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Comedy (Anon. de Com. p. 28), and the elegance and vigour of his extant fragments sustain this judgment. Aristophanes, indeed, attacks him, together with other comic poets, for the use of low and obsolete buffoonery (Ran. 14), but the scholiast on the passage asserts that there was nothing of the sort in his extant plays. He was also charged with corrupting both language and metre, and with plagiarism ; the last of these charges was brought against him by the comic poet Hermippus, in his ‘popudspopot (Schol. ad Aristoph. l.c., and Av. 750). These accusations are probably to be regarded rather as indications of the height to which the rivalry of the comic poets was carried, than as the statement of actual truths. We find Eupolis also charged by Aristophanes with plagiarisms from Phrynichus (Mul, 553). On the subject of metre, we are informed that Phrynichus invented the Ionic a Mimore Catalectic verse, which was named after him (Marius Victor, p. 2542, Putsch ; Hephaest. p. 67, Gaisf.): about another metre, the Trinician, there is some doubt (see Meineke, pp. 150, 151). His language is generally terse and elegant, but he sometimes uses words of peculiar formation (Meineke, p. 151). The celebrated grammarian, Didymus of Alexandria, wrote commentaries on Phrynichus, one of which, on the Kpévos, is quoted by Athenaeus (ix. p. 371, f.). The number of his comedies is stated by the anonymous writer on comedy (p. 34) at ten ; and Suidas gives the same number of titles, namely, "EpidAtms, Kávvos, Kpévos, Kwuaotai, Xdrupol, Tpaypool 'Atrexe50spot, Movórporos, Motoral, Marms, IIpoão Tpics, the subjects of which are fully discussed by Meineke. The Movárporos was acted, with the Birds of Aristophanes and the Comassae of Ameipsias, in Ol. 91.2, B. c. 414, and obtained the third prize; and the Moûoral was acted, with the Frogs of Aristophanes and the Cleophon of Plato, in Ol. 93. 3, B. c. 405, and obtained the second prize. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 433, 484; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 146–160, ii. pp. 580–608; Bergk, Reliq. Com. Att. Ant. pp. 366, &c.) [P. S.] PHRYNIS. [PHRyNNIs.] PHRYNISCUS (+puwiakos), an Achaean, who was engaged in the expedition of Cyrus the Younger. When the Cyreans had been deceived by the adventurer Coeratadas at Byzantium, B. c. 400, Phrymiscus was one of those who advised that they should enter the service of Seuthes, the Odrysian prince, who wanted their aid for the recovery of his dominions. We find Phryniscus afterwards, together with Timasion and Cleanor, joining cor. dially with Xenophon in his endeavour to obtain from Seuthes the pay that was due, and so baffling the attempt of Heracleides of Maroneia to divide the Greek generals (Xen. Anab. vii. 2. §§ 1, 2, 5. $$ 4, 10). [HERAcleIDEs, No 16.] [E. E.] PHRYNNIS (općvvis), or PHRYNIS (pp5vis), a celebrated dithyrambic poet, of the time of the Peloponnesian war, was a native of Mytilene, but flourished at Athens. His father's name seems to have been Camon, or Cambon, but the true form is very doubtful. Respecting his own name, also, there is a doubt, but the form Phrynnis is the genuine Aeolic form. He belonged to the Lesbian school of citharoedic music, having been instructed by Aristocleitus, a musician of the time of the Persian wars, who claimed a lineal descent from Terpander. Before receiving the instructions
of this musician, Phrynnis had been a flute-player, which may partly account for the liberties he took with the music of the cithara. His innovations, effeminacies, and frigidness are repeatedly attacked by the comic poets, especially Pherecrates (ap. Plut. de Mus. p. 1146; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. ii. p. 326, &c.) and Aristophanes (Nub. 971. comp. Schol.). Among the innovations which he is said to have made, was the addition of two strings to the heptachord ; and Plutarch relates that, when he went to Sparta, the Ephors cut off two of his nine strings, only leaving him the choice, whether he would sacrifice the two lowest or the two highest. The whole story, however, is doubtful ; for it is not improbable that