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REPOSIA’NUS, the name prefixed to a poem, first published by Burmann, extending to 182 hexameter lines, and entitled, “Concubitus Martis et Veneris.” With regard to the author nothing is known. Unless we attribute some inaccuracies in metre and some peculiarities in phraseology to a corrupt text, we must conclude that he belongs to a late epoch, but the piece is throughout replete with grace and spirit, and presents a series of brilliant pictures. Wernsdorf imagines, that for Reposianus we ought to read Nepotianus, merely because the former designation does not elsewhere occur ; but this conjecture being altogether unsupported by evidence, will be received with favour by but few. The verses are to be found in Burmann, Anthol. Lat. i. 72, or No. 559, ed. Meyer ; see also Wernsdorf, Poët. Lat. Min. vol. iv. par. i. pp. 52, 319, vol. v. par. iii. pp. 1470, 1477. [W. R.]
RE'STIO, A/NTIUS. 1. The author of a sumptuary law, which, besides limiting the expence of entertainments, enacted that no magistrate or magistrate elect should dine abroad anywhere except at the houses of certain persons. This law, however, was little observed ; and we are told that Antius never dined out afterwards, that he might not see his own law violated. We do not know in what year this law was passed ; but it was subsequent to the sumptuary law of the consul Aemilius Lepidus, B. c. 78, and before the one of Caesar (Gell. ii. 24; Macrob. Sat. ii. 13).
2. Probably a son of the preceding, was proscribed by the triumvirs in B. c. 43, but was preserved by the fidelity of a slave, and by his means escaped to Sex. Pompeius in Sicily. (Val. Max. vi. 8. § 7; Appian, B.C. iv. 43; Macrob. Sat. i. ll.
RESTITU'TUS, CLAU'DIUS, an orator of considerable reputation in the reign of Trajan, was a friend of the younger Pliny, and is likewise cele. brated by Martial in an epigram on the anniversary of his birth-day. (Plin. Ep. iii. 9. § 16, vi. 17, vii. 1; Martial, x. 87.)
REX, MA'RCIUS. 1. Q. MARcius Rex, tribune of the plebs B. c. 196, proposed to the go to make peace with Philip. (Liv. xxxiii. 25.)
2. P. MARcius Rex, was sent by the senate with two colleagues on a mission to the consul C. Cassius Longinus, in B. c. 17 l. (Liv. xliii. 1.)
3. Q. MARcius REx, praetor B. c. 144, was commissioned by the senate to build an aqueduct, and in order that he might complete it, his imperium was prolonged for another year. This aqueduct, known by the name of Aqua Marcia, was one of the most important, and is spoken of at length in the Dictionary of Antiquities (p. 110, 2d ed.). (Frontin. de Aquaed. 12; Plin. H. N. xxxi. 3. s. 24; Plut. Coriol. 1.) 4. Q. MARc1Us Q. f. Q. N. REX, consul B. c. l 18, with M. Porcius Cato. The colony of Narbo Martius in Gaul was founded in this year. Marcius carried on war against the Stoeni, a Ligurian people at the foot of the Alps, and obtained a triumph in the following year on account of his victories over them. Marcius lost during his consulship his only son, a youth of great promise, but had such mastery over his feelings as to meet the senate on the day of his son's burial, and perform his regular official duties (Plin. H. N. ii. 31 ; Gell. xiii. 19 ; Liv. Epit. 62; Oros. v. 14; Fasti Capit.; Val. Max. v. 10. § 3). The sister of this Marcius Rex married C. Julius Caesar, the grandfather of the dictator. [MARc1A, No. 2.] 5. Q. MARcius Q. F. R.Ex, probably a grandson of No. 4, was consul B. c. 68, with L. Caecilius Metellus. His colleague died at the commencement of his year of office, and as no consul was elected in his place, we find the name of Marcius Rex in the Fasti with the remark, solus consulatum gessit. He was proconsul in Cilicia in the following year, and there refused assistance to Lucullus, at the instigation of his brother-in-law, the celebrated P. Clodius, whom Lucullus had offended. In B. c. 66, Marcius had to surrender his province and army to Pompeius in compliance with the Lex Manilia. On his return to Rome he sued for a triumph, but as obstacles were thrown in the way by certain parties, he remained outside the city to prosecute his claims, and was still there when the Catilinarian conspiracy broke out in B. c. 63. The senate sent him to Faesulae, to watch the movements of C. Mallius or Manlius, Catiline's general. Mallius sent proposals of peace to Marcius, but the latter refused to listen to his terms unless he consented first to lay down his arms (Dion Cass. xxxv. 4, 14, 15, 17, xxxvi. 