of Jerusalem by Titus, is recorded by Josephus (B. J. vi. 2. § 8). PEDA'RITUS or PAEDA'RETUS(IIeóápiros, IIaiódpetos), a Lacedaemonian, the son of Leon, was sent out to serve in conjunction with Astyochus, and after the capture of Iasus was appointed to station himself at Chios, late in the summer of B. c. 412. (Thuc. viii. 28.) Having marched by land from Miletus, he reached Erythrae, and then crossed over to Chios just at the time when application was made by the Lesbians to Astyochus for aid in a revolution which they meditated. But, through the reluctance of the Chians, and the refusal of Pedaritus, Astyochus was compelled to

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abandon the project (c. 32, 33). Irritated by his disappointment, Astyochus turned a deaf ear to the application which the Chians made for assistance when the Athenians fortified Delphinium, and Pedaritus in his despatches to Sparta complained of the admiral's conduct, in consequence of which a commission was sent out to inquire into it. (Thuc. viii. 38, 40.) Pedaritus himself seems to have acted with great harshness at Chios, in consequence of which some Chian exiles laid complaints against him at Sparta, and his mother Teleutia administered a rebuke to him in a letter. (Plut. Apophth. Lac. p. 241, d). Meantime the Athenians continued their operations at Chios, and had completed their works. Pedaritus sent to Rhodes, where the Peloponnesian fleet was lying, saying that Chios would fall into the hands of the Athenians unless the whole Peloponnesian armament came to its succour. He himself meantime made a sudden attack on the naval camp of the Athenians, and stormed it; but the main body of the Athenians coming up he was defeated and slain, in the begin

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PEDIAS (IIeótás), a daughter of Menys of Lacedaemon, and the wife of Caranus, king of Attica, from whom an Attic phyle and demos derived their name. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 5; Plut. Themist. 14; Steph. Byz. s. v.) [L. S.]

PEDIA'SIMUS, JOANNES. [JoANNEs, No. 61.]

PE'DIUS. 1. Q. PEDIUs, the great-nephew of the dictator C. Julius Caesar, being the grandson of Julia, Caesar's eldest sister. This is the statement of Suetonius (Caesar, 83), but Glandorp has conjectured (Onom. p. 432), not without reason, that Pedius may have been the son of the dictator's sister, since we find him grown up and discharging important duties in Caesar's lifetime. The name of Pedius first occurs in B. c. 57, when he was serving as legatus to his uncle in Gaul. (Caes. B. G. ii. 1.) In B. c. 55, Pedius became a candidate for the curule aedileship with Cn. Plancius and others, but he lost his election. (Cic. pro Planc. 7, 22: respecting the interpretation of these passages, see Wunder, Prolegomena, p. lxxxiii, &c. to his edition of Cicero's oration pro Plancio.) On the breaking out of the civil war in B. c. 49, Pedius naturally joined Caesar. During Caesar's campaign in Greece against Pompey, B. c. 48, Pedius remained in Italy, having been raised to the praetorship, and in the course of that year he defeated and slew Milo in the neighbourhood of Thurii. At the beginning of B. c. 45, we find Pedius serving as legatus against the Pompeian party in Spain, and on his return to Rome with Caesar in the autumn of the year, he was allowed the honour of a triumph with the title of proconsul. (Fasti Capit.) In Caesar's will Pedius was named one of his heirs along with his two other great-nephews, C. Octavius and L. Pinarius, Octavius obtaining three-fourths of the property, and the remaining fourth being divided between Pinarius and Pedius, who resigned his share of the inheritance to Octavius. After the fall of the consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, at the battle of Mutina in the month of April, B. c. 43, Octavius marched to Rome at the head of an army [AUGUstus, p. 425, b.), and in the month of August he was

elected consul along with Pedius. The latter forthwith, at the instigation of his colleague, proposed a law, known by the name of the Ler Pedia, by which all the murderers of Julius Caesar were punished with aquae et ignis interdictio. Pedius was left in charge of the city, while Octavius marched into the north of Italy, and as the latter had now determined to join Antonius and Lepidus, Pedius proposed in the senate the repeal of the sentence of outlawry which had been pronounced against them. To this the senate was obliged to give an unwilling consent ; and soon afterwards towards the close of the year there was formed at Bononia the celebrated triumvirate between Octavius, Antonius and Lepidus. As soon as the news reached Rome that the triumvirs had made out a list of persons to be put to death, the utmost consternation prevailed, more especially as the names of those who were doomed had not transpired. During the whole of the night on which the news arrived, Pedius was with difficulty able to prevent an open insurrection ; and on the fol. lowing morning, being ignorant of the decision of the triumvirs, he declared that only seventeen persons should be put to death, and pledged the public word for the safety of all others. But the fatigue to which he had been exposed was so great that it occasioned his death on the succeeding night. (Cic. ad Att. ix. 14; Caesar, B.C. iii. 22; Auctor, B. Hisp. 2; Suet. Caes. 83; Dion Cass. xliii. 31, 42, xlvi. 46, 52; Appian, B.C. iii. 22, 94, 96, iv. 6; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 4. s. 7; Well. Pat. ii. 69 ; Suet. Ner. 3, Galb. 3.) 2. Q. PEDIUs, the grandson of No. 1, was a painter. [See below.] 3. PEDIUs PopLicol A, a celebrated orator mentioned by Horace (Serm. i. 10.28), may have been a son of No. 1. 4. PEDIUs BLAEsus. [BLAESUs, p. 492, a.] 5. CN. PEDIus CAstus, consul suffectus at the beginning of the reign of Vespasian, A. D. 71. PE'DIUS, Q., a Roman painter in the latter part of the first century B. c. He was the grandson of that Q. Pedius who was the nephew of Julius Caesar, and his co-heir with Augustus (see above, No. 1): but, as he was dumb from his birth, his kinsman, the orator Messala, had him taught painting: this arrangement was approved of by Augustus, and Pedius attained to considerable excellence in the art, but he died while still a youth (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 4. s. 7). Müller places him at B. c. 34, but this is too early a date. [P.S.] PE'DIUS, SEXTUS, a Roman jurist, whose writings were apparently known to Pomponius (Dig. 4. tit. 3. s. J. S 4). His name Sextus appears in a passage of Paulus (Dig. 4. tit. 8. s. 32. § 20), and in other passages. Pedius was younger than Ofilius [OFILius], or at least a contemporary (Dig. 14. tit. l. s. 1. § 9): and the same remark applies to Sabinus (Dig. 50. tit. 6. s. 13. § 1), where Massurius Sabinus is meant. He is most frequently cited by Paulus and Ulpian. He is also cited by Julian (Dig. 3. tit. 5. s. 6. § 9). We may, therefore, conclude that he lived before the time of Hadrian. He wrote Libri ad Edictum, of which the twenty-fifth is quoted by Paulus (Dig. 37. tit. 1. s. 6. § 2). He also wrote Libri de Stipulationibus (12. tit. l. s. 6). The passages which are cited from him show that he had a true perception of the right method of legal interpretation; for instance, he says, in a passage quoted by Paulus, “it is best