the number of strings had been increased at an earlier period. (For a fuller discussion of his musical innovations, see Schmidt, Dithyramb. pp. 89–95.) Phrynnis was the first who gained the victory in the musical contests established by Pericles, in connection with the Panathenaic festival (Schol. ad Aristoph. Nub. l.c.), probably in B. c. 445 (Müller, Gesch, d. Griech. Litt. vol. ii. p. 286). He was one of the instructors of Timotheus, who, however, defeated him on one occasion. (Müller, l.c.) [P.S.] PHRYNON. [AlcAEus.] PHRY NON, a statuary, whom Pliny mentions as the disciple of Polycleitus, and who must, therefore, have lived about B. c. 408. His country is not mentioned. (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19 ; respecting the true reading see Thiersch, Epochen, p. 276.) [P. S.] PHRYNUS, artists. 1. A Greek statuary, whose name is only known by an inscription in ancient characters, on a small bronze figure found at Locri, (Visconti, Mus. Pio-Clem. vol. iv. pl. xlix. p. 66.) 2. A maker of vases, whose name occurs on a vase of an ancient style, found at Vulci, and now in the collection of M. Durand. The inscription is as follows:
nothing more is known (Plut. Pyrrh.. 1). Her portrait is found on some of the coins of her son Pyrrhus. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 170.) 2. A daughter of Alexander II., king of Epeirus, who was married to Demetrius II., king of Macedonia. The match was arranged by her mother Olympias, who was desirous of thus securing the powerful assistance of the Macedonian king to support herself on the throne of Epeirus after the death of Alexander. (Justin. xxviii. 1.) [E. H. B.] PHTHIUS (48tos). 1. A son of Poseidon by Larissa, from whom Phthia in Thessaly was said to have derived its name. (Eustath. ad IIom. p. 320 ; Dionys. i. 17.) 2. One of the sons of Lycaon. (Apollod. iii. 8. § 1.) [L. S.] PHURNES, JOANNES. [JoANNEs, No. 10].] PHURNUTUS (foupvostos), is no other than L. Annaeus Cornutus [Cokx UTUs, p. 859], whose mythological treatise was first published under this name, by Aldus, Venice, 1505, with the alias, however, of Cornutus. He is also called IIoxvöeiskos ‘boupvootos, and Gesner says that a treatise under this name, treating of the labours of Hercules, was extant in his time in one of the Venetian libraries (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iii. p. 556). We transcribe the title of the last edition of this work, from Engelmann's Bibliotheca : “Phurnutus (s. Cornutus) L. Annaeus, De Natura Deorum ex schedis J. Bapt. d’Ausse de Villoison recens. commentariisque instr. Frid. Ossannus. Adjecta est J. de Villoison de Theologia Physica Stoicorum commentat. Gottingae.” 1844. [W. M. G.] PHY.A. | PEisis.TRATUS, p. 170, a.] PHYLACUS (buxaxos). 1. A son of Deion and Diomede, was married to Periclymene or Clymene, the daughter of Minyas, by whom he became the father of Iphiclus and Alcimede (Hom. Il. ii. 705; Apollod. i. 9. §§ 4, 12). He was believed to be the founder of the town of Phylace, in Thessaly (Eustath. ad IIom. p. 323). The patronymic Phylaceis is applied to his daughter Alcimede (Apollon. Rhod. i. 47), and his descendants, Phylacus, Iphiclus, and Protesilaus are called Phylacides. (Hom. Il. ii. 705 ; Propert. i. 19 ; comp. Hom. Od. xv. 231.) 2. A son of Iphiclus, and grandson of No. 1. (Eustath. ad Hom. l. c.) 3. A Delphian hero, to whom a sanctuary was dedicated at Delphi. (Paus. x. 23. § 3, 8. § 4; Herod. viii. 39.) f 4. A Trojan, who was slain by Leitus. (Hom. 11. xvi. 18 l.) [L. S. PHYLARCHUS (bùNapxos). 1. A native of Centuripa in Sicily, plundered by Verres. (Cic. Verr. iv. 12, 23.) 2. Of Halus, taken by the pirates off the coast of Sicily. (Cic. Perr. v. 34, 46.) PHYLARCH US (PWAapxos), a Greek historical writer, was a contemporary of Aratus. The name is sometimes written l'hilarchus, but there is no reason to adopt the supposition of Wyttenbach (ad Plut. de Is. et Osir. p. 21 l), that there were two different writers, one named Physarchus and the other Philarchus. His birthplace is doubtful. We learn from Suidas (s. v.) that three different cities are mentioned as his native place, Athens, Naucratis in Egypt, or Sicyon ; but as Athenaeus calls him (ii. p. 58, c) an Athenian or Naucratian, we may leave the claims of Sicyon out
