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the “Euporista ad Eunapium,” and the nineteen books of the “Collecta Medicinalia " that were then discovered (including the two treatises “De Laqueis” and “De Machinamentis"), and published them together, with the title “Oribasii quae restant Omnia,” Basil. 1557, 3 vols. 8vo. They are also to be found in H. Stephani “Medicae Artis Principes,” Paris, 1567, fol. The pieces entitled “De Victus Ratione, per quodlibet Anni Tempus” (Basil. 1528, fol.) and “De Simplicibus” (Argent. 1533, fol.) are probably extracted from his larger works. Oribasius is said by Suidas to have been the author of some other works which are now lost, viz. 1. IIepi Baaixeias, De Regno ; 2. IIepl IIa86v, De Affectibus; and 3. IIpós toūs ‘Atopouvras Tāv 'Iarpáv, Ad illos quibus Medicorum Copia non datur (or perhaps rather Ad Medicos dubitantes, vel inopes Consilii), which last has been conjectured to have been the same work as the “Euporista ad Eunapium,” mentioned above. Besides these works, a commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates goes under the name of Oribasius, but is undoubtedly spurious. It was first published in Latin by J. Guinterius Andermacus, Paris, 1533, 8vo., and has been thrice reprinted. It is probable that the work does not exist in Greek, and that it was written by a person who made use of a Latin translation of the “Synopsis ad Eustathium,” and who composed it with the intention of passing it off as the genuine work of Oribasius. If so, it is a clumsy forgery, and betrays its spurious origin to the most cursory inspector, being apparently the work of a Christian, and at the same time purporting to be written at the command of Ptolemy Euergetes. It has been conjectured that it was composed by some physician belonging to the school of Salerno, about the beginning of the fourteenth century; but this is certainly too recent, as it is to be found in two MSS. at Paris, which are supposed to belong to the tenth century. (See Littré's Hippocrates, vol. iv. p. 443.) A further account of Oribasius, especially of his medical opinions, may be found in Freind's Hist. of Physic, vol. i.; Haller's Biblioth. Anat, Biblioth. Chirurg., Biblioth. Botan., and Biblioth. Medic. Pract. : Sprengel's Hist. de la Méd.; and in J. F. C. Hecker's Litterar. Annal. der gesammten Heilkunde, 1825, vol. i., which last work the writer has never seen. See also Fabric. Biblioth. Gr. vol. ix. p. 451, xii. 640, xiii. 353, ed. vet. ; and Choulant, Handb. der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Medicin. [W. A. G.] ORIGENES ('notyévms), one of the most emiment of the early Christian writers, not only for his intellectual powers and attainments, but also for the influence exercised by him on the opinions of subsequent ages, and for the dissensions and discussions respecting his opinions, which have been carried on through many centuries down to modern times. I. Life. Origen bore, apparently from his birth (Euseb. H. E. vi. 14) the additional name of Adamantius ('A5auávttos), though Epiphanius states (Haeros. lxiv. 73) that he assumed it himself. Doubtless, the name was regarded by the admirers of Origen as significant either of his unwearied industry (Hieron. Ep. xliii. ad Marcellam, c. 1. vol. i. p. 190 ed Vallars.), or of the irrefragable strength of his arguments (Phot. Bill, cod. 118);

