erected by himself feli by the hands of the Greeks. (Hom. II. xii. 17, 28, &c.). When Poseidon and Apollo had built the walls of Troy, Laomedon refused to give them the reward which had been stipulated, and even dismissed them with threats (xxi. 443); but Poseidon sent a marine monster, which was on the point of devouring Laomedon's daughter, when it was killed by Heracles. (Apollod. ii. 5 § 9.) For this reason Poseidon like Hera bore an implacable hatred against the Trojans, from which not even Aeneas was excepted (Hom. Il. xx. 293, &c.; comp. Virg. Aen. v. 810; Il. xxi. 459, xxiv. 26, xx. 312, &c.), and took an active part in the war against Troy, in which he sided with the Greeks, sometimes witnessing the contest as a spectator from the heights of Thrace, and sometimes interfering in person, assuming the appearance of a mortal hero and encouraging the Greeks, while Zeus favoured the Trojans. (11. xiii. 12, &c., 44, &c., 209, 351, 357, 677, xiv. 136, 510.) When Zeus permitted the gods to assist whichever party they pleased, Poseidon joining the Greeks, took part in the war, and caused the earth to tremble ; he was opposed by Apollo. who, however, did not like to fight against his uncle. (Il. xx. 23, 34, 57, 67, xxi. 436, &c.) In the Odyssey, Poseidon appears hostile to Odysseus, whom he prevents from returning home in consequence of his having blinded Polyphemus, a son of Poseidon by the nymph Thoosa. (Hom. Od. i. 20, 68, v. 286, &c., 366, &c., 423, xi. 101, &c., xiii. 125; Ov. Trist. i. 2.9.) Being the ruler of the sea (the Mediterranean), he is described as gathering clouds and calling forth storms, but at the same he has it in his power to grant a successful voyage and save those who are in danger, and all other marine divinities are subject to him. As the sea surrounds and holds the earth, he himself is described as the god who holds the earth (yatrioxos), and who has it in his power to shake the earth (evorixówv, kivmtop Yūs). He was further regarded as the creator of the horse, and was accordingly believed to have taught men the art of managing horses by the bridle, and to have been the originator and protector of horse races. (Hom. Il. xxiii. 307, 584; Pind. Pyth. vi. 50; Soph. Oed. Col. 712, &c.) Hence he was also represented on horseback, or riding in a chariot drawn by two or four horses, and is designated by the epithets irrios, in relos, or tririos évač. (Paus. i. 30. § 4, viii. 25. § 5, vi. 20. § 8, viii. 37. § 7; Eurip. Phoen. 1707; comp. Liv. i. 9, where he is called equester.) In consequence of his connection with the horse, he was regarded as the friend of charioteers (Pind. Ol. i. 63, &c.; Tzetz. ad Lyc. 156), and he even metamorphosed himself into a horse, for the purpose of deceiving Demeter. The common tradition about Poseidon creating the horse is as follows: — when Poseidon and Athena disputed as to which of them should give the name to the capital of Attica, the gods decided, that it should receive its name from him who should bestow upon man the most useful gift. Poseidon then created the horse, and Athena called forth the olive tree, for which the honour was conferred upon her. (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 12.) According to others, however, Poseidon did not create the horse in Attica, but in Thessaly, where he also gave the famous horses to Peleus. (Lucan, Phars. vi. 396, &c.; Hom. Il. xxiii. 277; Apollod. iii. 13. § 5.)