of the question, We may therefore conclude that he was born either at Athens or Naucratis; and it is probable that the latter was his native town, and that he afterwards removed to Athens, where he spent the greater part of his life. Respecting the date of Phylarchus there is less uncertainty. We learn from Polybius (ii. 56) that Phylarchus was a contemporary of Aratus, and gave an account of the same events as the latter did in his history. Aratus died B. c. 213, and his work ended at B. c. 220; we may therefore place Phylarchus at about B. c. 215. The credit of Phylarchus as an historian is vehemently attacked by Polybius (ii. 56, &c.), who charges him with falsifying history through his partiality to Cleomenes, and his hatred against Aratus and the Achaeans. The accusation is probably not unfounded, but it might be retorted with equal justice upon Polybius, who has fallen into the opposite error of exaggerating the merits of Aratus and his party, and depreciating Cleomenes, whom he has certainly both misrepresented and misunderstood. (Comp. Niebuhr, Kleine Schrifien, vol. i. p. 270, note.) The accusation of Polybius is repeated by Plutarch (Arat. 38), but it comes with rather a bad grace from the latter writer, since there can be little doubt, as Lucht has shown, that his lives of Agis and Cleomenes are taken almost entirely from Phylarchus, to whom he is likewise indebted for the latter part of his life of Pyrrhus. The vivid and graphic style of Phylarchus, of which we shall say a few words below, was well suited to Plutarch's purpose. It has likewise been remarked by Heeren (Comment. Societ. Gotting. vol. xv. pp. 185, &c.), that Trogus Pompeius took from Phylarchus that portion of his work which treated of the same times as were contained in the history of Phylarchus. That Plutarch and Trogus borrowed almost the very words of Phylarchus, appears from a comparison of Justin, xxviii. 4, with Plutarch. Cleom. 29. The style of Phylarchus is also strongly censured by Polybius (l.c.), who blames him for writing history for the purpose of effect, and for seeking to harrow up the feelings of his readers by the narrative of deeds of violence and horror. This charge is to some extent supported by the fragments of his work which have come down to us; but whether he deserves all the reprehension which Polybius has bestowed upon him may well be questioned, since the unpoetical character of this great historian's mind would not enable him to feel much sympathy with a writer like Phy: larchus, who seems to have possessed no small share of imagination and fancy. It would appear that the style of Phylarchus was too ambitious; it was oratorical, and perhaps declamatory ; but at the same time it was lively and attractive, and brought the events of the history vividly before the reader's mind. He was, however, very negligent in the arrangement of his words, as Dionysius o remarked. (Dionys. De Compos. Vero. c. 4. The following six works are attributed to Phylarchus by Suidas: — 1. "Io Topia, in 28 books, of which we have already spoken, and which were by far the most important of his writings. This work is thus described by Suidas: –“ The expedition of Pyrrhus the Epeirot against Peloponnesus in 28 books; and it comes down to Ptolemaeus who was called Euergetes, and to the end of Berenice, and as far as Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian, against whom Antigonus made war.” When Suidas entitles it “the expedition of Pyrrhus, &c.” he merely describes the first event in the work. The expedition of Pyrrhus into Peloponnesus was in B. c. 272; the death of Cleomenes in B. c. 2:20: the work therefore embraced a period of fifty-two years. From some of the fragments of the work which have been preserved (e.g. Athen. viii. p. 334, a, xii. p. 539, b), it has been conjectured by some modern writers that Phylarchus commenced at an earlier period, perhaps as early as the death of Alexander the Great; but since digressions on earlier events might easily have been introduced by Phylarchus, we are not warranted in rejecting the express testimony of Shidas. As far as we can judge from the fragments, the work gave the history not only of Greece and Macedonia, but likewise of Aegypt, Cyrene, and the other states of the time ; and in narrating the history of Greece, Phylarchus paid particular attention to that of Cleomenes and the Lacedaemonians. The fragments are given in the works of Lucht, Brückner, and Müller cited