but these obviously laudatory interpretations of it render it improbable that Origen assumed it himself, as a boastful temper does not appear to have been at all characteristic of him. The names “Chalcenterus" XaAkévrepos (“brasen-bowels") given him by Jerome (l.c.), and “Chalceutes" XaAkéârms (“brasier”), and “Syntactes” xvyTéxrms (“Composer") conferred upon him by others (Epiph. Haeres. lxiii. 1; and Tillemont. Mén. vol. iii. p. 497), appear to have been mere epithets, expressive of his assiduity. As he was in his seventeenth year, at the time of his father's death, which occurred apparently in April 203 (Huet. Origenian. i. 8), in the persecution which began in the tenth year of the reign of the Emperor Severus, his birth must be fixed in or about A. D. 186. The year 187, given in the Chronicon Paschale, is too late ; and 185, given by most modern writers, too early. His father was Leonides (Aeovíðms), a devout Christian of Alexandria. Suidas (s. v. 'shpi'yev'ms) calls him “bishop;" but his authority, unsupported by any ancient testimony, is insufficient to prove his episcopal character. Porphyry (apud Euseb. H. E. vi. 19) speaks of Origen, with whom he claimed to have been acquainted in early life, as having been educated a heathen, and afterwards converted to Christianity; but, as his acquaintance with Origen was apparently very slight, and when Origen was an old man, his authority in such a matter is of little weight. Leonides gave his son a careful education, not only in the usual branches of knowledge, but especially in the Scriptures, of which he made him commit to memory and recite a portion every day. Origen was a pupil of Clement of Alexandria, and he also received some instruction of Pantaenus apparently after his return from India. [PANTAENUs.] He had Alexander, afterwards bishop of Jerusalem, for his early friend and fellowstudent (Alex, ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 14). In the persecution which commenced in the tenth year of Severus (A. D. 202) Leonides was imprisoned, and after a time beheaded. Origen was anxious to share with his father the glory of martyrdom ; and when this desire was frustrated by the watchfulness of his mother, who, after vainly entreating him to give up his purpose, hid away all his clothes, and so prevented him from leaving home, he wrote a letter to his father, exhorting him to steadfastness, in the words “See that thou changest not thy mind for our sakes.” By the death of Leonides, his widow, with Origen and six younger sons, was reduced to destitution, the property of the martyr having been confiscated. Origen was, however, received into the house of a wealthy female, then living at Alexandria, who had, among her inmates at the time, one Paul of Antioch, whom she regarded as a son, who was in had repute on account of his heretical opinions. Neander calls him a Gnostic. His eloquence, however, attracted a considerable audience, not only of those who sympathised in his views, but of the orthodox; yet Origen refused to unite in prayer with him, “ detesting,” as he has somewhere expressed it, “heretical teachings.” (Euseb. II. E. vi. 2.) This repugnance probably quickened his efforts to become independent, and his ardent application to study enabled him soon to extricate himself from difficulty by becoming a teacher of the branches of education comprehended under the epithet “grammatical" (tā Ypauwatuká). (Euseb. ibid.) His attainments included, according to Jerome (De 'ir, Illustr. c. 54) and Gregory Thuamaturgus (Paneg. in Origen. c. 7, 8, 9), ethics, grammar, rhetoric, dialectics or logic, geometry, arithmetic, music, and an acquaintance with the tenets of the various philosophical sects; to which may be added an acquaintance with the Hebrew language, a rare acquisition among the Christians of those days. It is probable, however, that several of these attainments were made later in life than the time of which we are now speaking. His knowledge of Hebrew was most likely of later date; from whom he acquired it is not clear. He often quotes (vid. Hieronym. in Rufin, lib. i., Opera, vol. iv. pars il. col. 363, ed. Benedict, vol. ii. pars i. ed. Wallars.) Huillus, a patriarch of the Jews, of whom nothing appears to be known ; but whether he was Origen's instructor in the Hebrew language is only conjecture. If Origen was, as Porphyry (ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 19) and Theodoret (Graecar. Affection. Curat. lib. vi. Opera, vol. iv. p. 573, ed. Simond. p. 869. ed Schulze) affirm, a hearer of Ammonius Saccas [AMMoxius S.AccAs], it was probably at a later period, when he attended a lecturer on philosophy, whom he does not name, to gain an acquaintance with the Greek philosophy. (Origen, ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 19.) Epiphanius (Harres. lxiv. 1) says that perhaps he studied at Athens; but it is not likely that he visited that city in early life, though he was there when he travelled into Greece many years afterward. Within a very short time after he had commenced teacher of grammar, he was applied to by some heathens who desired instruction in Christianity. The first of those who applied to him were Plutarchus, who suffered martyrdom at Alexandria very shortly after, and his brother Heracias, who became in the sequel Origen's assistant and successor in the office of Catechist, and afterward bishop of Alexandria. At the time of their application to Origen, the office of Catechist was vacant through the dispersion of the clergy onsequent on the persecution ; and Demetrius, the bishop, shortly after appointed Origen, though only in his eighteenth year, to the office. The young teacher showed a zeal and self-denial beyond his years. The persecution was still raging ; but he shrunk not from giving every support and encouragement to those who suffered, frequently at the risk of his life. The number of those who resorted to him as Catechist continually increased ; and, dominghis profession as teacher of grammar incon*istent with his sacred work, he gave it up ; and that he might not, in the failure of this source of income, become dependent on others, he sold all his books of secular literature, and lived for many years on an income of four oboli a day derived from the proceeds of the sale. His course of life was of the most rigorously ascetic character. His food, and his Periods of sleep, which he took, not in a bed, but "h the bare ground, were restricted within the nar*west limits; and, understanding literally the Procepts of the Lord Jesus Christ, not to have two oats and to take no shoes (Matt. x. 10.), he went for many years barefoot, by which and by other **terities he had nearly ruined his health. The *me ascetic disposition, and the same tendency to *Poet to the letter the injunctions of the Scrip* led him to a strange act of self-mutilation, in obedience to what he regarded as the recommend* of Christ. (Matt. xix. 12.) He was in