26, 31 : Cic. in Pison. 4; Sall. Hist. 5, Cat. 30, 32–34). Marcius Rex married the eldest sister of P. Clodius [CLAUDIA, No. 7]. He died before B. c. 61, without leaving his brother-in-law the inheritance he had expected (Cic. ad Att. i. 16. § 10). REX, RU’BRIUS, probably a false reading in Appian (B.C. ii. 113) for Rubrius Ruga. [RUGA.] RHADAMANTHUS ("Pabáuaveos), a son of Zeus and Europa, and brother of king Minos of Crete (Hom. Il. xiv. 322), or, according to others, a son of Hephaestus (Paus. viii. 53. § 2). From fear of his brother he fled to Ocaleia in Boeotia, and there married Alcmene. In consequence of his justice throughout life, he became, after his death, one of the judges in the lower world, and took up his abode in Elysium. (Apollod. iii. 1. § 2, ii. 4. § l l ; Hom. Od. iv. 564, vii. 323; Pind. Ol. ii. 137; comp. Gortys.) [L. S.] RHADAMISTUS. [ARs.AcIDAE, p. 362, b.] RHAMNU'SIA ("Pauvovaria), a surname of Nemesis, who had a celebrated temple at Rhamnus in Attica. (Paus. i. 33. § 2, vii. 5. § 3 ; Strab. ix. p. 396, &c.; Steph. Byz. s. v.) IL. S.]
RHA'MPHIAS ("Pauspias), a Lacedaemonian, father of Clearchus (Thuc. viii. 8, 39; Xen. Hell. i. 1. § 35), was one of the three ambassadors who were sent to Athens in B. c. 432, with the final demand of Sparta for the independence of all the Greek states. The demand was refused, and the Peloponnesian war ensued. (Thuc. i. 139, &c.) In B. c. 422 Rhamphias, with two colleagues, commanded a force of 900 men, intended for the strengthening of Brasidas in Thrace; but their passage through Thessaly was opposed by the Thessalians, and, hearing also of the battle of Amphipolis and the death of Brasidas, they returned to Sparta. (Thuc. v. 12, 13.) [E. E.] RHAMPSINITUS ("Paul vitos), called Rhemphis by Diodorus, one of the ancient kings of Egypt, is said to have succeeded Proteus, and to have been himself succeeded by Cheops. This king is said to have possessed immense wealth, and in order to keep it safe he had a treasury built of stone, respecting the robbery of which Herodotus relates a romantic story, which bears a great resemblance to the one told by Pausanias (ix. 37. § 4) respecting the treasury built by the two brothers Agamedes and Trophonius of Orchomenus [AGAMEDEs]. Rhampsinitus is said to have built the western propylaea of the temple of Hephaestus, and to have placed in front of it two large statues, each of the size of twenty-five cubits, which the Egyptians called Summer and Winter. It is further stated that this king descended to Hades and played a game at dice with Demeter, and on his return to the earth a festival was instituted in honour of the goddess (Herod. ii. 121, 122; Diod. i. 62). Rhampsinitus belongs to the twentieth dynasty according to Bunsen, and is known on inscriptions by the name of Ramessu Neter-kek-pen (Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der Weltgeschichte, vol. iii. pp. 119, 120). RHAMSES, another form of the name Ramses. [RAMSEs.] RHA'RIAS (Papids), a surname of Demeter, which she derived from the Rharian plain in the neighbourhood of Eleusis, the principal seat of her worship. (Paus. i. 38. § 6; Steph. Byz, and Suid. s.v.) [L. S.] RHARUS (‘Pápos), the father of Triptolemus at Eleusis (Paus. i. 14. § 2). It is worthy of remark, that according to the scholiast (on Il. i. 56), the P in this name had the spiritus lenis. [L. S.] RHASCU'PORIS ("Pagkov topis). 1. Brother of Rhascus, and with him chieftain of a Thracian clan, whose territories extended from the northern shores of the Propontis to the Hebrus and the neighbourhood of Philippi. Whether the clan were that of the Sapaei or the Korpalli, or comprised both races, is uncertain. But it occupied both the mountain ridge that skirts the Propontis and the southern plains which lie between the base of Mount Rhodope and the sea (comp. Appian, B. C. iv. 87, 105 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 64; Plin. H. N. iv. 11 (18)). We can only thus explain the seeming inconsistency in Appian's account of these chieftains ; for he describes their territory as a lofty, cold, and woody region, and yet assigns to them a powerful body of cavalry. In the civil war, B. c. 49–48, Rhascuporis joined Cn. Pompey, with 200 horse, at Dyrrachium ; and in the war that followed Caesar's death, he aided Cassius with 3000, while his brother Rhascus, at the head of an equal number of cavalry, embraced the cause of the trium
