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Scriptorilus Eccles, vol. ii. col. 518; Lardner, Credib. book i. c. 162; J. C. Wolfius, Erercit. in Catenas Patrum Graecor., apud Cramer, Praef. ad Catenam in Evang. SS. Matthaei et Marci, 8vo. Oxford, 1840; Cramer, Monitum ad Catenam in Epist. Cathol. &c. 8vo. Oxford, 1840.) [J. C. M.] OE'DIPUS (Oióirovs), the son of Laius and Iocaste of Thebes. The tragic fate of this hero is more celebrated than that of any other legendary personage, on account of the frequent use which the tragic poets have made of it. In their hands it also underwent various changesand embellishments; but the common story is as follows. Laius, a son of Labdacus, was king of Thebes, and husband of Iocaste, a daughter of Menoeceus (or Creon, Diod. iv. 64), and sister of Creon. As Laius had no issue, he consulted the oracle, which informed him that if a son should be born to him he would lose his life by the hand of his own child. When, therefore, at length Iocaste gave birth to a son, they pierced his feet, bound them together, and then exposed the child on Mount Cithaeron. There he was found by a shepherd of king Polybus of Corinth, and he was called from his swollen feet Oedipus. When he was brought to the palace, the king and his wife Merope (or Periboea, Apollod. iii. 5. S 7) brought him up as their own child. Once, however, Oedipus was taunted by a Corinthian with not being the king's son, whereupon he proceeded to Delphi to consult the oracle. The answer he there obtained was that he should slay his father and commit incest with his own mother. Thinking that Polybus was his father, he resolved not to return to Corinth ; but on his road between Delphi and Daulis he met his real father Laius, and as Polyphontes (or Polyphetes, or Polypoetes, Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 39), the charioteer of Laius, wanted to push him out of the way, a scuffle ensued in which Oedipus slew both Laius and Polyphontes, and one part of the oracle was fulfilled. The two corpses are said to have been buried on the same spot by Damasistratus, king of Plataeae (Apollod. iii. 5. § 8 ; Paus. x. 5. § 2). In the mean time the celebrated Sphinx had appeared in the neighbourhood of Thebes. She had settled on a rock, and put a riddle to every Theban that passed by, and whoever was unable to solve it was killed by the monster. This calamity induced the Thebans to make known that whoever should deliver the country of it should be made king, and receive Iocaste as his wife. Oedipus was one of those that came forward, and when he approached the Sphinx she gave the riddle as follows: “A being with four feet has two feet and three feet, and only one voice ; but its feet vary, and when it has most it is weakest.” Oedipus solved the riddle by saying that it was man, and the Sphinx thereupon threw herself from the rock. Oedipus now obtained the kingdom of Thebes, and married his mother, by whom he became the father of Eteocles, Polyneices, Antigone, and Ismene. In consequence of this incestuous alliance of which no one was aware, the country of Thebes was visited by a plague, and the oracle ordered that the murderer of Laius should be expelled. Oedipus accordingly pronounced a solemn curse upon the unknown murderer, and declared him an exile; but when he endeavoured to discover him, he was informed by the seer Teiresias that he himself was both the parricide and the husband of his mother. Iocaste now hung hersels, and Oedipus
put out his own eyes (Apollod. iii. 5. § 8; Soph. Oed. Tyr. 447,713,731,774, &c.). From this point traditions again differ, for according to some, Oedipus in his blindness was expelled from Thebes by his sons and brother-in-law, Creon, who undertook the government, and he was guided and accompanied by Antigone in his exile to Attica; but according to others he was imprisoned by his sons at Thebes, in order that his disgrace might remain concealed from the eyes of the world. The father now cursed his sons, who agreed to rule over Thebes alternately, but became involved in a dispute, in consequence of which they fought in single combat, and slew each other. Hereupon Creon succeeded to the throne, and expelled Oedipus. After long wanderings Oedipus arrived in the grove of the Eumenides, near Colonus, in Attica; he was there honoured by Theseus in his misfortune, and, according to an oracle, the Eumenides removed him from the earth, and no one was allowed to approach his tomb (Soph. Oed. Col. 1661, &c.; Eurip. Phoen. init.; Apollod. iii. 5. § 9; Diod. iv. 64; Hygin. Fab. 67). According to Homer, Oedipus, tormented by the Erinnyes of his mother, continued to reign at Thebes after her death ; he fell in battle, and was honoured at Thebes with funeral solemnities (Od. xi. 270, &c., Il. xxiii. 679). Some traditions mention Euryganeia as the mother of the four children of Oedipus above-mentioned (Paus. ix. 5. § 5; Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 63), and previous to his connection with her, he is said to have been the father of Phrastor and Laonytus by Iocaste, and to have in the end married Astymedusa, a daughter of Sthenelus (Schol ad Eurip. l.c.). Oedipus himself is sometimes called a son of Laius by Eurycleia, and is said to have been thrown in a chest into the sea when yet an infant, to have been carried by the waves to the coast of Sicyon, to have been received by Polybus, and afterwards to have been blinded by him (Schol. ad Eur. Phoen.