The symbol of Poseidon's power was the trident, or a spear with three points, with which he used to shatter rocks, to call forth or subdue storms, to shake the earth, and the like. Herodotus (ii. 50, iv. 188) states, that the name and worship of Poseidon was imported to the Greeks from Libya, but he was probably a divinity of Pelasgian origin, and originally a personification of the fertilising power of water, from which the transition to regarding him as the god of the sea was not difficult. It is a remarkable circumstance that in the legends about this divinity there are many in which he is said to have disputed the possession of certain countries with other gods. Thus, in order to take possession of Attica, he thrust his trident into the ground on the acropolis, where a well of sea-water was thereby called forth; but Athena created the olive tree, and the two divinities disputed, until the gods assigned Attica to Athena. Poseidon, indignant at this, caused the country to be inundated. (Herod. viii. 55; Apollod. iii. 14. § 1 ; Paus. i. 24. § 3, &c.; Hygin. Fab. 164.) With Athena he also disputed the possession of Troezene, and at the command of Zeus he shared the place with her. (Paus. ii. 30. § 6 ) With Helios he disputed the sovereignty of Corinth, which along with the isthmus was adjudged to him, while Helios received the acropolis. (ii. 1. § 6.) With Hera he disputed the possession of Argolis, which was adjudged to the former by Inachus, Cephissus, and Asterion, in consequence of which Poseidon caused the rivers of these river-gods to be dried up. (ii. 15. § 5, 22. § 5 ; Apollod. ii. 1. § 4.) With Zeus, lastly, he disputed the possession of Aegina, and with Dionysus that of Naxos. (Plut. Sympos. ix. 6.) At one time Delphi belonged to him in common with Ge, but Apollo gave him Calauria as a compensation for it. (Paus. ii. 33. § 2, x. 5. § 3; Apollon. Rhod. iii. 1243, with the Schol.) The following legends also deserve to be mentioned. In conjunction with Zeus he fought against Cronos and the Titans (Apollod. i. 2. § 1), and in the contest with the Giants he pursued Polybotes across the sea as far as Cos, and there killed him by throwing the island upon him. (Apollod. i. 6. § 2; Paus. i. 2. $4.) He further crushed the Centaurs when they were pursued by Heracles, under a mountain in Leucosia, the island of the Seirens. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 4.) He sued together with Zeus for the hand of Thetis, but he withdrew when Themis prophesied that the son of Thetis would be greater than his father. (Apollod. iii. 13. § 5; Tzetz. ad Lyc. 178.) When Ares had been caught in the wonderful net by Hephaestus, the latter set him free at the request of Poseidon (Hom. Od. viii. 344, &c.), but Poseidon afterwards brought a charge against Ares before the Areiopagus, for having killed his son Halirrhothius. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 2.) At the request of Minos, king of Crete, Poseidon caused a bull to rise from the sea, which the king promised to sacrifice ; but when Minos treacherously concealed the animal among a herd of oxen, the god punished Minos by causing his daughter Pasiphaë to fall in love with the bull. (Apollod. iii. 1. § 3, &c." Periclymenus, who was either a son or a grandsor, of Poseidon, received from him the power of assuming various forms. (i. 9. § 9, iii.6. § 8.) Poseidon was married to Amphitrite, by whom he had three children, Triton, Rhode, and Benthesicyme (Hes. Theoy. 930; Apollod. i. 4. § 6, iii. 15. § 4); but he had besides a vast number of children by other divinities and mortal women. He is mentioned by a variety of surnames, either in allusion to the many legends related about him, or to his nature as the god of the sea. His worship extended over all Greece and southern Italy, but he was more especially revered in Peloponnesus (which is hence called oixmriptov IIogetöðvos) and in the Ionic coast towns. The sacrifices offered to him generally consisted of black and white bulls (Hom. Od. iii. 6, Il. xx. 404; Pind. Ol. xiii. 98; Virg. Aen. v. 237); but wild boars and rams were also sacrificed to him. (Hom. Od. xi. 130, &c., xxiii. 