virs. According to Appian this was a politic and provident device for mutual security; and it was agreed beforehand that the brother whose party was triumphant, should obtain the pardon of the brother whose party was vanquished. And so, after the victory at Philippi, Rhascuporis owed his life to the intercession of Rhascus. Each brother rendered good service to his respective party. When the road from Asia into Macedonia, by Aenos and Maroneia, had been preoccupied by the triumviral legions, Rhascuporis, in whose dominions the passes were, led the armies of Brutus and Cassius by a road through the forest, known only to himself and Rhascus. And Rhascus, on the other hand, by his local knowledge, detected the march of the enemy, and saved his allies from being cut off in the rear. (Caes. B. C. iii. 4; Appian. B. C. iv. 87, 10.3—106, 136; Lucan. Pharsal. v. 55; Dion Cass. xlvii. 25.) For the varieties in the orthography of Rhascuporis, e.g., Rhascypolis, Rascyporis, Thrascypolis, &c., see Fabricius, ad Dion Cass. xlvii. 25 ; Adrian, Turneb. Adversar. xiv. 17. On the coins we meet with Baataeos 'Pagkovitépôos (Cary. Hist, des Rois de Thrace, pl. 2), and 'Patakovirópiãos (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 59). Lucan (l.c., ed. Oudendorp) calls him “gelidae dominum Ithascupolin orae.” 2. Brother of Rhoemetalces, king of Thrace, and jointly with him defeated, A. D. 6, the Dalmatians and Breucians in Macedonia [BATo, No. 2]. On the death of Rhoemetalces, Rhascuporis received from Augustus a portion of his dominions, the remainder being awarded to his nephew Cotys, son of the deceased [Cotys, No. 5). Rhascuporis was discontented, either with his share of Thrace — the barren mountainous district had been assigned him, -or with divided power; but so long as Augustus lived he did not dare to disturb the apportionment. On the emperor's decease, however, he invaded his nephew's kingdom, and hardly desisted at Tiberius' command. Next, on pretence of an amicable adjustment, Rhascuporis invited his nephew to a conference, seized his person, and threw him into prison ; and finally, thinking a completed crime safer than an imperfect one, put him to death. To Tiberius Rhascuporis alleged the excuse of self-defence, and that the arrest and murder of his nephew merely prevented his own assassination. The emperor, however, summoned the usurper to Rome, that the matter might be investigated, and Rhascuporis, on pretext of war with the Scythian Bastarnae, began to collect an army. But he was enticed into the Roman camp by Pomponius Flaccus [No. 2], propraetor of Mysia, sent to Rome, condemned, and relegated to Alexandria, where an excuse was presently found for putting him to death, A. D. 19. He left a son, Rhoemetalces, who succeeded to his father's moiety of Thrace. (Tac. Ann. ii. 64–67, iii. 38; Well. Pat. ii. 129 ; Suet. Tib. 37; Dion Cass. lv. 30.) 3. Son of Cotys (probably No. 4), was defeated and slain in battle by Wologaeses, chief of the Thracian Bessi, and leader of the general revolt of Thrace against the Romans in B. c. 13. (Dion Cass. liv. 34; comp. Well. Pat. ii. 98.) [W. B. D.] RHASCUS ("Pāorkos), was one of the two chieftains of a Thracian clan. In the civil wars of Rome, B. c. 43, 42, he espoused the party of Augustus and M. Antony, while his brother Rhascuporis embraced that of Brutus and Cassius. After the victory of the triumvirs at Philippi, Rhascus obtained from the conquerors his brother's pardon. (Appian, B. C. iv. 87, 104, 136.) [W. B. D.] : RHATHINES ('Pativms), a Persian, was one of the commanders sent by Pharnabazus to aid the Bithynians in opposing the passage of the Cyrean Greeks under Xenophon through Bithynia, B. c. 400. The satrap's forces were completely defeated (Xen. Anub. vi. 5. §§ 7, &c). We hear again of Rhathines, in B. c. 396, as one of the commanders for Pharnabazus of a body of cavalry, which worsted that of Agesilaus, in a skirmish near Dascylium. (Xen. Hell. iii. 4. § 13 ; Plut. Ayes. 9. [E. E.] RHAZES (Paffis), the author of a Greek medical treatise IIepl Aoukňs, which was published at the end of Alexander Trallianus, 1548, fol. Lutet. Paris. ex offic. Rob. Stephani. His real