13, 26). His tomb was shown at Athens, where he also had an heroum. (Paus. i. 28. § 7, 30, in fin.) L. S
OENANTHE (Olváv6m), mother of Agathocles, the infamous minister of Ptolemy Philopator, and Agathoclea, his equally infamous mistress. Oenanthe seems to have introduced her children to the king, and through them she possessed, until his death, the greatest influence in the government. When, after the accession of the young Epiphanes, the people rose up against Agathocles and his party, Oenanthe fled for refuge to the Thesmophorium (the temple of Demeter and Persephone), and here she implored the aid of the goddesses with superstitious enchantments, and drove away with threats and curses some noble ladies who had come to console her. On the next day she was dragged from the altar, and, having been brought naked on horseback into the stadium, was delivered up, with the rest of the family of Agathocles, to the fury of the multitude, by whom they were torn in pieces. (Polyb. xiv. 11, xv. 29, 33 ; Plut. Cleom. 33 ; Just. xxx. 2.; Athen. vi. p. 251, e.) [E. E.] OEN EUS (Oives's). 1. One of the sons of Aegyptus. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5.) 2. A son of Pandion, and one of the eponymic heroes at Athens. (Paus. i. 5. § 2.) 3. A son of Portheus, brother of Agrius and Melas, and husband of Althaea, by whom he became the father of Tydeus and Meleager, and was, thus the grandfather of Diomedes. He was king of Pleuron and Calydon in Aetolia (IIom. Il. v. 813, ii. 543, xiv. 115, &c.). According to the tragic poets he was a son of Porthaon and Euryte, and besides the two brothers mentioned above, Alcathous, Laocoon, Leucopeus, and Sterope, are likewise called his brothers and sister (Apollod. i. 7. § 10: Apollon. Rhod. i. 192; Hygin. Fab. 14). His children are said to have been Toxeus, whom he himself killed, Thyreus (Phereus), Clymenus, Periphas, Agelans, Meleager, Gorge, Eurymede, Melanippe, Mothone, and Deianeira (Apollod. i. 8. § 1 ; Paus. iv. 35. § 1 ; Anton. Lib. 2). His second wife was Melanippe, the daughter of Hipponous, and by her he is said by some to have become the father of Tydeus, who according to others was his son by his own daughter Gorge (Apollod. i. 8. § 4, &c.; Diod. iv. 35 ; comp. Tydeus). He is said to have been deprived of his kingdom by the sons of Agrius, who imprisoned him and ill used him. But he was subsequently avenged by Diomedes, who slew Agrius and his sons, and restored the kingdom either to Oeneus himself, or to his son-in-law Andraemon, as Oeneus was too old. Diomedes took his grandfather with him to Peloponnesus, but some of the sons who lay in ambush, slew the old man, near the altar of Telephus in Arcadia. Diomedes buried his body at Argos, and named the town of Oenoe after him (Apollod. i. 8. § 5, &c.; Anton, Lib. 37; Diod. iv. 65). According to others Oeneus lived to a very old age with Diomedes at Argos, and died a natural death (Paus. ii. 25. § 2). Homer knows nothing of all this ; he merely relates that Oeneus once neglected to sacrifice to Artemis, in consequence of which she sent a monstrous boar into the territory of Calydon, which was hunted by Meleager (Il. ix. 532, &c.). The hero Bellerophon was hospitably received by him, and received a costly girdle as a present from him (vi. 216, &c.). At the time of the Trojan war the rate of Oeneus had become extinct, and hence Thoas, the son of Andraemon, the son-in-law of Oeneus, led the Aetolians against Troy (ii. 638, &c.). [L. S.] 0ENIAS, a Greek painter, of whom nothing more is known than that he painted a family group, syngenicon. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 1 1. s. 40. § 37.) [P. S.] OENOATIS (Oiva dris), a surname of Artemis, who was worshipped at Oenoe in Argolis. (Eurip. Herr. Far. 376.) [L. S.] OENOE (Oiván). 1. The name given by An! sinus Liberalis (16) to a person commonly called Gerona. (GERANA]. 