fluenced to this act also by the consideration of his own youth, and by the circumstance that his catechumens were of both sexes. He wished, however, to conceal what he had done, and appears to have been much confused when it was divulged ; but the bishop Demetrius, respecting his motive, exhorted him to take courage, though he did not hesitate, at a subsequent period, to make it a matter of severe accusation against him. (Euseb. H. E. vi. 3, 8; Epiphan. Haeres. lxiv. 3; Hieron. Epist. 65, ed. vett., 41, ed. Benedict., 84, ed. Wallars.) Origen himself (Comment. in Matt. tom. xv. 1) afterwards repudiated this literal understanding of our Lord's words. With the death of Severus (A. D. 211), if not before, the persecution (in which Plutarchus and others of Origen's catechumens had perished) ceased ; and Origen, anxiously desiring to become acquainted with the church at Rome, visited the imperial city during the papacy of Zephyrinus, which extended, according to Tillemont, from A. D. 201, or 202, to 218. Tillemont and Neander place this visit in A.D. 21 1 or 212. He made however a very short stay; and when he returned to Alexandria (Euseb. H. E. vi. 14), finding himself unable to discharge alone the duties of Catechist, and to give the attention which he desired to biblical studies, he gave up a part of his catechumens (who flocked to him from morning till evening) to the care of his early pupil Heraclas. It was probably about this time that he began to devote himself to the study of the Hebrew language (Euseb. H. E. vi. 15, 16); and also to the study of the Greek philosophy, his eminence in which is admitted by Porphyry (ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 19), that he might instruct and refute the heretics and heathens, who, attracted by his growing reputation, resorted to him to test his attainments, or to profit by them. Among those who thus resorted to him was one Ambrosius, or Ambrose, a Valentinian, according to Eusebius (H. E. vi. 18); a Marcionite, or a Sabellian, according to other accounts reported by Epiphanius (Haeres. lxiv. 3); at any rate a dissenter of some kind from the orthodox church ; a man of wealth, rank, and earnestness of character. Origen convinced him of his error; and Ambrose, grateful for the benefit, became the great supporter of Origen in his biblical labours, devoting his wealth to his service, and supplying him with more than seven amanuenses to write from his dictation, and as many transcribers to make fair copies of his works. (Euseb. H. E. vi. 23.) About this time he undertook a journey into Petraea, the Roman Arabia, at the request of the governor of that province, who, wishing to confer with him on some matter not specified, had despatched an officer with letters to the governor of Egypt and the bishop of Alexandria, requesting Origen might be sent to him. After a short absence on this business, he returned to Alexandria. It was perhaps on this visit that he heard Hippolytus preach | Hippolytus, No. 1]. After a time he again left Alexandria on account of a serious disturbance which arose there ; and, not deeming himself safe in any part of Egypt, withdrew to Caesareia in Palestine. Huet (Origeniana, lib. i. c. ii. § 6), Tillemont, and others identify the tumult (Eusebius calls it “the war”) which compelled Origen to quit Alexandria, with the slaughter of the people of that city by Caracalla. [CAR AcALLA.] If this conjecture is admitted, it enables us to assign to Origen's removal the date A. D. 216. At Caesareia he received the most respectful treatment. Though not yet ordained to the priesthood, he was invited to expound the Scriptures, and to discourse publicly in the church. Theoctistus, bishop of Caesareia, and Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, the latter of whom had been a fellowstudent of Origen, were among the prelates at whose invitation he was induced thus to come forward : and when Demetrius of Alexandria, who was growing jealous of Origen, objected to it as an unheard of irregularity, that a layman should preach before bishops, they vindicated him by citing several precedents. It was perhaps during this visit to Palestine that Origenomet with one of the Greek versions of the Old Testament, the Editio Quinta or Serta, which he published in his Heraplu, and which is said to have been found in a wine jar at Jericho. He returned to Alexandria, apparently about the end of Caracalla's reign, at the desire of Demetrius, who sent some deacons of his church to hasten him home (Euseb. H. E. vi. 19). He returned with zeal to the discharge of his office of Catechist, and to the diligent pursuit of his biblical labours. His next journey was into Greece. Eusebius (H. E. vi. 23) describes the occasion in general terms, as being ecclesiastical business, but Rufinus (In versione Eusebii, l.c.) and Jerome (De Vir. Illustr. c. 54) more exactly describe the object as being the refutation of heretics who were increasing there. Passing through Palestine on his way, he was ordained presbyter by his friends, Theoctistus and Alexander, and the other bishops of that province, at Caesareia. This aroused again the jealousy of Demetrius, and led to a decisive rupture between him and Origen, who, however, completed his journey, in the course of which he probably met with a Greek version of the O. T. (the Seata or Quinta Editio of his Herapla), which had been discovered by one of his friends at Nicopolis, in Epeirus, near the Promontory of Actium, on the Ambracian Gulf (Synopsis Sacrae Scripturae, Athanasio adscripta). Possibly it was on this journey that Origen had the interview with Mammaea, mother of the emperor Alexander Severus, mentioned by Eusebius (H. E. vi. 21). Mammaea was led by the curiosity which Origen's great reputation had excited, to solicit an interview with him when she was at Antioch. Tillemont places this interview at an earlier period, A. D. 218, Huet in A. D. 223; but the date is altogether uncertain. The journey of Origen into Greece is placed by Eusebius, as we understand the passage, in the episcopate of Pontianus at Rome, which extended from A. D. 230, or, according to other accounts, from 233 to 235, and of Zebinus at Antioch from A. D. 228 to 237; but Tillemont and Huet interpret the passage so as to fix the ordination of Origen in A. D. 228, about the time when Zebinus of Antioch succeeded Philetus. We are disposed to place it in A. D. 230. On his return to Alexandria, he had to encounter the open enmity of Demetrius. The remembrance of incidents of the former part of his life was revived and turned to his disadvantage. His selfinutilation, which had been excused at the time, was now urged against him ; and a passage in Epiphanius (Haeres. lxiv. 2) gives reason to think that a charge of having offered incense to heathen deities was also brought against him. Eusebius has omitted the account of the steps taken by