(Apollod. ii. 7. § 6; Hon. Il. xvi. 180; comp. Diod. iv. 36.) [L. S.] PHYLES (PWAms), of Halicarnassus, the son of Polygnotus, was a statuary, whose name has been recently discovered by means of the inscriptions on the bases which originally supported two of his works. One of these is at Astypaleia, and belonged originally to a statue of bronze, which the people of that place erected in honour of their fellow-citizen, Polyeuctus, the son of Melesippus; the other was found at Delos, and was the base of a statue erected in honour of a citizen of Rhodes. (Bockh, Corp. Inscr. vol. ii. pp. 1039, 1098 ; R. Rochette. Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 386.) [P.S.] PHY LEUS (buxes's), a son of Augeias, was expelled by his father from Ephyra, because he gave his evidence in favour of Ileracles. He then emigrated to Dulichium (Hom. Il. ii. 629, xv. 530. xxiii. 637.) By Ctimene or Timandra Phyleus became the father of Meges, who is hence called Phyleides. (Eustath. ad Hom. p. 305; Paus. v. 3. § 4 ; Apollod. ii. 5. § 5 ; Strab. x. p. 459.) [L. S.] PHY LIDAS, or more poperly PHILIDAS (Pvxiðas, pixièas), an Aetolian, was sent by Dorimachus, in the winter of B. c. 219, or rather perhaps early in the following year, to aid the Eleans against Philip V. of Macedon, in Triphylia. The king, however, made himself master successively of Alipheira, Typaneae, Hypana, and Phigalea, and Philidas, quite unable to check his progress, threw himself into Lepreum. But the inhabitants were hostile to him, and, on Philip's approach, he was obliged to evacuate the town. Philip pursued him with his light troops and captured all his baggage, but Philidas himself, with his forces, effected his escape to Samicum. Philip, however, began to invest the place, and the besieged army capitulated on condition of being allowed to march out with their arms. (Polyb. iv. 77–80.) [E. E.] PHY/LLIDAS (ovXAtôas), a Theban, was secretary to the polemarchs who held office under Spartan protection, after the seizure of the Cadmeia by Phoebidas, in B. c. 382. He was, however, a secret enemy of the new government, and appears. to have made interest for the office which he occupied with the view of aiding the cause of freedom. Having been sent by his masters on some business to Athens, where the exiles had taken refuge, he arranged with them the particulars of their intended enterprise against the tyrants, and afterwards most effectually aided its execution in B. c. 379. Thus, having especially ingratiated himself with Archias and Philippus, of whose pleasures he pretended to be the ready minister, he introduced, in the disguise of women, the conspirators who despatched them : he gained admittance. according to Xenophon, for Pelopidas and his two companions to the house of LEoNTIA pes; and, before what had happened could be publicly known, he effected, with two others, his entrance into the prison, under pretence of an order from the polemarchs, and, having slain the jailor, released those who were confined there as enemies to the government. (Xen. Hell. v. 4. §§ 2–8 ; Plut. Pelop. 7. &c., de Gen. Soc. 4, 24, 26, 29, 32; Diod. xv. 25.) | E. E.] PHYLLIS (ovXxts), a daughter of king Sithon, in Thrace, fell in love with Demophon on his return from Troy to Greece. Demophon promised her: by a certain day, to come back from Athens and
marry her, and as he was prevented from keeping