2. A sister of Epochus, from which the Attic demus of Oenoe was believed to have derived its lane. (Paus. i. 33, in fin.) 4. An Arcadian nymph, who is said to have on one of those that brought up the infant Zeus. (Paus. viii. 47. § 2. [L. S.] OENOMARCHUS (Oivéuapxos), of Andros, one of the numerous pupils of Herodes Atticus. did * Possess any great celebrity, and was fond of the florid style of eloquence, which received the one of the Ionic or Asiatic. (Philostr. Wit. &p. ii. 18.) 0ENOMAUS (Oiváuaos), a son of Ares and Hajima, the daughter of Asopus, and husband of the Pleiad Sterope, by whom he became the father *Hoolameia, was king of Pisa in Elis (Apollod. * ".$ l; Paus. v. 10, $2,22, s 5, vi. 21. § 6). *ing to others he was a son of Ares and WUL. ill.
Sterope (Schol. ad Hom. Il. xviii. 486 ; Hygin. Fab. 84, 159), or a son of Alxion (Paus. v. 1. § 5), or of Hyperochus and Sterope (Tzetz. ad Loc. 149). An oracle had declared that he should die if his daughter should marry, and he therefore made it a condition that those who came forward as suitors for Hippodameia's hand should contend with himself in the chariot-race, and he who conquered should receive her, whereas those that were conquered should suffer death. The race-course extended from Pisa to the altar of Poseidon, on the Corinthian isthmus. At the moment when a suitor started with Hippodameia, Oenomaus sacrificed a ram to Zeus at Pisa, and then armed himself and hastened with his swift chariot and four horses, guided by Myrtilus, after the suitor. He thus overtook many a lover, whom he put to death, until Pelops, the son of Tantalus, came to Pisa. Pelops bribed Myrtilus, and using the horses which he had received from Poseidon, he succeeded in reaching the goal before Oenomaus, who in despair made away with himself. Thus Pelops obtained Hippodameia and the kingdom of Pisa (Diod. iv. 73; Hygin. Fab. 84; Schol, ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 752, ad Pind. Ol. i. 114; Ov. 10. 365, &c.). There are some variations in this story. as e. g. that Oenomaus was himself in love with his daughter, and for this reason slew her lovers (Tzetz. ad Lye. 156; Hygin. Fab. 253). Myrtilus also is said to have loved her, and as she wished to possess Pelops, she persuaded Myrtilus to take the nails out of the wheels of her father's chariot ; and as Oenomaus was breathing his last he pronounced a curse upon Myrtilus, and this curse had its desired effect, for as Pelops refused to give to Myrtilus the reward he had promised, or as Myrtilus had attempted to dishonour Hippodameia, Pelops thrust him down from Cape Geraestus. But Myrtilus, while dying, likewise pronounced a curse upon the house of Pelops, which was afterwards the cause of the fatal occurrences in the life of Atreus and Thyestes (Tzetz. ad Lyc. 156). All the suitors that had been killed by Oenomaus, were buried in one common tomb (Paus. vi. 21. § 6, &c.). The tomb of Oenomaus himself was shown on the river Cladeus in Elis (vi. 21. § 3). His house was destroyed by lightning, and only one pillar of it remained standing (v. 20. § 3, 14. § 5 ; comp. v. 17. § 4, 10. § 2; Soph. Elect. 504, &c.; Völcker, Mythol. des Japet. Geschl. p. 361). [L. S.] OENO'MAUS (Oiváuaos), of Gadara, a cynic philosopher, who flourished in the reign of Hadrian, or somewhat later, but before Porphyry. (Syncell. p. 349, b. ; Suid. s. v.) He was one of those later cynics whose philosophy consisted not so much in any definite system of doctrine, as in a free and unrestrained tone of thought and life. Thus the emperor Julian charges him with sensuality and profaneness; and his sarcasms upon the old cynic doctrines have led some to suppose, but without reason, that he belonged to some other sect. (Julian, Orat. vi. p. 199, vii. p. 209, ed. Spanheim.) Suidas mentions, as his works, IIepl