277; Virg. Aen. iii. 119.) In Argolis bridled horses were thrown into the well Deine as a sacrifice to him (Paus. viii. 7. § 2), and horse and chariot races were held in his honour on the Corinthian isthmus. (Pind. Nem. v. 66, &c.) The Panionia, or the festival of all the Ionians near Mycale, was celebrated in honour of Poseidon. (Herod. i. 148.) In works of art, Poseidon may be easily recognised by his attributes, the dolphin, the horse, or the trident (Paus. x. 36. § 4), and he was frequently represented in groups along with Amphitrite, Tritons, Nereids, dolphins, the Dioscuri, Palaemon, Pegasus, Bellerophontes, Thalassa, Ino, and Galene. (Paus. ii. 1. S 7.) His figure does not present the majestic calm which characterises his brother Zeus; but as the state of the sea is varying, so also is the god represented sometimes in violent agitation, and sometimes in a state of repose. (Hirt, Mythol. Bilderb. i. p. 26.) It must be observed that the Romans identified Poseidon with their own Neptunus, and that accordingly the attributes belonging to the former are constantly transferred by the Latin poets to the latter. [L. S.] POSEIDO'NIUS (IIogetöðvios),a distinguished Stoic philosopher, was a native of Apameia in Syria (Strab. xiv. p. 968, xvi. p. 1093; Suidas, s. v. IIogetö.). He was called sometimes the Apamean, from his birthplace, sometimes the Rhodtun, from the place where he taught (Lucian, Macrob. vol. iii. p. 223; Athen. vi. p. 252, e.) He was also known by the surname 'A9Airms (Suid. l. c.). The date of his birth is not known with any exactness; but he was a disciple of Panaetius and a contemporary of Pompeius and Cicero. Athenaeus (xii. p. 549, e.), by a great mistake, mentions Poseidonius instead of Panaetius as the companion of Scipio Africanus on his embassy to Egypt. Elsewhere (xiv. p. 657) he talks of him as a contemporary of Strabo, misunderstanding a passage of the latter (xvi. p. 1093), where the expression rao iuás, in an author who quotes from so many writers of different ages, may very well be understood of one who preceded him but a short time. Vossius supposes that the old age of Poseidonius may have coincided with the childhood of Strabo. The supposition is not necessary. As Panaetius died in B. c. 112, and Poseidonius came to Rome in the consulship of M. Marcellus (b. c. 51), and according to Lucian (l.c.) reached the age of 84 years, B. c. 135 is probably not far from the date of the birth of Poseidonius. Poseidonius, leaving Syria, betook himself to Athens, and became the disciple of Panaetius, and never returned to his native country. (Suid. l.c.; Cic. de Off. iii. 2, Tusc. Disp. v. 37.) On the death of Panaetius he set out on his travels, and first visited Spain. At Gades he staid thirty days, it. 10. Merewpoxo-yuki, Xroixetworts. 11. IIepl ro5 mAtol ueyé8ous. 12. IIepl’shkeavos. 13. IIepl Wuxils. 14. Ilpos Zīvava röv ×184wtov, or at least a mathematical work in which his views were controverted. 15. 'Hôukós A6-yos. 16. IIporperturá, in defence of the position, that the study of philosophy ought not to be neglected on account of the discrepancies in the systems of different philosophers. 17. IIepi kathikovros (see Cic. ad Att. xvi. 11). 18. IIepl traflov. 19. A treatise on the connection between virtues and the division of the faculties of the mind (Galen, l.c. viii. p. 319). 20. IIepl kpurnpiov. 21. Eigaywys) trepl Aéčews. A grammatical work. 22. An extensive historical work, in at least forty-nine or fifty books (Athen. iv. p. 168, d.), and apparently of very miscellaneous contents, to judge by the tolerably numerous quotations of it in Athenaeus, and comprising events from the time of Alexander the Great to his own times. Suidas, by a gross blunder, attributes to Poseidonius of Alexandria an historical work in fifty-two books, in continuation of the history of Polybius. Wossius (de Hist. Graec. p. 199, ed. Westermann) considers this work to be identical with the historical work of Poseidonius of Apameia. Bake dissents from this view, inasmuch as events were mentioned by Poseidonius earlier than those included in the history of Polybius, and assigns the work to Poseidonius of Olbiopolis. His objection is not decisive, and Westermann coincides with Vossius. But the account which Suidas gives of the work is enormously wrong, as he says it ended with the Cyrenaic war (B. c. 324), and yet was a continuation of the history of Polybius, which goes down to the destruction of Corinth by Mummius (b. c. 146). 