his word, Phyllis hung herself, but was metamorphosed into an almond-tree, just at the moment when at length Demophon came, and in vain embraced the tree (Lucian, De Saltat. 40; Tzetz. ad Luc. 495; comp. Hygin. Fab. 59; Serv. ad Virg. Eclog. v. 10; Ov. IIeroid. 2). In some of these passages we read the name of Acamas instead of Demophon. [L. S.] PHYLLIS, the nurse of Domitian, buried him after his assassination. (Dion Cass. lxvii. 18; Suet. Dom. 17.) PHYLLIS, musician. [Phillis.] PHY RO MACHUS (pupóuaxos), an Athenian sculptor of the Cephissean demus, whose name occurs on an inscription discovered at Athens in 1835, as the maker of the bas-reliefs on the frieze of the celebrated temple of Athena Polias, which was built in Ol. 91, B. c. 416–412 (Schöll, Archäologische Mittheilungen aus Griechenland, p. 125; R. Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 386, 2d ed.). There are also passages of the ancient writers, in which mention is made of one or more artists under the names of Phylomachus, Phyromachus, and Pyromachus, three names which might evidently be easily confounded. It will be more convenient to examine these passages under the article PyRoMAch Us, as that is the form in which most of them give the name, and as the above inscription is the only case in which we can be quite certain that Phyromachus is the right form. [P.S.] PHYSADEIA (ovgååeia), a daughter of Damaus, from whom the well of Physadeia near Argos, was believed to have derived its name. (Callim. Hymn. in Pall, 47.) [L. S.] PHYSCON. [PtoleMAEus.] PHYSSIAS (4 vagias), an Elean citizen of dis. tinction who was taken prisoner by the Achaeans under Lycus of Pharae, when the latter defeated the allied forces of the Eleans and Aetolians under EURipipAs, B. c. 217. (Polyb. v. 94.) [E. H. B.] PHYTALUS (Páraxos), an Eleusinian hero, who is said to have kindly received Demeter on her wanderings, and was rewarded by the goddess with a fig-tree (Paus. i. 37. § 2). To him the noble Athenian family of the Phytalidae traced their origin. (Plut. Thes. 12, 22.) [L. S.] PHYTON (pātav), a citizen of Rhegium, who was chosen by his countrymen to be their general, when the city was besieged by the elder Dionysius, B. c. 388. He animated the Rhegians to the most vigorous defence, and displayed all the qualities and resources of an able general, as well as a brave warrior ; and it was in great measure owing to him that the siege was protracted for a space of more than eleven months. At length, however, the besieged were compelled by famine to surrender, and the heroic Phyton fell into the hands of the tyrant, who, after treating him with the most cruel indignities, put him to death, together with his son and all his other relations (Diod. xiv. 108, l l 1, 112). Diodorus tells us that the virtues and unhappy fate of Phyton were a favourite subject of lamentation with the Greek poets, but none of these passages have come down to us. The only other author now extant who mentions the name of Phyton is Philostratus (Pit. Apoll. i. 35, vii. 2), who appears to have followed a version of his story wholly different from that of Diodorus. According to this, Phyton was an exile from Rhegium, who had taken refuge at the court of Dionysius, and
enjoyed high favour with the tyrant, but on discovering his designs against Rhegium gave information of them to his countrymen, and was put to death by Dionysius in consequence. [E. H. B.] PHY'XIUS (Putuos), i.e., the god who protects fugitives, occurs as a surname of Zeus in Thessaly (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1147, iv. 699 ; Paus. ii. 21. § 3, iii. 17. § 8), and of Apollo. (Philostr. Her. x. 4.) [L. S.] PICTOR, the name of a family of the Fabia Gens, which was given to them from the eminence which their ancestor obtained as a painter. [See below. No. 1.] 1. C. FAbius Pictor, painted the temple of Salus (aedem Salutis pinait), which the dictator C. Junius Brutus Bubulus contracted for in his censorship, b.c. 307, and dedicated in his dictatorship, B. c. 302. This painting, which must have been on the walls of the temple, was probably a representation of the battle which Bubulus had gained against the Samnites [BUBULUs, No. 1]. This is the earliest Roman painting of which we have any record. It was preserved till the reign of Claudius, when the temple was destroyed by fire. Dionysius, in a passage to which Niebuhr calls attention, praises the great correctness of the drawing in this picture, the gracefulness of the colouring and the absence of all mannerism and affectation. (Plin. H.N. xxxv. 4. s. 7 ; Val. Max. viii. 14. § 6; Dionys. xvi. 6, in Mai’s Erc.; Cic. Tusc. i. 2. § 4; comp. Liv. x. l ; Niebuhr, Hist. of Rome, vol. iii. p. 355.) 