Kvviouou, IIoAiresa, IIepi Tàs Ra6 "Ourpov pixoaoqias, IIepl Kpdtmros kal Atoyévous kal rav Aoitrov. This list, however, does not include the work which is best known to us, namely, his exposure of the oracles, which is sometimes entitled Kand táv xpmatmptww, but the proper title seems to have been Toftww papd, i. e. Detectio Praestiniatorum. Considerable extracts from this work * by Eusebius, who tells us that Oenomaus was provoked to write it in consequence of having been himself deceived by an oracle. (Euseb. Praep. Erang. v. 18, foll., vi. 7; Socrat. H. E. iv. 13; Niceph. x. 36: Theodoret. Therap. vi. p. 86, x. p. 141, a.) Julian also speaks of tragedies by Oeno. maus (Orat. vii. p. 210). 2. An epigrammatic poet, the author of a single distich upon Eros, inscribed on a drinking vessel. There is nothing to determine whether or no he was the same person as the philosopher (Brunck, Anal. y ii. p. 402; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. . 110. p 3. A tragic poet. [DioGENEs, p. 1023.] [P.S.] OENONE (Olvdovn), a daughter of the rivergod Cebren, and the wife of Paris. (Apollod. iii. 12. § 6; Parthen. Erot. 4; Strab. xiii. p. 596; comp. PARIs.) [L. S.] OENO PIDES (Oivorsons), a distinguished astronomer and mathematician, a native of Chios. Plato (Erastae, c. 1) mentions him in conjunction with Anaxagoras, from which it has been concluded that he was a contemporary of the latter. It may have been so, but there is nothing else to confirm the conjecture. He is spoken of in connection with Pythagoras and his followers, so that he seems to have been regarded as a Pythagorean. Oenopides derived most of his astronomical knowledge from the priests and astronomers of Egypt, with whom he lived for some time. Diodorus (i. 98) mentions in particular that he derived from this source his knowledge of the obliquity of the ecliptic, the discovery of which he is said to have claimed (in the treatise de Plac. Phil. ii. 12, ascribed to Plutarch). Aelian (V. H. x. 7) attributes to Oenopides the invention of the cycle of fifty-nine years for bringing the lunar and solar years into accordance, of which Censorinus (c. 19) makes Philolaus to have been the originator. The length of the solar year was fixed by Oenopides at 365 days, and somewhat less than nine hours. (As Censorinus expresses it, the fifty-ninth part of twenty-two days.) Oenopides set up at Olympia a brazen tablet containing an explanation of his cycle. He had a notion that the milky-way was the original path of the sun, from which he had been frightened into his present path by the spectacle of the banquet of Thyestes. (Achilles Tatius, Isag. in Arat. c. 24.) Proclus, in his commentary on Euclid, attributes to Oenopides the discovery of the twelfth and twentythird propositions of the first book of Euclid, and the quadrature of the meniscus. Oenopides is also mentioned more than once by Sextus Empiricus. (Hypot. iii. 4, adv. Math. p. 367.) He had a theory of his own about the rise of the Nile, which was this, that in the summer the waters beneath the earth are told, in the winter warm ; a fact which he said was proved by the temperature of deep wells. So that in the winter the heat shut up in the earth carries off the greater part of the moisture, while there are no rains in Egypt. In the summer, on the contrary, the moisture is no longer carried off in that way, so that there is enough to fill the bed of the Nile and cause it to overflow. Diodorus (i. 41) objects to that theory, that other rivers of Libya, which correspond in position and direction to the Nile, are not so affected. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. i. p. 860; Ideler, Handbuch der Chronologic, vol. i. p. 302. [C. P. M.] OENO'PION (Oivotsav), a son of Dionysus and husband of the nymph Helice, by whom he