23. A history of the life of Pompeius Magnus (Strab. xi. p. 753). This may possibly have been a part of his larger his. torical work. 24. Téxvm taxrucii (de Acie instruendu). 25. Various epistles, All the relics which still remain of the writings of Poseidonius have been carefully collected and illustrated by Janus Bake, in a work entitled Posidonii Rhodii Reliquiae Doctrinae, Lugd. Bat. 1810. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 572; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 198, ed. Westermann ; Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, bk. xi. c. 6, vol. iii. p. 700, &c.; Bake, l.c.). There was an earlier Poseidonius, a native of Alexandria, and a disciple of Zeno, mentioned by Diogenes Laërtius (vii.38)and Suidas, who (besides the historical work above referred to) mentions some writings, of which, however, he is more disposed to consider Poseidonius of Olbiopolis the author. The latter he describes as a sophist and historian, and the author of the following works:—IIepl too 'nkeavou: IIepl ris Tupu, is kaxovuévns xopas : 'Attukas ioTopias, in four books: Atsukā, in eleven books; and some others. The first mentioned work is assigned by Bake to Poseidonius of ApaInela. There were also some others of the same name who are not worth mentioning. [C.P. M.] POSEIDO'NIUS (IIogetöðvios), the name of two Greek physicians, who have been confounded together by Sprengel (Hist. de la Méd. vol. ii. p. 92, French transl.), and placed in “the time of Valens;” and also by M. Littre (Oeuvres d'Hip


observing the setting of the sun, and by his observations confuting the ignorant story of the hissing sound made by the sum as it descended into the ocean. Having collected a variety of information on points of geography and natural history, he set out for Italy. Nor was he idle on the voyage, paying attention to the course of the winds, and examining the peculiarities of the coasts along which he passed. He visited Sicily and the neighbouring islands, and then proceeded to Dalmatia and Illyricum (Strab. iii. p. 165, iv. p. 197, xiii. p. 614; Vitruv. de Archit. viii. 4). After visiting Massilia, Gallia Narbonensis, and Liguria, he returned to the East, and fixed his abode at Rhodes, where he became the president of the Stoic school. He also took a prominent part in the political affairs of the republic, influencing the course of legislation, and among other offices filling that of Prytanis (Strab. iv. p. 655, vii. p. 316). He was sent as ambassador to Rome in B. c. 86. With Marius he became personally acquainted, and Plutarch in his life of Marius was considerably indebted to information derived from him (Plut. Mar. 45). Cicero, when he visited Rhodes, received instruction both from Molo and from Poseidonius (Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 3, de Fin. i. 2; Plut. Cic. 4). Pompey also had a great admiration for Poseidonius, and visited him twice, in B. c. 67 and 62. (Strab. xi. p. 492; Plut. Pomp. 42; Plin. H. N. vii. 31.) To the occasion of his first visit probably belongs the story that Poseidonius, to prevent the disappointment of his distinguished visitor, though severely afflicted with the gout, held a long discourse on the topic that pain is not an evil (Cic. Tusc. Disp. ii. 25). He seems to have availed himself of his acquaintance with Pompey to gain such additions as he could to his geographical and historical knowledge (Strab. xi. p. 492). In B. c. 51 Poseidonius removed to Rome, and appears to have died soon after. He was succeeded in his school by his disciple and grandson Jason. [JASON, p. 556.] Among his diseiples were Phanias (Diog. Laërt. vii. 41), and Asclepiodotus (Senec. Qu. Nat. ii. 26, vi. 17). Besides Cicero, he seems to have had among his hearers C. Welleius, C. Cotta, Q. Lucilius Balbus, and probably Brutus. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 44; Plut. Brut. p. 984.) Of Pompey we have already spoken. Poseidonius was a man of extensive and varied acquirements in almost all departments of human knowledge. Strabo (xvi. p. 753) calls him dwop tov Kato suás pooráqww.toxvuatéoratos. Cicero thought so highly of his powers, that he requested him to write an account of his consulship (ad Att. ii. 1). As a physical investigator he was greatly superior to the Stoics generally, attaching himself in this respect rather to Aristotle. His geographical and historical knowledge was very extensive. Though attached to the Stoic system, he was far less dogmatical and obstinate than the majority of that school, refusing to admit a dogma because it was one of the school, if it did not commend itself to him for its intrinsic merits. This scientific cast of his mind Galen attributes to his accurate acquaintance with geometry (De Plac. Hipp. et Plat. iv. p. 279, viii. p. 319). His style of composition also seems to have been far removed from the ungraceful stiffness which was frequently affected by

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Poseidonius adhered to the division of philosophy usual among the ancients, into physics, ethics, and dialectics (Diog. Laërt. vii. 39), comparing the first to the blood and flesh of an animal, the second to the bones and nerves, the last to the soul. (Sextus Emp. adr. Math. vii. 19 ; Diog. Laërt. vii. 40.) He recognised two principles (dpxas)—passive (matter), and active (God). His physical doctrines were, in the main, those of the Stoics generally, though he differed from them in some particulars. He held that the vacuum beyond the universe was not infinite, but only large enough to allow of the dissolution of the universe (he discarded the doctrine of its destruction by fire, Phil. Jud. de Aet. Mundi, ii. p. 497, ed. Mang.). He considered the heaven as the governing principle (tò trysuovuków) of the universe (Diog. Laërt. vii. 139.) He cultivated astronomy with considerable diligence, and, unlike Panaetius, was a believer in astrology (Cic. de Div. ii. 42). Poseidonius also constructed a planetary machine, or revolving sphere, to exhibit the daily motions of the sun, moon and planets. (Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 34.) He inferred that the sun is larger than the earth, among other reasons because the shadow cast by the earth is conical. (Diog. Laërt. vii. 144; Macrob, ad Somn. Scip. i. 20.) Its greater apparent magnitude as it sets he attributed to its being seen through dense and misty air, and supposed that if we could see it through a solid wall it would appear larger still. (Cleomedes, Cycl. Theor. ii. p. 430.) He calculated the diameter of the sun to be 4,000,000 stadia, on the assumption that the orbit of the sun was 10,000 times the circumference of the earth, and that it is within a space of 400 stadia N. and S. that the sun casts no shadow. (Cleomedes, l.c. p. 452.) The distance between the earth and the sun he set down at above 502,000,000 stadia. (Plin. H. N. ii. 21.) The moon also he considered to be larger than the earth, and composed of transparent elements, though on account of its great size the rays of the sun do not pass through it in eclipses. (Stob. Ecl. Phys. i. p. 59; Cleom. l.c. ii. p. 500.) His view of the milky way, that it is of an igneous nature, not so dense as stars, but more so than light, and intended to warm those parts of the universe which the sun's heat does not reach, was extensively adopted. (Macrob, l.c. i. 15.) Poseidonius's calculation of the circumference of the earth differed widely from that of Eratosthenes. He made it only 180,000 stadia, and his measurement was pretty generally adopted. His calculation was founded on observations of the star Canobus made in Spain, not, as Cleomedes says, in Rhodes. (Strab. ii. p. 119 ; Cleom. l. c. i. 8. ; comp. Mannert, Geogr. vol. i. p. 105, &c.) The shape of the habitable part of the earth he compared to that of a sling, the greatest extent being from E. to W. (Strab. ii. p. 267: Agathemerus, ap. Hudson. Geogr. Min. vol. ii. p. 2.) Of the connection between the moon and the tides he was well aware. (Strab. iii. p. 173.) Strabo frequently refers to Poseidonius as one of the most distinguished geographers. A great number of passages, containing the views of Poseidonius on various other geographical and astronomical points, has been collected by Bake.