2. C. FAbu Us Pictor, son of No. 1, was consul B. c. 269, with Q. Ogulnius Gallus. The events of his consulship are related under GALLUs, p. 228. 3. N. (i. e. Numerius) FAbius Pictor, also son of No. 1, was consul B. c. 266 with D. Junius Pera, and triumphed twice in this year, like his colleague, the first time over the Sassinates, and the second time over the Sallentini and Messapii (Fasti). It appears to have been this Fabius Pictor, and not his brother, who was one of the three ambassadors sent by the senate to Ptolemy Philadelphus, in B. c. 276 (Val. Max. iv. 3. S 9, with the Commentators). For an account of this embassy see OGULN1Us. Cicero says that N. Fabius Pictor related the dream of Aeneas in his Greek Annals (Cic. Dir. i. 21). This is the only passage in which mention is made of this annalist. Vossius (de Hist. Latin. i. p. 14) and Krause (Vitae et Fragm. Hist. Roman. p. 83) suppose him to be a son of the consul of B. c. 266, but Orelli (Onon. Tull. p. 246) and others consider him to be the same as the consul. One is almost tempted to suspect that there is a mistake in the praenomen, and that it ought to be Quintus. 4. Q. FABIt's Pictor, the son of No. 2, and the grandson of No. 1, was the most ancient writer of Roman history in prose, and is therefore usually placed at the head of the Roman annalists. Thus he is called by Livy scriptorum antiquissimus (i. 44) and longe antiquissimus auctor (ii. 44). He served in the Gallic war, B. c. 225 (Eutrop. iii. 5; Oros. iv. 13; comp. Plin. H. N. x. 24. s. 34), and also in the second Punic war; and that he enjoyed consi. derable reputation among his contemporaries is evident from the circumstance of his being sent to Delphi, after the disastrous battle of Cannae in B.C. 216, to consult the oracle by what means the Romans could propitiate the gods (Liv. xxii. 37. xxiii. l l ; Appian, Annib. 27). We learn from
Polybius (iii. 9. § 4) that he had a seat in the senate, and consequently he must have filled the office of quaestor ; but we possess no other particulars respecting his life. The year of his death is uncertain ; for the C. Fabius Pictor whose death Livy speaks of (xlv. 44) in B. c. 167, is a different person from the historian [see No. 5). One might conjecture, from his not obtaining any of the higher dignities of the state, that he died soon after his return from Delphi; but, as Polybius (iii. 9) speaks of him as one of the historians of the second Punic war, he can hardly have died so soon ; and it is probable that his literary habits rendered him disinclined to engage in the active services required of the Roman magistrates at that time. The history of Fabius Pictor probably began with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, and came down to his own time. The earlier events were related with brevity; but that portion of the history of which he was a contemporary, was given with much greater minuteness (Dionys. i. 6). We do not know the number of books into which the work was divided, nor how far it came down. It contained an account of the battle of the lake Trasimene (Liv. xxii. 7); and Polybius, as we have already remarked, speaks of him as one of the historians of the second Punic War. We have the express testimony of Dionysius (l.c.) that the work of Fabius was written in Greek; but it has been supposed from Cicero (de Orat. ii. 12, de Leg. i. 2), Gellius (v. 4, x. 15), Quintilian (i. 6. § 12), and Nonius (s. v. Picumnus), that it must have been written in Latin also. This, however, is very improbable ; and as we know there were two Latin writers of the name of Fabius, namely, Ser. Fabius Pictor, and Q. Fabius Maximus Servilianus, it is more likely that the passages above quoted refer to one of these, and not to Quintus. [See below, No. 6.] The work of Q. Fabius Pictor was one of great value, and is frequently referred to by Livy, Polybius, and Dionysius. Polybius (i. 14, iii.9), indeed, charges Fabius with great partiality towards the Romans; and as he wrote for the Greeks, he was probably anxious to make his