became the father of Thalus, Euanthes, Melas, Salagus, Athamas, and Merope, Aerope or Haero (Schol. ad Apollon. Ithod. iii. 996; Paus. vii. 4. § 6; Parthen. Erot. 20). Some writers call Oenopion a son of Rhadamanthys by Ariadne, and a brother of Staphylus (Plut. Thes. 20); and Servius (ad Aen. i. 539 ; comp. x. 763) also calls him the father of Orion. From Crete he emigrated with his sons to Chios, which Rhadamanthys had assigned to him as his habitation (Paus. vii. 4. S 6 Diod. v. 79). While he was king of Chios, he received a visit from the giant Orion, who for a long time sued for the hand of Merope. Once Orion being intoxicated violated Merope, in consequence of which Oenopion blinded him and expelled him from his island. Orion, however, went to Lemnos, where Hephaestus gave to him Cedalion as a guide, or according to others stole a boy whom he carried on his shoulders, and who told him the roads. Orion was afterwards cured of his blindness, and returned to Chios to take vengeance on Oenopion. But the latter was not to be found in Chios, for his friends had concealed him in the earth, so that Orion, unable to discover him, went to Crete (Apollod. i. 4. § 3 ; Hygin. Poet. A str. ii. 34: Eratosth. Catast. 32; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 1623). The tomb of Oenopion continued to be shown at Chios even in the days of Pausanias (vii. 5. § 6; comp. OR1ON ; Völcker, Mythol. des Japet. Geschl. p. 112, &c.). [L. S.] OENOTROPAE (Oivorpómar), that is, the changers of or into wine, was the name of the three or four daughters of king Anius in Delos, because they had received from Dionysus the power of changing water into wine, and any thing else they chose into corn and olives (Tzetz. ad Lyc. 750). When Agamemnon heard this, he wanted to carry them off by force from their father, that they might provide for the army of the Greeks at Troy; but they implored Dionysus for assistance, and were accordingly metamorphosed into doves. (Ov. Met. xiii. 640 ; Serv. ad Aen. iii. 80.) [L. S.] OENOTRUS (Osvarpos), the youngest son of Lycaon who emigrated with a colony from Arcadia to Italy, and called the district in which he settled, after himself, Oenotria (Paus. viii. 3. S 2 ; Virg. Aen. i. 532, iii. 165, vii. 85 ; Strab. vi. p. 253, &c.). According to Varro, he was a king of the Sabines, and not a Pelasgian, and his brother was called Italus (Serv. ad Aen. i. 536). According to Dionysius (i. 11, &c. ii. 1), Oenotrus was accompanied by his brother Peucetius, and landed in the bay of Ausonia. [L. S.] OEOBA'ZUS (OićSatos). 1. A Persian, who, when Dareius Hystaspis was on the point of marching from Susa on his Scythian expedition, besought him to leave behind with him one of his three sons. all of whom were serving in the army. Dareius answered that, as Oeobazus was a friend. and had preferred so moderate a request, he would leave him all three. Ile then ordered them all to be put to death. (Her. iv. 84; comp. vii. 38, 39 ; Senec. de Ira, iii. 16, 17.) 2. Father of Siromitres, who led the Paricanians in the Greek expedition of Xerxes. (Her. vii. 68.) 3. A noble Persian, who, when the Greek fleet arrived in the Hellespont after the battle of Mycale (b. c. 479), fled from Cardia to Sestus, as the place of all most strongly fortified. Sestus was besieged by the Athenians under Xanthippus, and, on the famine becoming unendurable, Oeobazus, with most of the Persians, made his escape from the town; but he fell into the hands of the Apsinthian Thracians, and was sacrificed by them to Pleistorus, one of their gods (Her. ix. 115, 118, 119). [E.E.] 0E0OLUS (OtokMos), a son of Poseidon by Ascra, who in conjunction with the Aloadae, is said to have built the town of Ascra in Boeotia. (Paus. ix. 29. § 1.) 