Demetrius against Origen from his Ecclesiastical History, on the ground that they were related in the Defence of Origen ("Trép 'shpi'yévous droxoryía, Apologia pro Origene) drawn up by Pamphilus and Eusebius; and the loss of this defence has deprived us of the most trustworthy account of these transactions. However, we learn from Photius, who has preserved (Bibl. Cod. 118) a notice of the lost work, that a council of Egyptian prelates and presbyters was held by Demetrius, in which it was determined that Origen should leave Alexandria, and not be allowed either to reside or to teach there. His office of Catechist devolved or was bestowed on his colleague Heraclas. His ordination, however, was not invalidated, and indeed the passage in Photius seems to imply that the council expressly decided that he should retain his priesthood. But Demetrius was determined that he should not retain it; and, in conjunction with certain Egyptian prelates, creatures, it would appear, of his own, he pronounced his degradation. Origen had probably, before this second sentence, retired from Alexandria into Palestine, where he was welcomed and protected, and where he taught and preached with great reputation. It was, perhaps, mortification at having failed to crush Origen that led Demetrius to take the further step of excommunicating him, and to write to the bishops of all parts of the world to obtain their concurrence in the sentence. Such was the deference already paid to the see of Alexandria, and to the decision of the Egyptian bishops, that, except in Palestine and the adjacent countries, Arabia and Phoenicia, in Greece, and perhaps in Cappadocia, where Origen was personally known and respected, the condemnation appears to have obtained general assent. Even the bishop and clergy of Rome joined in the general cry. (Hieron. Epist. 29, ed. Benedict., 33, ed. Wallars. and apud Rufin. Invectiv. ii. 19, ed. Wallars.) It is probable that Origen's unpopularity arose from the obnoxious character of some of his opinions, and was increased by the circumstance that even in his life-time (Hieron. In Rufim. ii. 18) his writings were seriously corrupted. It appears also that the indiscretion of Ambrosius had published some things which were not designed for general perusal. (Hieron. Epist. 65, ed. vett., 41. ed. Benedict., 84, ed. Wallars. c. 10.) But what was the specific ground of his exile, deposition, and excommunication is not clear; it is probable that the immediate and only alleged ground was the irregularity of his ordination; and that whatever things in his writings were capable of being used to his prejudice, were employed to excite odium against him, and so to obtain general concurrence in the proceedings of his opponents. Possibly the story of his apostasy, mentioned by Epiphanius, was circulated at the same time, and for the same object. Origen was, meanwhile, secure at Caesareia, where he preached almost daily in the church. He wrote a letter in vindication of himself to some friends at Alexandria, in which he complains of the falsification of his writings. According to Jerome (In Rufin. ii. 18), he severely handled (laceret) Demetrius, and “inveighed against (invehatur) the bishops and clergy of the whole world,” expressing his disregard of their excommunication of him : but from some quotations from the letter it appears to have been written in a milder and more forgiving spirit than Jerome's description would