As the basis of his ethical and mental philosophy Poseidonius took the Stoic system, though with considerable modifications, for he held it possible to amalgamate with it much of the systems of

Plato and Aristotle. In some respects his views approximated to the Pythagorean doctrines. (Sext. Empir. Adv. Math. vii. 93; Galen. de Hipp. et Plat. Plac. v. p. 171.) It seems to have been his object as far as possible to banish contradiction from philosophy, and bring all the systems which had been propounded into harmony with each other, and to infuse into the decaying vitality of philosophical thought something of the vigour of past times. But that he could suppose the doctrines of Zeno, Aristotle and Plato capable of reconciliation with each other, shows that he could not have seized very distinctly the spirit of each. To give anything like plausibility to this attempt, it was of course necessary to introduce considerable modifications into the Stoic doctrines. In some points however in which he differed from Panaetius he rather returned to the views of the earlier Stoic philosophers. His fourfold division of virtue is apparently that followed by Cicero in his De Officiis. He did not think virtue by itself sufficient for perfect happiness, unless accompanied by external, bodily good. (Diog. Laërt. vii. 128.) The summum bonum he considered to be the living in the contemplation of the truth and order of all things, and the fashioning oneself, as far as possible, in accordance there with, being led aside as little as possible by the irrational part of the soul. (Clem. Alex. Strom. ii. p. 416.) In the classification of the faculties of the soul he returned to the system of Plato, dividing them into reason, emotion, and appetite (öefrvvoru Stoikovuévous juás ord Tpay 6vváuewv, étribuum tukis re kal & vuoeiðoos ral Ao7tatikfis, Galenus, l.c. viii. p. 319), with which division he considered questions of practical morality to be intimately connected (Galen, l.c. iv. p. 284, v. p.291). It was apparently to keep up a bond of connection with the Stoic dogmas that he spoke of these buyáuets as all belonging to one essence (Galen. l.c. vi. p. 298), though other features of his system are not easily reconcilable with that view. But instead of regarding the tré0m of the soul as being, or ensuing upon, judgments (optoes) of the reason, he deduced them from the irrational faculties of the soul, appealing to the fact that emotion and appetite manifest themselves in irrational beings. He connected affections and perturbations of the mind with external influences, the union of the soul with the body, and the influence of the latter upon the former, some conditions of man being predominantly bodily, others spiritual ; some passing from the body to the soul, others from the soul to the body. This idea he carried out to the permanent modifications of character produced by particular bodily organisations, founding thereon a sort of physiognomical system. (Galen. l.c. v. p. 290.) He sometimes spoke of appetite as corresponding to vegetable life, emotion to animal life, reason to the properly human (l.c. p. 170). None of the writings of Poseidonius has come down to us entire. We find mention of the following:—l. IIepi Seáv, consisting of at least thirteen books (Diog. Laërt. vii. 138). 2. IIepl uavrikis, in five books. Poseidonius defended divination, and analysed its foundations. 3. IIepi eiuapuévns. 4. IIep 'Hpowv kal Sauðvøv. 5. burikós Adyos, consisting of at least fifteen books (Diog. Laërt. vii. 140). 6. IIepl kóruov. 7. 'Eonymous toū IIAáropos Tuatov. 8. IIepl revoú. 9. IIepl ueteopov : Dio

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poer. vol. iii. p. 5), who, while correcting one half

of Sprengel's chronological mistake, falls himself

into the same error, and equally supposes them to have been one and the same individual, whom he places in the first century after Christ. l. The author of some medical works, of which nothing but a few fragments remain, who quotes Archigenes (ap. Aët. ii. 2. 12, p. 255), and is himself quoted by Rufus Ephesius (ap. Ang. Mai, Classic. Auctor. e Vatic. Codic. Edit. vol. iv. p. 11), and who must, therefore, have lived about the end of the first century after Christ. He is one of the earliest writers who is known to have mentioned the glandular or true plague, though this disease was, till quite lately, supposed to have been unknown till a much later period (see M. Littré, loco cit.). He is several times quoted by Aëtius (i. 3. 