0E0'LYCUS (OláAvkos), a son of Theras of Sparta, and brother of Aegeus, was honoured at Sparta with an heroum. (Herod. iv. 149; Paus. iii. 15. § 6.) [L. S.] 0E0'NUS (Olavés), a son of Licymnius of Midea in Argolis, was the first victor at Olympia, in the foot-race. (Pind. Ol. xi. 76, &c.; Apollod. ii. 7. § 3; Paus. iii. 15. § 3.) He is said to have been killed at Sparta by the sons of Hippotown, but was avenged by Heracles, whose kinsIan he was, and was honoured with a monument near the temple of Heracles. (Paus. l.c.) [L. S.] 0ESALCES, brother of Gala, king of the Numilian tribe of the Massylians, whom he succeeded on the throne, according to the Numidian law of inheritance. He was at the time of very advanced age, and died shortly after, leaving two sons, CaPusa and Lacumaces. (Liv. xxix. 29.) [E. H. B.] QETOLINUS. [LINUs.] 0ETOSYRUS (Oirão vpos), the name of a Scythian divinity whom Herodotus identifies with the Greek Apollo. (Herod. iv. 59.) [L. S.] 0ETYLUS (Ofrv\os), a son of Amphianax, and grandson of Antimachus of Argos. The Laconian town of Oetylus was believed to have received its name from him, and he there enjoyed heroic honours. (Paus. iii. 25. § 7.) [L. S.] 0FELLA, a man of sound sense and of a straightforward character, whom Horace contrasts with the Stoic quacks of his time. (Hor. Sat. ii. 3.3.) The old editions of Horace have Ofellus, which Bentley proposed to change into Osella, Tomarking that Ofella and Ofellius were known names, but that Ofellus occurs nowhere **. The conjecture of Bentley is now confirmed by manuscript authority. OFELLA, Q. LUCRETIUS, originally belonged to the Marian party, but deserted to Sulla; and although he had not hitherto distinguished himself in any way (Dion Cass. xxxiv. Fragm. 14), Sulla appointed him to the command of the army employed in the blockade of Praeneste, where the younger Marius had taken refuge in B. c. 82. Phoneste was obliged to surrender in the course of the year, and the younger Marius put an end to his **n life. Relying on these services, Ofella beone a candidate for the consulship in the follow. * Year, although he had not yet been either **tor or praetor, thus acting in defiance of Sola's law Le Magistratibus. Sulla at first at*Pled to dissuade him from becoming a candi*; but as he persisted in his purpose, and ord the forum supported by a large party, Sulla sent a centurion to kill him in the middle of * forum, and informed the people that he had *manded, the execution of Ofella, because he ** to obey his commands. After saying this, Stoa told them the following tale, which is pre... by Appian;–" The lice were very trouble*****homan, as he was ploughing. Twice o his ploughing, and purged his jacket. ** he was still bitten; and in order that he *** * be hindered in his work, he burnt the
jacket. And I advise those who have been twice humbled not to make fire necessary the third time.” (Appian, B. C. i. 88, 9.4, 101: Plut. Sull. 29, 33; Liv. Epit. 88,89; Vell. Pat. ii. 27, who erroneously says that Ofella had been praetor.) The name of the centurion that put Ofella to death was L. Bellienus. He was afterwards brought to trial for this murder by Julius Caesar and condemned. (Ascon. in Tog. Cand. p. 92, ed. Orelli; Dion Cass. xxxvii. 10.) The orator, who is characterised by Cicero (Brut. 48) as contionibus aptior quam judiciis, is probably the same as the subject of this article, though the name in Cicero 1S corrupt. OFELLUS. [OPELLA.] OFI'LIUS or OFE'LLIUS. The name occurs in inscriptions in both forms; but in writers we generally find Ofilius. 1. Ofilius CALAvius, a Campanian in the time of the Samnite wars. [CALAvius, No. 3..] 2. OFillius ('OpíAAtos), as he is called by Appian (B. C. v. 128), a tribune of the soldiers in the army of Octavian, B. c. 38. 3. M. Of IL1Us HILAR Us, whose painless death is recorded at length by Pliny. (H. N. vii. 53. s. 54.) 