lead us to expect. Demetrius died about this time. Tillemont places his death in the same year as Origen's expulsion, viz. A. D. 231, correcting in a note the errors of Eusebius, in his Chronicon, as to the dates of these events. Heracias succeeded Demetrius; but though he had been the friend, pupil, and colleague of Origen, the change produced no benefit to the latter: the Egyptian clergy were too deeply committed to the course into which Demetrius had led them, to allow them to retract, and Origen remained in exile till his death. About this time he met with Gregory Thaumaturgus, afterwards bishop of Neocaesareia [GREGoRIUs THAUMATURGUs], and his brother Athenodorus, who were then youths pursuing their studies. They both became his pupils, and the former of them his panegyrist. (Greg. Thaumat. Panegyrica Oratio in Origen. § 5.) Maximin, who had murdered the emperor Alexander Severus (A. D. 235) and succeeded to the throne, now commenced a persecution of the church in which Origen's friend Ambrose, who had also settled at Caesareia, where he had become a deacon, and Protoctetus, a presbyter of the same church, were involved. Origen, to encourage them to brave death for the truth, composed his treatise IIepl Mapruplov, De Martyrio. They escaped, however, with life. Origen himself is thought to have been at this time at Caesareia in Cappadocia, where Firmilianus the bishop was his friend: for he appears to have been concealed two years, during some persecution, in the house of a wealthy lady of the Cappadocian Caesareia, named Juliana (Pallad. Histor. Lausiae. c. 147; comp. Tillemont, Mém. vol. iii. p. 542, and Huet, Origenian, lib. i. c. iii. § 2), from whom he received several works of Symmachus, the Greek translator of the Old Testament. (Pallad. lc.; Euseb. H. E. vi. 17.) If his journey into Cappadocia be placed in the reign of Maximin, he probably returned about the time of Maximin’s death (A. D. 238) to Caesareia in Palestine, and there continued, preaching daily and steadily pursuing his biblical studies, composing his commentaries on the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel and on the Canticles (Euseb. H. E. vi. 32), and labouring also at his Herapla. These labours were hardly interrupted by a journey into Greece; for he continued his works when on his travels, and finished his commentary on Ezekiel and commenced that on the Canticles at Athens. (Euseb. ibid.) The date of this second journey into Greece is doubtful. According to Suidas (s. v. 'npryévms) the commentary on Ezekiel was composed when Origen was in his sixtieth year, i.e. in A. D. 245, and Eusebius (H. E. vi. 32) says it was finished at Athens; but Tillemont insers from the order of events in the narrative of Eusebius that the journey took Place before the death of the emperor Gordian III. (A. D. 244). If Tillemont's inference is sound, we must reject the statement of Suidas ; and we must also place before the death of Gordian, the visit which Origen made to Bostra in Arabia (Euseb. H. E. vi. 33), and his restoration to the then Orthodox belief of Beryllus, bishop of Bostra, who had propagated some notions respecting our Lord's Pre-existent nature, which were deemed heretical. [Bohyllus.] During the reign of Philippus the Arabian (A. D. 244–249), Origen wrote his reply * the Epicurean Celsus, and his commentaries on ** twelve minor prophets, and on the Gospel of Matthew ; also a number of letters, among which