121, ii. 2. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 18, 20, 21, 24, pp. 139, 243, 244, 246, 247, 248, 254, 255, 257, 258, 260), and Paulus Aegineta (vii. 3, 21, 22, pp. 614, 692, 693). The name frequently occurs in Galen, but it is probable that in every passage the philosopher is referred to and not the physician. If (as seems upon the whole not unlikely) this Poseidonius is the pupil of Zopyrus at Alexandria, who is mentioned by Apollonius Citiensis as his fellow-pupil (ap. Dietz, Schol. in Hippocr. et Gal. vol. i. p. 2), there is a chronological difficulty which the writer is not at present able to explain. 2. The son of Philostorgius and brother of Philagrius, who lived in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ, during the reign of Walentinian and Valens. (Philostorg. H. E. viii. 10.) [W.A.G.] POSEIDO'NIUS, of Ephesus, a celebrated silver-chaser, who was contemporary with Pasiteles, in the time of Pompey. (Plin. H. N. xxxiii. 12. s. 55.) Pliny mentions him also among the artists who made athletas et armatos et venatores sacrificantesque, and adds to the mention of his name the words qui et argentum caelavit nobiliter (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34). Nagler (KünstlerLearicon) makes the singular mistake of ascribing to him the sphere of the celebrated philosopher Poseidonius, which is mentioned by Cicero (de Nat. Deor. ii. 34). [P.S.] POSIS, a Roman modeller, who lived in the first century B. c., and who was mentioned as an acquaintance by M. Varro, according to whom he made apples and grapes, which it was impossible to distinguish from the real objects. (Varro, ap. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 12. s.45. The text of the passage is very corrupt; but there can be little doubt that the reading as restored by Gronovius gives the meaning fairly, namely: M. Varro tradit sibi cognitum Romae Posim nomine, a quo facta poma et uras, ut non possis discernere a veris.) These imitations of fruit must have been first modelled, and then painted. Their truthfulness would suggest the suspicion that they were in wax ; but, from the absence of any statement to that effect, it must be supposed that they were only in some kind of clay or stucco or gypsum. [P. S.] POSSI'DIUS, a disciple of Augustine, with whom he lived upon intimate terms for nearly forty years. In A. D. 397 he was appointed bishop of Calama, a town in Numidia at no great distance from Hippo Regius; but this elevation brought iro tranquillity nor ease, for his career from this time forward presents one continued struggle with a succession of fierce antagonists. For a long period he was engaged in active strife with the Donatists, maintained triumphant disputations in public with

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their leaders on several occasions, and was one of the four prelates despatched in 410 by the orthodox party in Africa to Honorius, for the purpose of soliciting a repeal of the law which had been passed in favour of their heretical opponents. He next took a prominent part in the councils held against Caelestius and Pelagius. In A. D. 430 he was driven from Calama by the Wandals, sought refuge at Hippo, and while that city was besieged, watched over the deathbed of his preceptor and friend. Prosper relates in his chronicle (A. D. 437) that Possidius, along with Novatus and Severianus, strenuously resisted the efforts of Genseric to propagate the doctrines of Arianism, and it is generally believed. that having been expelled from Africa, after the capture of Carthage (A. D. 439), he made his way to Italy, and there died. Two tracts by Possidius are still extant. 1. Vita Augustini. 2. Indiculus Scriptorum Augustini. These are attached to all the best editions of Augustine. The best edition of the Vita, in a separate form, is that of Salinas, 8vo. Rom. 1731, and Aug. Windel. 1768; of the Indiculus, that published at Venice, 8vo. 1735. [W. R.] POSSIS (IIóaoris), a Greek writer, mentioned only by Athenaeus, who cites two of his works, namely, the third book of his history of the Amazons ('Auasovis, vii. p. 296, d.), and the third book of his history of Magnesia (Mayvntuká, xii. p. 533, d.). POST VERTA or POSTVORTA, is properly a surname of Carmenta, describing her as turning backward and looking at the past, which she revealed to poets and other mortals. In like manner the prophetic power with which she looked into the future, is indicated by the surnames Antevorta, Prorsa (i.e. Proversa), and Porrima. Poets, however, have personified these attributes of Carmenta, and thus describe them as the companions of the goddess. (Ov. Fast. i. 633; Macrob. Sat. i. 7 ; Gellius, xvi. 16 ; Serv. ad Aen. viii. 339.) [L. S.] POSTU/MIA. l. A Vestal virgin, accused of incest in B. c. 419, in consequence of the elegance of her dress and the freedom of her remarks, but acquitted, with an admonition to be more careful in her conduct for the future. (Liv. iv. 44.) 