F: Jadars wal-Hashah, “On the Small Pox and Measles,” which was translated from the original Arabic into Syriac, and from that language into Greek. Neither the date nor the author of either of these versions is known ; but the Greek translation (as we learn from the preface) was made at the command of one of the emperors of Constantinople, perhaps, as Fabricius (Bill. Gr. vol. xii. p. 692, ed. vet.) conjectures, Constantine Ducas, who reigned from 1059 to 1067. In one of the Greek MSS. at Paris, however (§ 2228, Catal. vol. ii. p. 465), it is attributed to Joannes Actuarius [ACTUARIUs] ; and, if this be correct, the emperor alluded to will more probably be Andronicus II. Paleologus, A. D. 1281–1328. It was from this Greek translation (which appears to have been executed either very carelessly, or from an imperfect MS.), and from Latin versions made from it, that the work was first known in Europe, the earliest Latin translation made directly from the original Arabic being that which was published by Dr. Mead, in 1747, 8vo. Lond., at the end of his work * De Variolis et Morbillis.” The Arabic text was published for the first time by John Channing, in 1766, 8vo. Lond, together with a new Latin version by himself, which has been reprinted separately, and which continues to be the best up to the present time. Altogether the work has been published, in various languages, about five and thirty times, in about three hundred and fifty years, —a greater number of editions than has fallen to the lot of almost any other ancient medical treatise. The only English translation made directly from the original Arabic is that by Dr. Greenhill, 1847, 8vo., London, printed for the Sydenham Society; from which work the preceding account is taken. It may be added that the particular interest which the work has excited, arises from the fact of its being the earliest extant medical treatise in which the Small Pox is certainly mentioned ; and accordingly the Greek translator has used the word Aotuki) to express this disease, there being in
the old Greek language no word that bears this signification. [W. A. G.]
RHEA ('Peta, ‘Péa, ‘Pesm, or "Pém). The name as well as the nature of this divinity is one of the most difficult points in ancient mythology. Some consider 'Péa to be merely another form of Épa, the earth, while others connect it with #w, I flow (Plat. Cratyl. p. 401, &c.); but thus much seems undeniable, that Rhea, like Demeter, was a goddess of the earth. According to the Hesiodic Theogony (133; comp. Apollod. i. 1. § 3), Rhea was a daughter of Uranus and Ge, and accordingly a sister of Oceanus, Coeus, Hyperion, Crius, Iapetus, Theia, Thenis, and Mnemosyne. She became by Cronos the mother of Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Aides, Poseidon, and Zeus. According to some accounts Cronos and Rhea were preceded in their sovereignty over the world by Ophion and Eurynome ; but Ophion was overpowered by Cronos, and Rhea cast Eurynome into Tartarus. Cronosis said to have devoured all his children by Rhea, but when she was on the point of giving birth to Zeus, she, by the advice of her parents, went to Lyctus in Crete. When Zeus was born she gave to Cronos a stone wrapped up like an infant, and the god swallowed it as he had swallowed his other children. (Hes. Theog. 446, &c.; Apollod. i. l. § 5, &c.; Diod. v. 70.) Homer (Il. xv. 187) makes only a passing allusion to Rhea, and the passage of Hesiod, which accordingly must be regarded as the most ancient Greek legend about Rhea, seems to suggest that the mystic priests of Crete had already formed connections with the more northern parts of Greece. In this manner, it would seem, the mother of Zeus became known to the Thracians, with whom she became a divinity of far greater importance than she had been before in the south (Orph. Hymn, 13, 25, 26), for she was connected with the Thracian goddess Bendis or Cotys (Hecate), and identified with Demeter. (Strab. x. P. 470.)