countrymen appear in the best light. The work seems to have contained a very accurate account of the constitutional changes at Rome; Niebuhr attributes the excellence of Dion Cassius in this department of his history to his having closely followed the statements of Fabius (Hist. of Rome, vol. ii. note 367). In his account of the early Roman legends Fabius is said to have adopted the views of Diocles of Peparethus [Diocles, literary, No. 5). (Möller, De Q. Fabio Picture, Altorf, 1690; Whiste, De Fabio Pictore oterisque Fabiis Historicis, Hafniae, 1832; Vossius, De Hist. Lat. p. 12; Krause, Vitae et Fragm. Hist. Rom. p. 38, &c.; Niebuhr, Lectures on Roman History, vol. i. p. 27, ed. Schmitz.) 5. Q. Fabius Pictor, probably son of No. 4, was praetor b. c. 189. The lot gave him Sardinia as his province, but as he had been consecrated fumen(\uirinalis in the preceding year, the pontifex maximus, P. Licinius, compelled him to remain in Rome. Fabius was so enraged at losing his proVince that he attempted to abdicate, but the senate compelled him to retain his office, and assigned to him the jurisdiction inter peregrinos. He died B. c. 167. (Liv. xxxvii. 47, 50, 51, xlv. 44.) 6. SER. Fabius Pictor, probably a son of No. 5, was a contemporary of A. Postumius Albinus,
who was consul B. c. 151, and is said by Cicero to have been well skilled in law, literature, and antiquity (Brut. 21). He appears to be the same as the Fabius Pictor who wrote a work De Jure Pontificio, in several books, which is quoted by Nonius (s. v.v. Picumnus and Polubrun). We also have quotations from this work in Gellins (i. 12, x. 15) and Macrobius (Sat. iii. 2). This Ser. Fabius probably wrote Annals likewise in the Latin language, since Cicero (de Orat. ii. 12) speaks of a Latin annalist, Pictor, whom he places after Cato, but before Piso ; which corresponds with the time at which Ser. Pictor lived, but could not be . applicable to Q. Pictor, who lived in the time of the second Punic War. Now as we know that Q. Pictor wrote his history in Greek, it is probable, as has been already remarked under No. 4, that the passages referring to a Latin history of Fabius Pictor relate to this Ser. Pictor. (Krause, Ibid. p. 132, &c.) The annexed coin was struck by some member of this family, but it cannot be assigned with certainty to any of the persons above mentioned. It bears on the obverse a head of Pallas, and on the reverse a figure of Rome, seated, with the legend of N. FAB1 N. Pictor. On the shield we find QviriN., which probably indicates that the person who struck it was Flamen Quirinalis.
COLN OF N. FABIUS PICTOR.
PICUMNUS and PILUMNUS, were regarded as two brothers, and as the beneficent gods of matrimony in the rustic religion of the ancient Romans. A couch was prepared for them in the house in which there was a newly-born child. Pilumnus was believed to ward off all the sufferings from childhood from the infant with his pilum, with which he taught to pound the grain ; and Picumnus, who, under the name of Sterluilinius, was believed to have discovered the use of . manure for the fields, conferred upon the infant strength and prosperity, whence both were also looked upon as the gods of good deeds, and were identified with Castor and Pollux. (Serv. ad Aen. ix. 4, x. 76; August. De Civ. Dei. vi. 9, xviii. 15; Ov. Met. xiv. 32.1, &c.; Virg. Aen. vii. 189). When Danae landed in Italy, Picumnus is said to have built with her the town of Ardea, and to have become by her the father of Daunus. [L. S.]
PICUS (IIskos), a Latin prophetic divinity, is described as a son of Saturnus or Sterculus, as the husband of Canens, and the father of Faunus (Ov. Met. xiv. 320, 338, Fast. iii. 291 ; Virg. Aen. vii. 48; Serv. ad Aen. x. 76). In some traditions he was called the first king of Italy (Tzetz. ad Lyc. 1232). He was a famous soothsayer and augur, and, as he made use in these things of a picus (a wood-pecker), he himself also was called Picus. He was represented in a rude and primitive manner as a wooden pillar with a wood-pecker on the top of it, but afterwards as a young man with a wood-pecker on his head (Dionys. i. 14 ; Oy. Met. xiv. 314; Wirg. Aen. vii. 187). The whole