* one to the emperor Philippus, one to the WQL. III.

empress Severa his wife, and others to Fabianus, bishop of Rome, and other leading ecclesiastics, to correct their misconceptions respecting himself. He made also a third journey into Arabia, where he convinced some persons of their error in believing that the soul died with the body and was raised again with it ; and repressed the rising heresy of the Elcesaitae, who asserted, among other things, that to deny the faith in a time of persecution was an act morally indifferent, and supported their heresy by a book which they affirmed to have fallen from heaven. (Euseb. vi. 36, 37, 38.) But the life of this laborious and self-denying Christian was drawing near its close. With the reign of Decius (A. D. 249–251) came a renewal of persecution [DEcius], and the storm fell fiercely upon Origen. His friend Alexander of Jerusalem died a martyr: and he was himself imprisoned and tortured, though his persecutors carefully avoided such extremities as would have released him by death. His tortures, which he himself exactly described in his letters, are related somewhat vaguely by Eusebius. (Euseb. H. E. vi. 39.) However, he survived the persecution, which ceased upon, if not before, the death of Decius (A. D. 25.1). He received during, or after, the persecution a letter on martyrdom from Dionysius, who had now succeeded Heraclas in the see of Alexandria. [Dionysius, No. 2..] Whatever prospect this letter might open of reconciliation with the Alexandrian Church was of little moment now. Origen was worn out with years, labours, and sufferings. He had lost by death his great friend and supporter Ambrosius, who had not bequeathed any legacy to sustain him during what might remain of life. But poverty had been through life the state which Origen had voluntarily chosen, and it mattered but little to him that he was left destitute for the brief remainder of his pilgrimage. After the persecution, according to Epiphanius, he left Caesareia for Jerusalem, and afterwards went to Tyre. He died in A. D. 253, or, at the latest, early in 254, in his sixty-ninth year, at Tyre, in which city he was buried. (Hieron. De Viris Illustr. c. 54.) His sufferings in the Decian persecution appear to have hastened his end, and gave rise to the statement, supported by the respectable authority of the martyr Pamphilus and others of the generation succeeding Origen's own time, that he had died a martyr in Caesareia during the persecution. This statement, as Photius observes, could be received only by denying the genuineness of the letters purporting to have been written by Origen after the persecution had ceased. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. I 18.) It is remarkable that Eusebius does not distinctly record his death. There are few of the early fathers of whom we have such full information as of Origen, and there are none whose characters are more worthy of our esteem. His firmness in time of persecution ; his unwearied assiduity both in his office of catechist and his studies as a biblical scholar and theologian ; his meekness under the injurious usage he received from Demetrius and other members of the Alexandrian church ; the steadfastness of his friendship with Ambrose, Alexander of Jerusalem, and others; and his general piety and selfdenial, entitle him to our highest respect. His bitterest enemies respected his character, and have borne honourable testimony to his worth. The chief ancient authorities for his life have been cited