The Thracians, in the mean time, conceived the chief divinity of the Samothracian and Lemnian mysteries as Rhea-Hecate, while some of them who had settled in Asia Minor, became there acquainted with still stranger beings, and one especially who was worshipped with wild and enthusiastic solemnities, was found to resemble Rhea. In like manner the Greeks who afterwards settled in Asia identified the Asiatic goddess with Rhea, with whose worship they had long been familiar (Strab. x. p. 471 ; Hom. Hymn. 13, 31). In Phrygia, where Rhea became identified with Cybele, she is said to have purified Dionysus, and to have taught him the mysteries (Apollod. iii. 5. § 1), and thus a Dionysiac element became amalgamated with the worship of Rhea. Demeter, moreover, the daughter of Rhea, is sometimes mentioned with all the attributes belonging to Rhea. (Eurip. Helen. 1304.) The confusion then became so great that the worship of the Cretan Rhea was confounded with that of the Phrygian mother of the gods, and that the orgies of Dionysus became interwoven with those of Cybele. Strangers from Asia, who must be looked upon as jugglers, introduced a variety of novel rites, which were fondly received, especially by the populace (Strab. l.c.; Athen. xii. p. 553; Demosth. de Coron. p. 313). Both the name and the connection of Rhea with Demeter suggest that she was in early times revered as goddess of the earth.
Crete was undoubtedly the earliest seat of the worship of Rhea ; Diodorus (v. 66) saw the site where her temple had once stood, in the neighbourhood of Cnossus, and it would seem that at one time she was worshipped in that island even under the name of Cybele (Euseb. Chron. p. 56 ; Syncell. Chronogr. p. 125). The common tradition, further, was that Zeus was born in Crete, either on Mount Dicte or Mount Ida. At Delphi there was a stone of not very large dimensions, which was every day anointed with oil, and on solemn occasions was wrapped up in white wool; and this stone was believed to have been the one which Cronos swallowed when he thought he was devouring Zeus (Paus. x. 24. § 5). Such local traditions implying that Rhea gave birth to Zeus in this or that place of Greece itself occur in various other localities. Some expressly stated that he was born at Thebes (Tzetz. ad Lyc. 1194). The temple of the Dindymenian mother had been built by Pindarus (Paus. ix. 25. § 3; Philostr. Icon. ii. 12). Another legend stated that Rhea gave birth at Chaeroneia in Boeotia (Paus. ix.41. § 3), and in a temple of Zeus at Plataeae Rhea was represented in the act of handing the stone covered in cloth to Cronos (Paus. ix. 2. § 5). At Athens there was a temple of Rhea in the peribolos of the Olympieium (Paus. i. 18. § 7), and the Athenians are even said to have been the first among the Greeks who adopted the worship of the mother of the gods (Julian, Orat. 5). Her temple there was called the Metroum. The Arcadians also related that Zeus was born in their country, on Mount Lycaon, the principal seat of Arcadian religion (Paus. viii. 36. § 2, 41. § 2; comp. Callim. Hymn, in Jov. 10, 16, &c.). Similar traces are found in Messenia (Paus. iv. 33. § 2), Laconia (iii. 22. § 4), in Mysia (Strab. xiii. p. 589), at Cyzicus (i. p. 45, xii. p. 575). Under the name of Cybele, we find her worship on Mount Sipylus (Paus. v. 13. § 4), Mount Coddinus (iii. 22. § 4), in Phrygia, which had received its colonists from Thrace, and where she was regarded as the mother of Sabazius. There her worship was quite universal, for there is scarcely a town in Phrygia on the coins of which she does not appear. In Galatia she was chiefly worshipped at Pessinus, where her sacred image was believed to have fallen from heaven (Herodian, i. 35). King Midas I. built a temple to her, and introduced festive solemnities, and subsequently a more magnificent one was erected by one of the Attali. Her name at Pessinus was Agdistis (Strab. xii. p. 567). Her priests at Pessinus seem from the earliest times to have been, in some respects, the rulers of the place, and to have derived the greatest possible advantages from their priestly functions. Even after the image of the goddess was carried from Pessinus to Rome, Pessinus