2. The wife of Ser. Sulpicius, was a busy intriguing woman, and did not bear a good character. She is said to have been one of the mistresses of Julius Caesar (Suet. Jul. 50), and Cicero suspected that it was her charms which drew his legatus Pomptinus from Cilicia to Rome. (Cic. ad Att. v. 21. § 9.) Her name frequently occurs in Cicero's correspondence at the time of the civil wars (ad Fam. iv. 2, ad Att. x. 3. A, x. 14, xii. ll. &c.). POSTU'MIA, PONTIA. [Postra, No. 2.] , POSTU/MIA GENS, patrician, was one of the most ancient patrician gentes at Rome, and frequently held the highest offices of the state, from the banishment of the kings to the downfal of the republic. The most distinguished family in the gens was that of ALBUs or ALBINUs, but we also find at the commencement of the republic dis

the Punic wars, and subsequently, we also find the surnames PyRC ENsis, TEMPsANUs, and Ty MPANUs. A few Postumii are mentioned without any surname: these are given below. POSTU’MIUS. 1. A. Post UMIUs, tribunus militum in B. c. 180. (Liv. xl. 41.) 2. C. Postumius, tribunus militum in B. c. 163. (Liv. xlv. 6.) 3. Postumius, a soothsayer, who predicted success to Sulla, and told him to keep him in chains, and put him to death if matters did not turn out well. Plutarch (Sull. 9) says that this occurred when Sulla was marching upon Rome, in B. c. 88; whereas Cicero (de Dir. i. 33) and Valerius Maximus (i. 6. § 4) relate that it happened before the battle in which Sulla defeated the Samnites. 4. M. Postumius, quaestor of Verres in his government of Sicily, B. c. 73. (Cic. Verr. ii. 18.) 5. CN. Post UMIUs, was one of the supporters (subscriptores) of Ser. Sulpicius in his prosecution of Murena for bribery in B. c. 63. He had been a candidate for the praetorship in the same year. (Cic. pro Mur. 26, 27, 33.) 6. T. Postumius, an orator mentioned by Cicero with praise (Brut. 77), may perhaps have been the same person as the following. 7. Postumius, a friend of Cicero, belonged to the Pompeian party, and on the breaking out of the civil war, in B. c. 49, was appointed by the senate to succeed Fursanius Postumus in Sicily; but as he refused to go to the province without Cato, Fannius was sent in his stead. (Cic. ad Att. vii. 15. § 2.) Cicero mentions him as one of his friends in B. c. 46 (ad Fam. vi. 12. § 2, xiii. 69). He speaks of him again as one of the procuratores of the games of Octavius in B. c. 44 (ad Att. xv. 2. § 3). 8. Post UMIUs, a legate of Caesar, whom he sent over from Greece to Italy in B. c. 48, to lo, the passage of his troops. (Appian, B.C. ii. 58. 9. P. Post UMI Us, a friend of M. Marcellus, who was murdered at Athens in B. c. 45. (Servius, ap. Cic. ad Fam. iv. 12. § 2.) 10. Q. Postumius, a Roman senator, was torn to pieces by order of Antony, because he meditated deserting to Augustus in B. c. 31. (Dion Cass. l. 13.) POSTU/MIUS, architect. [Polio.] POSTUMULENUS, is only known as a friend of Trebianus or Trebonius (Cic. ad Fam. vi. 10). POSTUMUS, which signifies a person born after the death of his father, was originally a praenomen (Warr. L. L. v. 60, ed. Muller), but was also used as a cognomen, of which several instances occur in the persons mentioned below. PO'STUM US, a Roman, to whom Horace addresses one of his odes (ii. 14). Nothing is known of him, but he may have been the same person as the Postumus to whom Propertius addresses one of his elegies (iii. 12). PO'STUMUS, stands second on the list of the thirty tyrants enumerated by Trebellius Pollio [see AUREolus]. His full name was M. Cassianus Latinius Postumus. Of humble origin, he owed his

advancement to merit, was nominated by Valerian, who entertained the strongest conviction of his worth, governor of Gaul, and was entrusted specially with the defence of the Rhenish frontier. By his aid Gallienus was enabled to repulse for some years the attacks of the barbarians; but on setting out for Illyria (A. D. 257), in order to quell

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