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in the course of the article. Their notices have
been collected and arranged by various modern

writers: as Huet (Origeniana, lib. i.); Cave

(Apostolici, or Lives of the Primitire Fathers,
and Hist. Litt. ad A. D. 230, vol. i. p. 112, ed.
Oxon. 1740–3); Doucin (Hist. De l'Origenisme,
liv. i. ii.); Tillemont (Mémoires, vol. iii. p. 494,
&c.); Dupin (Nourelle Biblioth. Trois Premiers
Siècles, vol. i. p. 326, &c. 8vo. Paris, 1698, &c.);
Oudin (De Scriptorib. Eccles. vol. i. col. 231, &c.);
Ceillier (Auteurs Sacrés, vol. ii. p. 584); Fabricius
(Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. p. 20.1, &c.); and Neander
(Church History, vol. ii. p. 376, &c. Rose's trans-
lation).
Works. I. Editions of the Old Testament.
Origen prepared two editions of the Old Testa-
ment, known respectively as Tetrapla, The Four-

fold,” and IIerapla, The Sir-fold.” To the latter

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would be decisive if it was. Montfaucon (Prolin
in Hearapla, c. iii.) has cited some passages from
Origen and other writers, which indicate the pri.
ority of the Tetrapla ; and the supposition that the
less complete and elaborate work was the earlier is
the more probable, especially if we receive the testi-
mony of Epiphanius. that the Herola was finished
at Tyre, during the time that Origen resided there.
For as that residence appears to have extended only
from the close of the Decian persecution to his
death, it is not likely that he would have had
either time or energy to publish the Tetrapla, though
it would, indeed, have been only a portion of the
He rapla separated from the rest of the work.
The Heaapla consisted of several copies of the
Old Testament, six in some parts, seven in others,
eight in others, and nine in a few, ranged in parallel
columns. The first column to the right contained
the Hebrew text in Hebrew characters, (i.e. those
now in use, not the more ancient Samaritan letters.)
the second the same text in Greek characters, the
third the version of Aquila, the fourth that of * ,
Symmachus, the fifth the Septuagint, the sixth the
version of Theodotion, the proximity of these several
versions to the columns containing the Hebrew
text being determined by their more close and
literal adherence to the original; and the seventh,
eighth, and ninth columns being occupied by three
versions, known from their position in this work
as j réumtm kal si èrtm kal i Sööum éköögels.
Quinta, Seata, et Septima Editiones, i.e. versions.
Each of the first six columns contained all the books
of the Old Testament, and these six complete
columns gave to the work its title Herapla: the
other columns contained only some of the books, and
principally the poetical books, and from them the
work derived the titles of Octapla and Enneapla,
which were therefore only partially applicable. The
assertion that the title Herapla was given to the
work on account of its having six Greek versions,
we believe to be erroneous. We give as a specimen
a passage from Habakkuk ii. 4, which is found in

tled in the place which refers to this point, nor

all the columns.

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The Tetrapla contained the four versions, the Septuagint, and those of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion. Of the versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, an account is given under their re. spective names, and of the Septuagint there is a brief notice under AR1st EAs. Of the three remaining versions we give here a brief account. The Quinta Editio, according to Epiphanius (De Mensuris et Ponderth, c. 17, 18), and the author of the Synopsis S. Scripturae, which is ascribed to Athanasius, was found at Jericho in a wine jar, by one of the learned men of Jerusalem; and Epiphanius adds the dose of the discovery, the seventh year of Caracala (A. p. 217 or 218). The Editio Sora, according to the same authorities, was also found in a wine jar

at Nicopolis, on the Ambracian gulf, in the reign of Alexander Severus. These dates would accor respectively with the time of Origen's first visits t Palestine and to Greece. Ancient writers, howeve differ as to the discovery of these versions. A cording to one passage in Jerome (Prologus

Erposit. Cantic. Canticor. secundum Origen.), Orig. himself stated, that the Quinta Editio was fou at Nicopolis: according to Zonaras (Annal. xii. 1 the Septima was found at Jericho ; and accordi to Nicephorus Callisti, both the Seata and Sept; were found there. Eusebius states that one of versions was found at Jericho and one at Nicopt but does not give their numbers. The differe between these authorities is owing more probt

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