4. OfELLIUs ('OdéNAuos), a philosopher mentioned by Arrian (Epict. iii. 22. § 27). OFI'LIUS, A., a Roman jurist, is named by Pomponius (Dig. 1. tit.2. s. 2. § 44) Gaius Aulus Ofilius, but the praenomen Gaius appears to be some blunder of a copyist. Ofilius was one of the pupils of Servius Sulpicius, and the master of Tubero, Capito and Labeo. He was a friend of Cicero, who, on one occasion, cites his opinion as opposed to that of Trebatius (ad Fam. vii. 21, ad Att. xiii. 37). He was also a friend of the . Dictator Caesar. Ofilius belonged to the equestrian order, but he obtained a high reputation for legal knowledge. “He wrote,” says Pomponius (Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 44), “many treatises on the Jus Civile,” among which De Legibus ricesimae (manumissionum), and De Jurisdictione. The fifth book of his Jus Partitum is cited (Dig. 32. s. 55), and the sixteenth book of a work on actions (33. tit. 9. s. 3. §§ 5, 8), and a treatise addressed to Atticus (50. tit. 16. s. 234. § 2), who is probably T. Pomponius Atticus. Ofilius is often cited in the Digest. “Ofilius,” says Pomponius, “edictum praetoris primus diligenter composuit,” which probably means an arrangement of the edictal law, like the later work of Julian, or it might be a commentary upon it. Caesar had conceived a design of arranging the Jus Cirile, to which his connection with Ofilius may have contributed. (Zimmern, Geschichte des Röm. Privatrechts; Puchta, Cursus, &c. vol. i. p. 427; Grotius, Pit. Jurisconsult.) [G. L.] 060'A ('Oyda), the Carian name of Zeus at Mysala, in whose temple a sea-wave was seen from time to time. (Paus. viii. 10. § 3.) Strabo (xiv. p. 659) calls the god of Mysala, in the Carian dialect, Osogo. [L. S.] OGU'LN IA GENS, plebeian, is most known through one of its members being the proposer of the law, which opened the two great ecclesiastical corporations to the plebeians. The first and only person in this gens who obtained the consulship is Q. Ogulnius Gallus, who was consul B. c. 299. Galius is the only cognomen of the Ogulnii: the others, who have no surname, are given o c .
OGU'LNIUS. 1, 2. Q. and CN. OgulNII, tribunes of the plebs, B. c. 300, proposed and carried a law by which the number of the pontiffs was increased from four to eight, and that of the augurs from four to nine, and which enacted that four of the pontiffs and five of the augurs should be taken from the plebs. (Liv. x. 6–9.) Besides these eight pontiffs there was the pontifex maximus, who is generally not included when the number of pontiffs is spoken of The pontifex maximus continued to be a patrician down to B. c. 254, when Tib. Coruncanius was the first plebeian who was invested with this dignity. In B. c. 296 Q. and Cn. Ogulnii were curule aediles. They prosecuted several persons for violating the usury laws; and with the money accruing from the fines inflicted in consequence they executed many public works (Liv. x. 23). The name of Cn. Ogulnius does not occur again after this year. In B. c. 294 Q. 0gulnius was sent at the head of an embassy to Epidaurus, in order to fetch Aesculapius to Rome, that the plague might be stayed which had been raging in the city for more than two years. The legend relates that, upon the arrival of the ambassadors at Epidaurus, the god in the form of a gigantic serpent issued from the sanctuary, and settled in the cabin of Q. Ogulnius. (Val. Max. i. 8. § 2; Aur. Vict. de Vir. Ill. 22 ; Liv. Epit. 11; Oros. iii. 22; Ov. Met. xv. 622, &c.) In B. c. 273 Q. Ogulnius was again employed on an embassy, being one of the three ambassadors sent by the senate to Ptolemy Philadelphus, who had sought the friendship and alliance of the Romans in consequence of their conquest of Pyrrhus. The ambassadors were received with great distinction at the Egyptian court, and loaded with presents. These they were obliged to accept ; but the golden crowns which had been given them, they placed on the heads of the king's statues; and the other presents they deposited in the treasury immediately upon their arrival at Rome, but the senate restored them to them. (Val. Max. iv. 3. § 9 ; Justin, xviii. 