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frequently mentions him in his correspondence in
terms of the greatest affection. During Cicero's
absence in Cilicia Pedncaeus was accused and
acquitted, but of the nature of the accusation we
are not informed. (Caelius, ad Fam. viii. 14.) On
the breaking out of the civil war between Caesar
and Pompey, Peducaeus sided with the former, by
whom he was appointed in b. c. 48 to the govern-
ment of Sardinia. In B. c. 39, Peducaeus was
propraetor in Spain, and this is the last time that
his name is mentioned. (Cic. ad Att. vii. 13, a.,
14, 17, ix. 7, 10, x. 1, xiii. 1, xv. 13, xvi. 11,
15; Appian, B. C. ii. 48, v. 54.)
4. L. PEducarus, a Roman eques, was one of
the judices at the trial of L. Flaccus, whom Cicero
defended B. c. 59. (Cic. pro Flace. 28.)
5. T. PeducAEus, interceded with the judices
on behalf of M. Scaurus, B. c. 54. (Aseon. in
Scaur. p. 29, ed. Orelli.)
6. C. PEducAEUs, was a legate of the consul,
C. Vibius Pansa, and was killed at the battle of
Mutina, B. c. 43. (Cic. ad Fam. x. 33.)
7. M. PEDuca Eus PRIscrNUs, consul A. D. 110
with Ser. Salvidienus Orfitus.
8. M. PEDUCAEU's Stole A PRISCINUs, consul
A. D. 141, with T. Hoenius Severus.
PEGANES, GEORGIUS. [Georgius, No.
18, p. 247, a.]
PEGASIS (TImyarís), i. e. descended from
Pegasus or originating by him ; hence it is ap-
plied to the well Hippocrene, which was called
forth by the hoof of Pegasus (Mosch. iii. 78; Ov.
Trist. iii. 7. 15). The Muses themselves also are
sometimes called Pegasides, as well as other nymphs
of wells and brooks. (Virg. Catal. 71. 2; Ov. He-
roid. xv.27; Propert. iii. 1. 19 ; Quint. Smyrn. iii.
301 ; comp. Heyne, ad Apollod. p. 301.) [L. S.]
PEGASUS (II syagos). 1. A priest of Eleu-
therae, who was believed to have introduced the
worship of Dionysus at Athens. (Paus. i. 2. § 4.)
2. The famous winged horse, whose origin is thus
related. When Perseus struck off the head of Me-
dusa, with whom Poseidon had had intercourse in
the form of a horse or a bird, there sprang forth from
her Chrysaor and the horse Pegasus. The latter
obtained the name Pegasus because he was believed
to have made his appearance near the sources (tris-
*ai) of Oceanus. Pegasus rose up to the seats of
the immortals, and afterwards lived in the palace
of Zeus, for whom he carried thunder and lightning
(Hes. Theog. 281, &c.; Apollod. ii. 3. § 2, 4, § 2;
Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. 722; comp. Ov. Met. iv.
781, &c. vi. 119). According to this view, which
is apparently the most ancient, Pegasus was the
thundering horse of Zeus; but later writers de-
scribe him as the horse of Eos (Schol. ad Hom.
Il. vi. 155; Tzetz. ad Lyc. 17), and place him
among the stars as the heavenly horse (Arat.
Phaen. 205, &c.; Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 18; Ov.
Fast. iii. 457, &c.).
Pegasus also acts a prominent part in the fight
of Bellerophon against the Chimaera (Hes. Theog.
325 ; Apollod. ii. 3. § 2). After Bellerophon had
tried and suffered much to obtain possession of
Pegasus for his fight against the Chimaera, he con-
sulted the soothsayer Polyidus at Corinth. The
latter advised him to spend a night in the temple
of Athena, and, as Bellerophon was sleeping, the
goddess appeared to him in a dream, commanding
him to sacrifice to Poseidon, and gave him a golden
bridle. When he awoke he found the bridle,

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