still continued to be looked upon as the metropolis of the great goddess, and as the principal seat of her worship. Under different names we might trace the worship of Rhea even much further east, as far as the Euphrates and even Bactriana. She was, in fact, the great goddess of the Eastern world, and we find her worshipped there in a variety of forms and under a variety of names. As regards the Romans, they had from the earliest times worshipped Jupiter and his mother Ops, the wife of Saturn. When, therefore, we read (Liv. xxix. 11, 14) that, during the Hannibalian war, they fetched the image of the mother of the gods from Pessinus, we must understand that the wor
ship then introduced was quite foreign to them, and either maintained itself as distinct from the worship of Ops, or became united with it. A temple was built to her on the Palatine, and the Roman matrons honoured her with the festival of the Megalesia. The manner in which she was represented in works of art was the same as in Greece, and her castrated priests were called Galli. The various names by which we find Rhea designated, are, “the great mother,” “the mother of the gods,” Cybele, Cybebe, Agdistis, Berecyntia, Brimo, Dindymene, “the great Idaean mother of the gods.” Her children by Cronos are enumerated by Hesiod : under the name of Cybele she is also called the mother of Alce, of the Phrygian king Midas, and of Nicaea (Diod. iii. 57; Phot. Cod. 224). In all European countries Rhea was conceived to be accompanied by the Curetes, who are inseparably connected with the birth and bringing up of Zeus in Crete, and in Phrygia by the Corybantes, Atys, and Agdistis. The Corybantes were her enthusiastic priests, who with drums, cymbals, hons, and in full armour, performed their orgiastic dances in the forests and on the mountains of Phrygia. The lion was sacred to the mother of the gods, because she was the divinity of the earth, and because the lion is the strongest and most important of all animals on earth, in addition to which it was believed that the countries in which the goddess was worshipped, abounded in lions (comp. Ov. Met. x. 682). In Greece the oak was sacred to Rhea (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. i. 1124). The highest ideal of Rhea in works of art was produced by Pheidias; she was seldom represented in a standing posture, but generally seated on a throne, adorned with the mural crown, from which a veil hangs down. Lions usually appear crouching on the right and left of her throne, and sometimes she is seen riding in a chariot drawn by lions. (Comp. CURETEs ; ZEUs ; CRoNos.) RHEA SI’LVIA. [Romulus.] RHEGI'NUS. [REGINUs.] RHEGI/NUS, physician. [PRoclus.] RHE'GIO, which Sillig inserts in his catalogue as the name of a gem-engraver, is merely a false reading for TNAIOT. (R. Rochette, Lettre à M. Schorn, p. 152, 2d ed.) [P. S.] RHEMNIUS, FA'NNIUS. [PRiscia Nus, p. 525, a.] RHEOMITHRES ("Peout?pms), a Persian who joined in the general revolt of the western provinces from Artaxerxes Mnemon, in B. c. 362, and was employed by his confederates to go to Tachos, king of Egypt, for aid. Having returned to Asia, with 500 talents and 50 ships of war, he sent for a number of the rebel chiefs to receive the subsidy, and, on their arrival, he arrested them, and despatched them in chains to Artaxerxes, thus making his own peace at court. It was perhaps the same Rheomithres, whom we find in command of a body of 2000 cavalry, for Dareius III., at the battle of the Granicus, in B. c. 334, and who fell in the next year at the battle of Issus. (Xen. Cyrop. viii. 8; Diod. xv. 92, xvii. 19, 34 ; Arr. Anab. i. 12, ii. 11; Curt. iii. 8 ; comp. Wess. ad Diod. xvii. 19 ; Freinsh. ad Curt. l.c.) [E. E.] RHESCU/PORIS (Pnakoúropis), the name of several kings of Bosporus under the Roman empire, who are known to us almost exclusively from coins. The first king of this name may have been of Thracian origin, for the name is undoubtedly Thracian. The name of the Thracian kings appears under the form of Rhascuporis, both on coins and in the best writers, while on the coins of the kings of Bosporus we always have the form Rhescuporis. (Eckhel, vol. ii. pp. 375–377.)