3.; Dion Cass. Fragm. 147, with the note of Fabricius.) 3. M. OGULN1Us was sent into Etruria with P. Aquillius in B. c. 210, in order to purchase corn to be sent to Tarentum. (Liv. xxvii. 3.) 4. M. OGUI.N1Us, tribune of the soldiers in the second legion, fell in battle against the Boii, B. c. 196. ( Liv. xxxiii. 36.) OGY'GUs or OGY'GES (on'yūyms), is sometimes called a Boeotian autochthon, and sometimes a son of Boeotus, and king of the Hectenes, and the first ruler of the territory of Thebes, which
was called after him Ogygia. In his reign the waters of lake Copais rose above its banks, and inundated the whole valley of Boeotia. This flood is usually called after him the Ogygian. (Paus. ix. 5. § 1 ; Apollon. Rhod. iii. 1177; Serv. ad Viry. Eel. vi. 41.) The name of Ogyges is also connected with Attic story, for in Attica too an Ogygian flood is mentioned, and he is described as the father of the Attic hero Eleusis, and as the father of Daeira, the daughter of Oceanus. (Paus. i. 38. § 7.) In the Boeotian tradition he was the father of Alalcomenia, Thelxinoea and Aulis (Suid. s. v. IIpačičíkm ; Paus. ix. 33. § 4.) Polybius (iv. 1) and Strabo (viii. p. 384) call Ogyges the last king of Achaia, and some traditions even described him as an Egyptian king. (Tzetz ad Lyc. 1206.) [L. S. OICLES or OICLEUS ('oxxis, 'Oikae's), a son of Antiphates, grandson of Melampus and father of Amphiaraus, of Argos. (Hom. Od. xv. 241, &c.) Diodorus (iv. 32) on the other hand, calls him a son of Amphiaraus, and Pausanias (vi. 17. § 4), a son of Mantius, the brother of Antiphates. Oicles accompanied Heracles on his expedition against Laomedon of Troy, and was there slain in battle. (Apollod. ii. 6. § 4 ; Diod. iv. 32.) According to other traditions he returned home from the expedition, and dwelt in Arcadia, where he was visited by his grandson Alcmaeon, and where in later times his tomb was shown. (Apollod. iii. 7. § 5; Paus. viii. 36. § 4.) [L. S.] OILEUS ('Oixeds.) 1. A Trojan, charioteer of Bianor, was slain by Agamemnon. (Hom. Il. xi. 93. 2. o son of Hodoedocus and Laonome, grandson of Cynus, and great-grandson of Opus, was a king of the Locrians, and married to Eriopis, by whom he became the father of Ajax, who is hence called Olides or Oiliades. Oileus was also the father of Medon by Rhene. (Hom. Il. ii. 527, 725, xiii. 697, 712; Propert. iv. 1. 117.) He is also mentioned among the Argonauts. (Apollod. v. 10. § 3; Apollon. Rhod. i. 74 ; Orph. Argon. 191.) [L. S.] O'LBIADES ('OAéléâns), the painter of a picture in the senate-house of the Five Hundred, in the Cerameicus, at Athens, representing Calip: pus, the commander of the army which repulsed the invading Gauls under Brennus, at Thermopylae, B. c. 279. (Paus. i. 3. § 4. s. 5.) [P.S.] . OLEN ('nxów), a mythical personage, who is represented as the earliest Greek lyric, poet, and the first author of sacred hymns in hexameter verse. He is closely connected with the worship of Apollo, of whom, in one legend, he was made the prophet. His connection with Apollo is also marked by the statement of the Delphian poetes: Boeo, who represents him as a Hyperborean, and one of the establishers of oracles; but the more common story made him a native of Lycia. In either case, his coming from the extreme part of the Pelasgian world to Delos intimates the distant origin of the Ionian worship of Apollo to which, and not to the Dorian, Olen properly belongs: His name, according to Welcker (Europa und Kadmos, p. 35), signifies simply the flute?"aye". Of the ancient hymns, which went under his name, Pausanias mentions those to Here, to Achaea, and to Eileithyia ; the last was in celebration of the birth of Apollo and Artemis. (Herod. iv. 35; Paus, i. 18. § 5, ii. 13. § 3, v. 7.