RhEscupoRIs I., was king in the reign of Tiberius, as is evident from the annexed coin, by which we learn that he assumed the name of Tiberius Julius. He continued king at the accession of Caligula, as both the name and head of that emperor appears on his coins; but he must have died or been driven out of his kingdom soon afterwards, as Caligula made Polemon king both of Pontus and Bosporus in A. D. 39. [Polemon, p. A34, b.]
coin of RhEscuporis i.
RhEscupon is II., a contemporary of Domitian, whose head appears on the annexed coin.
coin of RhESCUPortis li.
RhEscuporis III., a contemporary of Caracalla and Alexander Severus, whose heads appear on his Coins,
coin or Rhescoportis ini.
There was also a Rhescuporis IV., who was a contemporary of Valerian, and a Rhescuporis W., a contemporary of Constantine the Great.
RHESUS ('Pigos). 1. A river-god in Bithynia, one of the sons of Oceanus and Thetys. (Hes. Theog. 340; Hom. Il. xii. 21 ; comp. Strab. xiii. p. 590.)
2. A son of king Eioneus in Thrace, and an ally of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. He possessed horses white as snow and swift as the wind, which were carried off by night by Odysseus and Diomedes, the latter of whom murdered Rhesus himself in his sleep (Hom. Il. x. 435, 495, &c.; Virg. Aen. i. 469, with Serv. note).
In later writers Rhesus is described as a son of Strymon and Euterpe, or Calliope, or Terpsichore. (Apollod. i. 3. § 4; Conon, Narrat. 4 ; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 817; Eurip. Rhesus.) [L.S.] RHEXE/NOR (‘Pnčívap), two mythical personages, one the father of Chalciope, and the second a son of Nausithous the king of the Phaeacians, and accordingly a brother of Alcinous. (Apollod. iii. 15. § 6; Hom. Od. vii. 64, &c.) [L. S.] RHIA'NUS (Piavós), of Crete, was a distinguished Alexandrian poet and grammarian, in the latter part of the third century B. c. According to Suidas (s. v.), he was a native of Bene, or, as some said, of Ceraea, two obscure cities in Crete, while others made him a native of Ithome in Messenia, a statement easily explained by the supposition that Rhianus spent some time at Ithome, while collecting materials for his poem on the Messenian Wars. He was at first, as Suidas further tells us, a slave and keeper of the palaestra; but afterwards, having been instructed, he became a grammarian. The statement of Suidas, that he was contemporary with Eratosthenes, not only indicates the time at which he lived, but suggests the probability that he lived at Alexandria in personal and literary connection with Eratosthenes. On the ground of this statement, Clinton fixes the age of Rhianus at B. c. 222. He wrote, according to the common text of Suidas, outlerpa troujuara, ‘Hpakaeidba &v Biéxious 8', where there can be little doubt that we should read ičáuerpa tropiuara, since the epic poems of Rhianus were certainly those of his works to which he chiefly owed his fame. Thus Athenaeus expressly designates him émorouds (xi. p. 499 d.), His poems are mentioned by Suetonius (Tib. 70), as among those productions of the Alexandrian school, which the emperor Tiberius admired and imitated. The subject of the epic poems of Rhianus were taken either from the old mythology, or from the annals of particular states and countries. Of the former class were his ‘Hpáx\eta (not 'Hpakaeias, as Suidas has it), and of the latter his 'Axaird, 'HAward, Oerogouká, and Megonward. It is quite uncertain what was the subject of his poem entitled pium, which is only known to us by a single line quoted by Stephanus of Byzantium (s. v. 'Apákvv80s). For a full account of the extant fragments of these poems, and for a discussion of their subjects, the reader is referred to Meineke's essay on Rhianus, in his Analecta Alexandrina. (See also Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. pp. 734,735; Clinton, F. H. vol iii. pp. 512, 513.) Like most of the Alexandrian poets, Rhianus was also a writer of epigrams. Ten of his epigrams are preserved in the Palatine Anthology, and one by Athenaeus. They treat of amatory subjects with much freedom ; but they all excel in elegance of language, cleverness of invention, and simplicity of expression. He had a place in the Garland of Meleager. (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 479, ii. p. 525; Jacob's Anth. Graec. vol. i. p. 229, vol.xiii. pp. 945 —947; Meineke, pp. 206—212.) Respecting the grammatical works of Rhianus, we only know that he is frequently quoted in the Scholia on Homer, as one of the commentators on the poet. The fragments of Rhianus have been printed in most of the old collections of the Greek poets (see